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Energy savings in the new EU Member States: The Czech experience Miloš KEBRDLE Secretary Energy savings in the new EU Member States: The Czech experience Miloš KEBRDLE Secretary General CZECH GAS ASSOCIATION E-mail: m. [email protected] cz EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 www. cgoa. cz

Economic changes in the energy sector between 1990 and 2007 1990 – 1993 Phase Economic changes in the energy sector between 1990 and 2007 1990 – 1993 Phase One – changes started § Transition of the country’s economy to a market economy § The country’s currency, CZK, became freely convertible § Partial deregulation of prices § 1993: Czechoslovak federation split to form the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 2 www. cgoa. cz

Economic changes in the energy sector between 1990 and 2007 1994 – 2002 Phase Economic changes in the energy sector between 1990 and 2007 1994 – 2002 Phase Two – changes carried out § Public limited companies emerged in the gas industry § Governmental subsidies to support capital investment projects § § § for bringing natural gas to municipalities Energy prices gradually rising Full application of market economy principles in the gas industry Elimination of cross subsidies (household prices subsidised at the expense of prices to the industrial and commercial sectors) Privatisation of gas companies started (1995) and completed (2002) Legislative changes – a new Energy Act, harmonisation of legislation with the EU’s acquis EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 3 www. cgoa. cz

Economic changes in the energy sector between 1990 and 2007 2003 - 2007 Phase Economic changes in the energy sector between 1990 and 2007 2003 - 2007 Phase Three – changes stabilised § Full application of the EU legislation in the energy sector, accession to the EU § Fully-fledged operation of the Energy Regulatory Office § Preparations for, and opening of, a liberalised gas market § Economic relationships in the gas industry are fully comparable with those in the other EU Member States EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 4 www. cgoa. cz

Energy Balance 2 000. 0 1 800. 0 1 600. 0 1 400. 0 Energy Balance 2 000. 0 1 800. 0 1 600. 0 1 400. 0 PJ 1 200. 0 1 000. 0 800. 0 600. 0 400. 0 200. 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 solid fuels primary heat and electricity EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 1999 2000 2001 2002 liquid fuels total final consumption 5 2003 2004 2005 gaseous fuels www. cgoa. cz

Fuel transformation 800. 0 700. 0 600. 0 PJ 500. 0 400. 0 300. Fuel transformation 800. 0 700. 0 600. 0 PJ 500. 0 400. 0 300. 0 200. 0 100. 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 Production and treatment of fuels Electricity generation EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Fuel preparation Heat production Energy distribution and fuel transport 6 www. cgoa. cz

Development of the GDP 110. 0 2 500. 0 108. 0 2 000. 0 Development of the GDP 110. 0 2 500. 0 108. 0 2 000. 0 106. 0 1 500. 0 104. 0 1 000. 0 102. 0 500. 0 100. 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 GDP (current prices) EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 % 112. 0 3 000. 0 CZKbn 3 500. 0 98. 0 GDP (constant prices, previous year = 100) 7 www. cgoa. cz

Energy intensity of GDP creation PJ fuels and energy/CZKbn GDP 1. 4 1. 2 Energy intensity of GDP creation PJ fuels and energy/CZKbn GDP 1. 4 1. 2 1 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 EFG 2007 1995 1996 12. -13. 9. 2007 1998 1999 2000 8 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 www. cgoa. cz

Reducing the energy intensity of GDP creation § Gas price hikes have resulted in Reducing the energy intensity of GDP creation § Gas price hikes have resulted in a more economical § § behaviour of consumers in all sectors of the economy Technological changes in industry in favour of less energy intensive processes Change in households’ behaviour Investments in energy savings have become more effective Preference for energies with a higher efficiency of energy transformation (the share of gas has grown, the share of solid fuels has decreased) EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 9 www. cgoa. cz

Energy intensity – the energy sector 10 1. 8 1. 6 9. 9 1. Energy intensity – the energy sector 10 1. 8 1. 6 9. 9 1. 4 9. 8 1. 2 1 9. 7 0. 8 9. 6 0. 4 9. 5 0. 2 9. 4 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Electricity using steam from fuels [GJ/MWh] Heat from heat & power plants [GJ/GJ] EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 10 2001 2002 2003 2004 0 Hard coal, run-of-mine output [GJ/tonne] Oil production [GJ/tonne] www. cgoa. cz

Energy intensity – the chemical industry 70 60 GJ/t 50 40 30 20 10 Energy intensity – the chemical industry 70 60 GJ/t 50 40 30 20 10 0 1994 ammonia EFG 2007 1995 1996 ethylene 12. -13. 9. 2007 1998 1999 2000 polyethylene and copolymers 11 2002 2003 2004 polystyrene and copolymers www. cgoa. cz

Energy intensity – the food industry 15 GJ/unit 12 9 6 3 0 1994 Energy intensity – the food industry 15 GJ/unit 12 9 6 3 0 1994 1995 1996 malt EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 1998 1999 refined sugar 2000 2001 meat products 12 2003 2004 beer www. cgoa. cz

Fuel consumption – heat production 1995 2004 gaseous fuels 19. 3% gaseous fuels 29. Fuel consumption – heat production 1995 2004 gaseous fuels 19. 3% gaseous fuels 29. 8% liquid fuels 10. 2% solid fuels 70. 5% liquid fuels 5. 7% Total consumption: 78, 803 TJ EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 solid fuels 64. 5% Total consumption: 50, 510 TJ 13 www. cgoa. cz

Pattern of fuels – the food industry 1995 electricity 14. 0% 2004 liquid fuels Pattern of fuels – the food industry 1995 electricity 14. 0% 2004 liquid fuels 16. 5% electricity 19. 7% liquid fuels 20. 3% solid fuels 11. 1% gaseous fuels 39. 9% solid fuels 29. 7% gaseous fuels 48. 9% Total consumption: 36, 407 TJ EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 Total consumption: 28, 595 TJ 14 www. cgoa. cz

Pattern of fuels – the chemical industry 1995 electricity 17. 9% 2004 liquid fuels Pattern of fuels – the chemical industry 1995 electricity 17. 9% 2004 liquid fuels 6. 9% gaseous fuels 27. 1% solid fuels 48. 1% electricity 18. 2% gaseous fuels 21. 7% Total consumption: 38, 768 TJ EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 liquid fuels 10. 9% solid fuels 49. 2% Total consumption: 76, 566 TJ 15 www. cgoa. cz

Changes in the household sector between 1995 and 2005 § § § Gas price Changes in the household sector between 1995 and 2005 § § § Gas price up by 230% Investments in heat loss reduction in residential buildings Indoor temperature of heated space lower by approximately 3°C Better availability of more efficient appliances Space not occupied permanently no longer heated to the usual temperature (only heated to the necessary minimum) Gas consumption in a standard (average) household (detached house) decreased annually by about 2. 5% from 1995 to 2005 EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 16 www. cgoa. cz

0 EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 17 up to 250 up to 240 0 EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 17 up to 250 up to 240 up to 230 up to 220 up to 210 up to 200 up to 190 1998 up to 180 up to 170 up to 160 up to 150 up to 140 7000 up to 130 8000 up to 120 up to 110 up to 100 up to 90 up to 80 up to 70 up to 60 up to 50 up to 40 up to 30 up to 20 up to 10 0 number of customers Number of STP’s customers taking up to 250 cu m/year 9000 Overall no. of customers did not change over the period under review 2001 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 consumption (cu m/yr) www. cgoa. cz

0 EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 18 up to 6500 up to 6250 0 EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 18 up to 6500 up to 6250 up to 6000 up to 5750 up to 5500 up to 5250 up to 5000 1998 up to 4750 up to 4500 up to 4250 7000 up to 4000 up to 3750 8000 up to 3500 up to 3250 up to 3000 up to 2750 up to 2500 up to 2250 up to 2000 up to 1750 up to 1500 up to 1250 up to 1000 up to 750 up to 500 number of customers Number of STP’s customers taking 500 to 6, 500 cu m/year 9000 No. of customers went up by one-third over the period under review 2001 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 consumption (cu m/yr) www. cgoa. cz

0 EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 19 up to 5700 95 -96 up 0 EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 19 up to 5700 95 -96 up to 5300 up to 4900 up to 4500 up to 4100 up to 3700 up to 3300 up to 2900 up to 2500 up to 2100 up to 1700 up to 1300 up to 900 up to 500 up to 100 mcm/yr Household category’s consumption at JMP – by bands 30 03 -04 25 20 15 10 5 www. cgoa. cz

Households’ average consumption adjusted to average ambient temperature 9 3400 8 3300 7 3200 Households’ average consumption adjusted to average ambient temperature 9 3400 8 3300 7 3200 6 3100 5 3000 4 2900 3 2800 2 2700 1 2600 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 households‘ average consumption (sample 1) average price for households EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 20 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 CZK/cu m 10 3500 cu m/yr 3600 0 Households‘ average consumption (sample 2) www. cgoa. cz

Boiler sales, households 160 000 16 140 000 14 120 000 12 100 000 Boiler sales, households 160 000 16 140 000 14 120 000 12 100 000 10 80 000 8 60 000 6 40 000 4 20 000 2 0 0 1995 1996 1997 Increase, households EFG 2007 12. -13. 9. 2007 1998 1999 2000 Minimum replacement 21 2002 2003 2004 % 2005 Per cent of heating system replacement www. cgoa. cz