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 Energy Performance Certificates Renewable Energy Technologies PRESENTED BY Rob Cantle SA AC REGIONAL Energy Performance Certificates Renewable Energy Technologies PRESENTED BY Rob Cantle SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SOLAR WATER HEATING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SOLAR WATER HEATING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SOLAR WATER HEATING Solar water heating systems use the LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SOLAR WATER HEATING Solar water heating systems use the energy from the sun to heat water, most commonly in the UK for domestic hot water needs. The systems use a heat collector, generally mounted on the roof in which a fluid is heated by the sun. This fluid is used to heat up water that is stored in either a separate hot water cylinder or a twin coil hot water cylinder inside the building. The systems work very successfully in all parts of the UK, as they can work in diffuse light conditions. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING There are two types of collectors used for solar LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING There are two types of collectors used for solar water heating applications – flat plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors. The flat plate collector is the predominant type used in domestic systems as they tend to be cheaper and more robust. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING Evacuated tube collectors are generally more expensive due to LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING Evacuated tube collectors are generally more expensive due to a more complex manufacturing process (to achieve the vacuum) but manufacturers generally claim better winter performance. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS Photovoltaic systems convert energy from the sun LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS Photovoltaic systems convert energy from the sun into electricity through semi conductor cells. Systems consist of semi-conductor cells connected together and mounted into modules. Modules are connected to an inverter to turn their direct current (DC) output into alternating current (AC) electricity for use in buildings. Photovoltaic supply electricity to the building they are attached to or to any other load connected to the electricity grid. Excess electricity can be sold to the National Grid when the generated power exceeds the local need. PV systems require only daylight, not sunlight to generate electricity (although more electricity is produced with more sunlight), so energy can still be produced in overcast or cloudy conditions. Photovoltaic are generally blue/grey in colour and can be used successfully in all parts of the UK. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING Photovoltaic panels come in modular panels which can be LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING Photovoltaic panels come in modular panels which can be fitted to the top of roofs (looking similar to a roof light) and in slates or shingles which are an integral part of the roof covering (looking similar to normal roof tiles). Photovoltaic cells can be incorporated into glass for atria walls and roofs or used as cladding or rain screen on a building wall. They can also be attached to individual items such as street lights, parking meters, motorway noise barriers or the sides of bridges. Photovoltaic systems can be discreet through being designed as an integral part of the roof. An ‘invisible’ design using slates or shingles as opposed to an architectural statement is likely to be preferable if in a sensitive area. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING WIND TURBINE Wind energy is one of the most LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING WIND TURBINE Wind energy is one of the most cost effective methods of renewable power generation. Wind turbines can produce electricity without carbon dioxide emissions ranging from watts to megawatt outputs. The most common design is for three blades mounted on a horizontal axis, which is free to rotate into the wind on a tall tower. The blades drive a generator either directly or via a gearbox (generally for larger machines) to produce electricity. The electricity can either be linked to the grid of charge batteries. An inverter is required to convert the electricity from direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) for feeding into the grid. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING Modern quiet wind turbines are becoming viable in low LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING Modern quiet wind turbines are becoming viable in low density areas where ease of maintenance and immediate connection to the grid or directly for use of the electricity in a building, may make them cost effective, despite lower wind speeds than open areas. Wind turbines are generally less suited to dense urban areas as their output will be affected by potentially lower and more disrupted wind speeds, and their use of much more cost effective machines may be prohibited by their proximity to some building types. However small turbines can be used in inner city areas. Small turbines can be mounted on buildings. There are currently few practical installations of roof mounted wind turbines in the UK but it is anticipated that this will be a growing market and a number of companies are marketing shall roof mounted turbines. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING Wind resource evaluation is a critical element in projecting LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING Wind resource evaluation is a critical element in projecting turbine performance at a given site. The energy available in a wind stream is proportional to the cube of its speed, which means that doubling the wind speed increases the available energy by a factor of eight. Furthermore, the wind resource itself is seldom a steady, consistent flow. It varies with the time of day, season, height above ground, and type of terrain. Proper siting in windy locations, away from large obstructions, enhances a wind turbine's performance. In general, annual average wind speeds of 5 meters per second (11 miles per hour) are required for grid-connected applications. Annual average wind speeds of 3 to 4 m/s (7 -9 mph) may be adequate for nonconnected electrical and mechanical applications such as battery charging and water pumping. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING BIOMASS & BIOFUEL BOILERS SA AC REGIONAL 1 © LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING BIOMASS & BIOFUEL BOILERS SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING BIOMASS & BIOFUEL BOILERS Biomass can be burnt directly LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING BIOMASS & BIOFUEL BOILERS Biomass can be burnt directly to provide heat in buildings. Wood from forests, urban tree pruning, farmed coppices or farm and factory waste, is the most common fuel and nowadays is used commercially in the form of wood chips or pellets, although traditional logs are also used. Biomass boilers can be designed to burn smokelessly to comply with the Clean Air Acts. Boilers can be fed automatically by screw drives from fuel hoppers. This typically involves daily addition of bagged fuel to the hopper. Electric firing and automatic de-ashing are also available. Biomass boilers replace conventional fossil fuel boilers and come with the automated features mentioned above. Fuels other than wood, such as straw can also be used. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING Biomass is normally considered a carbon neutral fuel, as LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING Biomass is normally considered a carbon neutral fuel, as the carbon dioxide emitted on burning has been (relatively) recently absorbed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and no fossil fuel is involved. The wood is seen as a by-product of other industries and the small quantity of energy for drying, sawing, pelleting and delivery are discounted. Biomass from coppicing is likely to have some external energy inputs, for fertiliser, cutting, drying etc. and these may need to be considered in the future. In this toolkit, all biomass fuels are considered to have zero net carbon emissions. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING COMBINED HEAT & POWER (CHP) Micro CHP Bristol City LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING COMBINED HEAT & POWER (CHP) Micro CHP Bristol City Council Community Heating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING COMBINED HEAT & POWER (CHP) When electricity is generated LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING COMBINED HEAT & POWER (CHP) When electricity is generated in central power stations around 6065% of the primary energy is rejected as waste heat into the atmosphere. There also mains losses associated with the distribution of electricity via the National Grid. Combined heat and power units generate electricity locally so that waste heat can be used for beneficial purposes for heating or hot water. Where all waste heat generated can be used, CHP units will have overall efficiencies of up to 80 -85% compared to 35 -40% for conventional power stations. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING CHP systems produce roughly twice as much waste heat LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING CHP systems produce roughly twice as much waste heat as they generate electricity. To be viable and economic, CHP require a large constant demand for heat. This can make the incorporation of a CHP in to the development problematic. Current insulation standards mean the requirement for space heating is very low and demand is present only part of the year. The only constant source of heat demand is for domestic hot water and in terms of reducing CO 2 emissions some of the demand could be met by the use of solar water heating instead. For CHP systems to be economically viable they need to run for at least 4, 000 hours per year. They are most suited to leisure centres with swimming pools and hospitals. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING BIOMASS COMBINED HEAT & POWER (CHP) Combined heat and LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING BIOMASS COMBINED HEAT & POWER (CHP) Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is an important technology for efficient fuel use and can use biomass as the fuel, however there are currently few examples. The system produces electricity that can be used in building or exported to the grid, and heat for space, water and even process heating. Systems must be ‘heat lead’ for high efficiency, which best suits applications to situations where there is a significant demand for heat for long periods of time, such as hospitals, hotels and leisure centres. Excess summer heat can be used for cooling via absorption chillers. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS SA AC REGIONAL 1 © LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS Geo-thermal energy is basically heat LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS Geo-thermal energy is basically heat collected from the ground. Geo -thermal energy is mainly associated in the form of hot springs or geysers gushing out of the ground in Iceland. However heat obtained from the ground may also be considered it as a source of heating and cooling within the UK by the use of a Geo-thermal heat pump or ground source heat pumps. A ground source heat pump is a device for converting energy in the form of low level heat to heat at a usable temperature. The heat pump consists of five main parts; ground collector loop, or bores heat exchanger, compressor, condenser heat exchanger and expansion valve. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING At about 1. 2 -1. 5 metres down below LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING At about 1. 2 -1. 5 metres down below ground level the temperature is a constant 10 to 12ºC. The bores would need to be sunk to an effective depth of 80 – 120 m and a ground feasibility report would be required to ascertain if this method of heat source was indeed viable. Typical costs for this are in the region of £ 20, 000 with installation costs at £ 1200 /k. W of energy produced. From the bores pre-insulated pipework is laid in the ground to the heat exchanger device. The system is filled with water and antifreeze. The cooled water is pumped around the loop / bore gathering energy as it goes. The water now heated to 10 -12ºC is returned to the ground source heat exchanger where the energy is transferred to the refrigerant gas. The water in transferring its collected energy is cooled by the refrigerant to -7ºC and returns to the ground bores to collect more energy. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING The refrigerant heated to 10 -12ºC is passed through LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING The refrigerant heated to 10 -12ºC is passed through a thermodynamic cycle (the reverse Carnot cycle). The warm gas from the ground collector heat exchanger is compressed and in doing so is heated to 55ºC; as it increases in pressure it changes state, going from a gas to a liquid. In achieving this shift it gives up that energy it has collected on its journey. For every 1 k. W of energy used to compress the refrigerant it gives up 4 k. W of energy for use in the system being used to heat the building. From the compressor the hot liquid passes to the condenser heat exchanger where it gives up this heat to the water in the building’s heating loop. The cooled refrigerant passes to the expansion valve where it changes from a high pressure liquid to a low pressure gas, this cold gas returns to the ground collector heat exchanger to collect more energy from the ground bores. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING The heat pump is powered by electricity, so if LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING The heat pump is powered by electricity, so if the electricity is also from a renewable source such as a wind turbine is would provide a more sustainable solution. The cooling aspect of the ground source heat pump system also vastly out-performs the efficiency of conventional air conditioning units SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING The temperature of the water flowing from the heat LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING The temperature of the water flowing from the heat pump into the building’s heating circuit is about 55ºc. Wall radiators are designed to operate with a flow temperature of 80ºc so such radiators would have to be twice as large. The use of underfloor heating is ideal in conjunction with ground source heat pumps. Under floor heating is a very efficient form of heating. Essentially the floor is turned into a big radiator. This will give a warm floor that's comfortable to walk on but not too hot. Underfloor heating brings its own benefits such as more comfortable temperature gradient within the room, no radiators taking up wall space. While heat pumps require electricity to run them they return roughly three to four times the input into the heating system. The pre-heating of domestic hot water can be an option with ground source heat pumps. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3

LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING End of Section SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING End of Section SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v 1. 3