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Energy Audit Definition: Energy audit Types of energy audit, Understanding energy costs Bench marking Energy Audit Definition: Energy audit Types of energy audit, Understanding energy costs Bench marking Energy performance Fuel and energy substitution Energy audit instruments

Conversion Factors for MTOE 1 Kwh = 860 Kcal 1 kg of coal/coke = Conversion Factors for MTOE 1 Kwh = 860 Kcal 1 kg of coal/coke = GCV in Latest Certificates 1 kg FO/LSHS/Naptha = 10500 Kcal/kg (density = 0. 93) 1 kg HSD = 11840 Kcal (density = 0. 82) 1 kg Petrol = 11200 Kcal (density = 0. 708) 1 kg Kerosene = 11110 Kcal (density = 0. 778) 1 kg LPG = 12500 Kcal 1 m 3 of Natural gas = 8000 -10500 Kcal (actual as per certificate) 1 kg of oil equivalent = 10, 000 Kcal

Energy Conservation Act Designated consumers : Central Govt. specify the following criteria for energy Energy Conservation Act Designated consumers : Central Govt. specify the following criteria for energy Intensive Industries and other establishments. (As per EC Act 2001, Section 14(e) For Industries Electrical connected load -5000 KW and above or Annual energy consumption - 30, 000 MTOE For Commercial Buildings Connected Load - 500 KW or 600 KVA

ELECTRICITY ACT 2001 MAIN FEATURES 1. Replaced all the previous three Electricity Laws: – ELECTRICITY ACT 2001 MAIN FEATURES 1. Replaced all the previous three Electricity Laws: – Indian Electricity Act 1910, Electricity Supply Act 1948 – Electricity Regulatory Commission Act 1998 as amended from time to time 2. 100% metering is mandatory for 11 KV feeder 3. 100% Rural Electrification – Accelerated Rural electrification Program, AREP) – PRIs & NGOs can be participated) – 80, 000 villages yet to be electrified

ELECTRICITY ACT 2001(Contd. . ) 4. Private sector Investments is allowed in Renewable Energy ELECTRICITY ACT 2001(Contd. . ) 4. Private sector Investments is allowed in Renewable Energy Sources (Generation, Distribution, Supply area) – No license is required for generation and distribution of power in Rural areas. 5. Participation in power transmission sector 6. More stringent provision for theft of electricity

ELECTRICITY ACT 2001(Contd. . ) 7. Delicensed for Captive power generation, Thermal power generation, ELECTRICITY ACT 2001(Contd. . ) 7. Delicensed for Captive power generation, Thermal power generation, Hydro power generation – can be sold directly to other consumers by wheeling through the grid under open access – Banking facility is provided to captive power plants 8. State Electricity Regulatory Commission is mandatory for all States

Definition of Energy Audit l As per the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, Energy Audit Definition of Energy Audit l As per the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, Energy Audit is defined as “the verification, monitoring and analysis of use of energy including submission of technical report containing recommendations for improving energy efficiency with cost benefit analysis and an action plan to reduce energy consumption “

Objective of Energy Management To achieve and maintain optimum energy procurement and utilisation, throughout Objective of Energy Management To achieve and maintain optimum energy procurement and utilisation, throughout the organization To minimise energy costs / waste without affecting production & quality To minimise environmental effects. l. TO KNOW TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF MAJOR EQUIPTMENT / SYSTEMS l. TO IDENTIFY LOSS AREAS ASSESS TECHNO ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF ENCON OPTIONS.

ENERGY AUDIT…. . It’s a tech. Survey to analyze existing energy utilisation practice, pinpoint ENERGY AUDIT…. . It’s a tech. Survey to analyze existing energy utilisation practice, pinpoint areas of wastage and to evolve energy saving schemes. • It is an organised and systematic exercise with top management support • Energy audit addresses • House keeping • Operational improvement/retrofits • Capital projects requiring investment • New technology • Energy audit helps to achieve “savings through invisibles”.

Types of Energy Audit 1. Preliminary energy audit 2. Detailed energy audit Types of Energy Audit 1. Preliminary energy audit 2. Detailed energy audit

Safety Considerations l The audit person or team should be thoroughly briefed on safety Safety Considerations l The audit person or team should be thoroughly briefed on safety equipment and procedures l Adequate safety equipment should be worn at all appropriate times. l Auditors should be extremely careful making any measurements on electrical systems/on high temperature devices.

Preliminary Audit Site Survey: l Take a walk through survey /Observations l Collection of Preliminary Audit Site Survey: l Take a walk through survey /Observations l Collection of existing energy and production records of the entire plant and major energy consuming facilities and departments. l Brief data analysis and preparation of documentation. l Identification of preliminary energy saving measures, including an estimation of saving potentials and economic aspects

 INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES Raw Materials Fluids Final Product Manpower Energy Industrial Wastes LIQUID toxic, INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES Raw Materials Fluids Final Product Manpower Energy Industrial Wastes LIQUID toxic, inorganic and organic wastewaters GASEOUS Emissions SO 2 , NO x, CO, etc. ENERGY heated fluids, steam, hot emissions etc. DISCHARGE SOLID WASTES wasted raw material or product, sludge from ETP

TYPICAL PLANT UTILITIES & SCOPE AREAS ü BOILERS/FURNACES ü TRANSFORMERS ü PUMPS ü MOTORS TYPICAL PLANT UTILITIES & SCOPE AREAS ü BOILERS/FURNACES ü TRANSFORMERS ü PUMPS ü MOTORS ü FANS ü DG SETS ü AIR COMPRESSORS ü LIGHTING ü A/C PLANTS ü COOLING TOWER ü ELECTRIC HEATERS

Process Flow Diagram Spinning Mils Raw Cotton Production Utility Electricity Simplex Blow room Ring Process Flow Diagram Spinning Mils Raw Cotton Production Utility Electricity Simplex Blow room Ring frame spinning Carding Combing Drawing Cheese Winding Humidifin. . Comp. air Lighting Cone winding Doubling Yarn

Power Consumption Pattern in Spinning Mills Power Consumption Pattern in Spinning Mills

Typical Specific Energy Consumption Norms in Textile Industry COMPOSITE MILLS l Thermal Energy = Typical Specific Energy Consumption Norms in Textile Industry COMPOSITE MILLS l Thermal Energy = 19. 0 Kg Steam /Kg of cloth l Electrical Energy = 2. 2 Kwh /Kg of cloth SPINNING MILLS l Electrical Energy = 3. 6 Kwh /Kg of yarn (UKG adjusted to 40 counts)

Preliminary Energy Audit Methodology l. It uses existing and easily obtained data l. Establish Preliminary Energy Audit Methodology l. It uses existing and easily obtained data l. Establish energy consumption pattern l. Establishes base line data l. Identify the most likely areas for attention/savings l. Identify immediate(no/low-cost) improvements l. Identify areas for more detailed study/measurement l. Helps in planning for Detailed audit(Team/instrument/Duration required)

Detailed Energy Audit l Evaluates all energy using system, equipment and include detailed energy Detailed Energy Audit l Evaluates all energy using system, equipment and include detailed energy savings and costs l Different phases of Detailed Audit – Pre-audit Phase (Preliminary audit) – Audit Phase (Instrumented/Comprehensive) – Brief presentation, Report Preparation/Vendor details collection – Draft Report presentation and Final Presentation – Post-Audit

PLANT ENERGY AUDIT COVERS l ENERGY GENERATING EQUIPMENTS l ENERGY DISTRIBUTION NETWORK l END PLANT ENERGY AUDIT COVERS l ENERGY GENERATING EQUIPMENTS l ENERGY DISTRIBUTION NETWORK l END USE EQUIPMENTS. OPERATIONAL FEATURES PLANT. 1. CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLANT 2. ONE/TWO SHIFT OPERATION 3. INTERMITTENT.

? ? ? ? ? l l l What type of energy used How ? ? ? ? ? l l l What type of energy used How much energy is used? How much does it cost? Where it is used? How efficiently it is used? How can it be managed more efficiently and effectively? This is identified through carrying out ENERGY AUDITs

STEPS INVOLVED IN ENERGY AUDIT. 1. Data Collection 2. Efficiency Evaluation 3. Loss Quantification STEPS INVOLVED IN ENERGY AUDIT. 1. Data Collection 2. Efficiency Evaluation 3. Loss Quantification 4. Operational Improvement Measures 5. Techno Economic Evaluation of Projects. 6. Designing Energy Data Report System 7. Instrumentation Requirement 8. Action Plan For ENCON Implementation 9. Review --Setting Up of Target

SCOPE OF “DEA” TO INDICATE F CAPABILITIES & EFFICIENCY OF EQUIPMENT F NEED FOR SCOPE OF “DEA” TO INDICATE F CAPABILITIES & EFFICIENCY OF EQUIPMENT F NEED FOR AUTOMATIC CONTROLS F ADEQUACY OF MAINTENANCE F NEED FOR IMPROVED INSTRUMENTATION FSCOPE AREAS FOR ENERGY SAVING F COST BENEFITS OF SPECIFIC MEASURES IN SHORT / MEDIUM / LONG TERM F MECHANISM OF MONITORING F VENDOR INFORMATION F INCENTIVE SCHEMES / PROVISIONS

Detailed Energy audit tasks: 1. Elaboration and discussion of audit methodology. 2. Selection of Detailed Energy audit tasks: 1. Elaboration and discussion of audit methodology. 2. Selection of plants items to be audited. 3. Collection of more detailed energy and production data. 4. Comprehensive measurements at selected plants items. • Process flow and utility diagram • Measurement survey/performance trials 5. Data analysis and calculations 6. Elaboration of energy and material balance for the audited plant items.

7. Investigation of energy saving options (improved maintenance of equipment, improved energy management, modification 7. Investigation of energy saving options (improved maintenance of equipment, improved energy management, modification or rationalization of process configuration, improved insulation/ control of refrigeration, etc. ) 8. Recommendation of feasible energy efficiency measures. 9. Financial analysis of recommended measures, including cost benefit calculation. 10. Ranking of measures and elaboration of an energy saving action plant 11. Reporting 12. Presentation to plant management

DATA COLLECTION l How Much Data ? l What Data ? l Data Availability DATA COLLECTION l How Much Data ? l What Data ? l Data Availability –Plant Records-metering l How To Proceed In Case Of Data Not Available l To Know Source of Information l Experience To Device Data From Secondary Information l Planning For Field Trials And Observation

Plant data Present landed cost of all types of energy used in the plant. Plant data Present landed cost of all types of energy used in the plant. Types of energy used : Electricity, Fuel oil , Coal, Gas Annual energy consumption and cost for all purchased and internal fuel. (3 years) Monthly purchased electricity & self generated. • Month, kva, kwh, PF, bill amount. (Grid Power) • Month, kva, kwh, PF, fuel cons. (Captive power plant) Annual Production for Past 3 Financial Year To know seasonal variation to know production and energy trend

 Electricity Tariff Structure What are the elements of Electricity Bill ? Elements TNEB Electricity Tariff Structure What are the elements of Electricity Bill ? Elements TNEB APSEB KEB Gujarat / Maharashtra MD Charge Rs. 300/KVA RS. 117/KVA <1000 kw Minimum 90% of CMD RS. 116/KVA 1000 -3000 Rs. 115/kva > 3000 Kw MD Penalty Rs 600/Kva Rs. 225/Kva Energy 3. 5. 00 P/Unit Rs. 1. 8 <400 kwh charges Rs. 1. 6 >400 kwh TOD Tariff 6 - 9 AM/PM 10 AM-6 PM Oct-Feb 20% more 2 PM-10 PM Mar- Sep 20 paise /unit more PF minimum 0. 9 0. 85 PF Penalty <. 9 2 P unit for each 1% decrease in PF below. 85

 SPECIFICATION OF MAJOR ENERGY CONVERSION EQUPT. • • • BOILERS HEATERS FURNACES THERMIC SPECIFICATION OF MAJOR ENERGY CONVERSION EQUPT. • • • BOILERS HEATERS FURNACES THERMIC FLUID HEATER POWER GENERATING UNITS DETAILS OF MAJOR UTILITIES(PUMPS/FANS/COMPRESSORS) • • • MAKE TYPE CAPACITY SINGLE STAGE/MULTISTAGE FLOW, HEAD DESIGN KW – EFFICIENCY CAPACITY CONTROL METHOD ACTUAL REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL OPERATING HOURS Operating Schedule(Design and Operating parameters)

Benchmarking • Internal Benchmarking • Historical and trend analysis • External Benchmarking - Across Benchmarking • Internal Benchmarking • Historical and trend analysis • External Benchmarking - Across similar industries • k. Wh/MT Cement produced (Cement Industry) • k. Wh/MT Paper produced (Paper Industry) • k. Wh/ton of refrigeration (AC&R PLANT) /k. Wh /litre (DG Sets) FEnergy cost as a percentage of total manufacturing cost - 30 to 60 % FGenerally a decreasing trend in specific energy consumption FSpecific power consumption varies from 66 to 127 k. Wh per tonne of cement FSpecific thermal energy consumption varies from 692 to 879 k. Cal/kg clinker

Energy Conservation Energy Transfer Insulation of Steam piping, Jackets for hot fluid pipes to Energy Conservation Energy Transfer Insulation of Steam piping, Jackets for hot fluid pipes to prevent losses Energy Conversion Energy Recovery Boiler efficiency, Quality of Fuel used, Maintenance Waste heat exchangers, Energy Utilization Equipment efficiency, Maintenance,

Recycle, Reuse and Recovery Brainstorming Cause and Effect Analysis Cost-benefit analysis Raw materials Process Recycle, Reuse and Recovery Brainstorming Cause and Effect Analysis Cost-benefit analysis Raw materials Process 1 Material balance Process 2 Recovery Heat Recovery Product By Product Separation Equipment Waste

Fuel and Energy Substitution Fuel substitution l Replacement of coal by Agro fuels l Fuel and Energy Substitution Fuel substitution l Replacement of coal by Agro fuels l Replacement of LDO by LSHS Energy substitution l Electric heaters by steam heaters l Steam based hot water by solar systems

ENERGY AUDIT REPORT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CONTENTS ENERGY AUDIT REPORT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF SAVINGS INTRODUCTION PLANT ENERGY SYSTEM ENERGY USAGE PATTERN ENERGY INDICATORS ENERGY SAVING OPTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS 10. ANNEXURE/PLANT BASE LINE DATA l. Filed observation and savings calculations. l. List of suppliers. l. Action plan for ENCON implementation

Technical and Economic feasibility Technical and Economic feasibility

Energy Audit Instruments POWER ANALYSERS Energy Audit Instruments POWER ANALYSERS

New Generation Measurement Techniques Measurement Technology - Measures @256 samples/cycle for better accuracy even New Generation Measurement Techniques Measurement Technology - Measures @256 samples/cycle for better accuracy even on non-linear waveforms - Continuous & simultaneous sampling on all 6 channels for accurate readings on dynamic loads Accuracy far superior when compared to conventional analyzers with low sampling rate

Application – Textile Mill Study This picture is taken using the Screen shot feature Application – Textile Mill Study This picture is taken using the Screen shot feature of ALM/3032. You can see that the ALM 30/32 is highly accurate even on non-linear loads thanks to the new generation measuring techniques used by it. Readings of KRYKARD Load Manager ALM 30 THD in % P. F 8% 0. 882 15% 0. 837 36% Readings of Low & noncontinuous sampling meter THD in % KWh (% error) P. F 0. 864 36% -1. 2% 0. 82 52% 0. 881 46% -2. 77% 0. 74 74% 0. 880 81% -8. 2% 0. 68

FLUE GAS ANALYSERS FLUE GAS ANALYSERS

TEMPERATURE MEASURMENTS TEMPERATURE MEASURMENTS

FLOW MEASURMENTS – AIR , WATER FLOW MEASURMENTS – AIR , WATER

 Portable Instruments 1 Budget Price (Rs) 2, 60, 000 3 Three phase Power Portable Instruments 1 Budget Price (Rs) 2, 60, 000 3 Three phase Power Analyzer. (V, A, KW, KVAR, PF, HZ and THD) Single Phase Power Analyzer with THD Megger & Resistance Meter 4 Lux Meter (Digital) 5 Ultrasonic Flow Meter 6 Pitot Tube & Monometer 60, 000 7 Digital Animometer 15, 000 8 Hot Wire Animometer 9 Contact & Non-Contact 2 90, 000 50, 000 7, 000 4, 000 7, 000 5, 000

 10 Thermal : Flue Gas Analyzer (O 2, CO and Template) 1, 50, 10 Thermal : Flue Gas Analyzer (O 2, CO and Template) 1, 50, 0 00 11 Humidity Meter (Digital) - For Aircondition Space Survey 12, 000 12 Leaf Probe Surface Temp. Indicator 6, 000 13 Stroboscope 5, 000 14 Thermocouple for Liquid Gas and High Temp. (0 -100 o. C, 0500 o. C, 2000 o. C) 30, 000