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End of Pathway Assessment Law and Justice Sonya Baker and Dawnya Hill
What are the differences in criminal and civil law? • • Criminal law deals with violations of local, state, or federal law (Misdemeanors and felonies) Criminal law has a punishment assigned to accompany each violation Criminal cases are prosecuted by the State Level of proof must reach “Beyond a reasonable doubt” • • Civil law deals with the relationships between individuals (suits, marriage, divorce, adoption, wills, real estate, contracts, etc. ) Restitution is the ultimate goal in civil law Payment in civil suits may be a result of compensatory or punitive damages Level of proof: Preponderance of the evidence
Define misdemeanor and provide examples. • • • A less serious offense punishable by a maximum of 12 months in jail. May also include up to $1000. 00 in fines DUI, Speeding, Driving without a license, Simple Battery, Criminal Trespass, Possession of less than an ounce of marijuana
Define felony and provide examples. • • A serious crime punishable by a minimum of one year in prison up to the possible sentence of death. Murder, Rape, Armed robbery, Theft by taking (Motor Vehicle), Possession of a Controlled substance, Aggravated Assault
What is the difference in compensatory and punitive damages? • Compensatory- damages recovered in payment for an actual injury or economic loss. May also include dollar amount which can be ascribed to pain, suffering, lost quality of life, etc. • Punitive damages- damages requested in a civil suit when defendant’s willful acts were malicious, violent, oppressive, fraudulent, wanton, or grossly reckless. May include mental anguish, degradation, shame or hurt feelings.
List the steps in a trial beginning with trial initiation…. . n n n n Trial Initiation Jury Selection (Voir Dire) Opening Statements (Prosecution, then defense) Presentation of Evidence (Prosecution first – defense may cross examine, then Defense presentation- Prosecution my cross) Closing arguments (Defense then prosecution) Judge’s charge to the Jury Deliberations Verdict (sentencing may follow immediately or after separate sentencing hearing)
List non-professional participants in the courtroom and their role in the trial. Jury (made up of community members) n Lay witnesses- victim, eye-witnesses, etc. n Defendant n Media/ Press- there to cover events but not to participate in actual trial n
List professional participants in the courtroom. What are their qualifications and what is their role in the trial procedure? n Judge- Must have a law degree, licensed attorney, in good standing with the local Bar Association. Makes decision on legal matters raised by the prosecution/defense. Insures the law is followed as well as courtroom procedures. Neutral party in court
Professional participants continued n Prosecutor- licensed attorney, employed by the State, represents the State (not necessarily the victim). May use prosecutorial discretion to decide on plea negotiations, dismissal or continued prosecution of a case.
Professional participants continued n Defense Attorney- licensed attorney- to provide counsel/defense for the defendant. May be retained (hired and paid for by the defendant), appointed (private attorney who contracts with and is paid by the county) or a public defender (employed by the county).
Professional participants continued • • Bailiff- maintains order in the courtroom and custody of the jury- role may be divided between a law enforcement officer (security and order in the court) and a civilian (custody of the jury) Court Reporter- MUST maintain an accurate record of everything that is said in the courtroom.
What is the 4 th amendment? • • • prohibits unlawful search and seizure establishes the rights of citizens in regards to what is need for an officer to enter/search a dwelling. establishes the rights of citizens in regards to what is need for an officer to arrest.
How can an officer enter/search a dwelling? • • Warrant (must include signed affidavit establishing probable cause and a Judge’s Signature along with specific target of search and area to be searched) Consent- owner/occupant gives permission but this may be revoked at anytime and when consent is withdrawn the search must cease) Hot Pursuit- officer may follow a suspect into a dwelling if the officer has maintained visual contact on the offender and saw him/her enter. Exigent circumstances- emergency situations such as hearing a scream or if the officer feels that evidence may be compromised or destroyed.
What is required to secure a warrant (arrest and search)? n must include signed affidavit establishing probable cause and a Judge’s Signature along with specific target of search and area to be searched
What is probable cause? n Facts and circumstances which would lead a reasonable PERSON to believe a crime has occurred
What is articulable reasonable suspicion? n facts and circumstances combined with experience, training and knowledge that would lead a PEACE OFFICER to believe a crime has been committed and that the officer should investigate further to establish probable cause.
What is the exclusionary rule? n illegally obtained evidence may not be used in court (evidence may be statements or physical evidence obtained in a manner which violated the 4 th or 5 th amendment)
What are the exceptions? • • • Suspicionless Searches- search made at or near the U. S. border, prisons, airport security, and public transit. Search incident to lawful arrest Stop and frisk arrests Plain view doctrine Vehicle searches Good Faith Exception
What is Miranda vs. Arizona? n Supreme Court decision which requires the accused be notified of his rights (remain silent and to have an attorney) prior to interrogation by police.
1 st Amendment n n n Freedom of Religion Freedom of Speech Freedom of the Press Freedom of Peaceable Assembly Feedom of Petition
2 nd Amendment n n Guarantees the right to keep and bear arms as necessary for a well-regulated militia. Excludes convicted felons, certain violent misdemeanors, and firearms for certain age groups
5 th Amendment n n n Guarantees Due Process of Law Notice of a hearing Full information regarding the charges The opportunity to present evidence in one’s own behalf before an impartial judge or jury Presumed innocent until proven guilty Prohibits double jeopardy and selfincrimination (Miranda vs. Arizona)
6 th Amendment n n n Establishes requirements for criminal trials. Guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury Guarantees the right to be informed of the nature and accusation, be confronted with witnesses against him or her, subpoena witnesses for defense and have defense counsel (Gideon vs. Wainright)
7 th Amendment n In civil cases where one person sues another for more than $20, a jury trial is provided for. Federal counts do not hear civil cases unless they involve a good deal more money
8 th Amendment n n n Forbids excessive bail, excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment Furman vs. GA (1972) stated the death penalty violates the 8 th Amendment and halted the death penalty Gregg vs. GA (1976) reinstated the death penalty
14 th Amendment n n Requires each state to abide by the Constitution and the incorporation of the Bill of Rights Guarantees due process and equal protection under the law
When is it applicable? n Applicable to anyone in custody (or who believes that they are in custody) prior to questioning by police
What are the exceptions? n n n Public Safety- if there is an issue with public safety (such as the location of a weapon) then police may ask limited questions prior to Miranda to insure the safety of the community Inevitable discovery- if the information was obtained from the defendant prior to being Mirandized but the evidence was going to be found without their assistance then that information may be used in court (Christian Burial Speech) Spontaneous utterance- if the suspect begins confessing or offering information without prompting (questioning) by police then the information may be used against them.
What is the plain view doctrine? • • Any evidence within sight of an officer without obstruction may be seized and used in the prosecution of a case. If an officer responds to a domestic call but upon arrival sees marijuana on the table he may seize the contraband make arrests based on that evidence.
How does the Terry vs. Ohio decision affect police officers? • • Officers may “pat down” or “frisk” the outer clothing of a subject for officer safety Officers may not manipulate the clothes or reach inside any pockets
Where was the first juvenile court established and when? What right do Juveniles not have that adults do? At what age are you treated as an adult if you commit one of the seven deadly sins? • • first Juvenile Court was established in Cook Co, Illinois in 1899 established because they felt parents were not taking proper care of the children so the court would take over (parens patriae) Juveniles do not have the right to a jury trial in juvenile court (in part due to the fact that the court is attempting to protect their identity) In Georgia you may be treated as an adult at 13 (Ga. is one of 8 states that consider you an adult regardless of the offense at age 17)
Which court case established that all indigent defendants are appointed counsel when prosecuted for a felony in state court? Which case affirmed this decision? Which case established this for juveniles? • • • Gideon vs. Wainwright established the right to appointed counsel Alabama vs. Shelton affirmed this case Re: juveniles- In re Gault and In re Winship established that juveniles have basically all the same rights as adults (see above answer- juveniles also have no right relating to bond/bail)
What is the difference between a delinquent offense and a status offense? List examples of each. • • • a delinquent offenses id a violation of state or federal law while status offenses are based on the age of the offender Delinquent offense: rape, murder, theft, arson, DUI, possession of drugs Status offense: curfew violation, truancy, running away
What are three major spheres of patrol activity? • • • responding to calls for service and emergencies Undertaking activities to apprehend perpetrators of crime Engage in strategic problem-solving partnerships with the community
What are common procedures used to patrol? Random or routine patrol most often used Preventative Patrol activities: • • Calls for service (25%) Preventative patrol (40%) Officer initiated actions- tickets (15%) Administrative tasks (20%)
What must be included in a police report? n n n n n When it happened (date and time) Where it happened (street location) Building address or closest intersection Who is reporting Who is the victim: Name, contact information, State Driver’s License or ID number Who is the perpetrator or if unknown then obtain a description Who Witness Name and contact information What was lost, stolen, damaged, injured, etc Vehicles: Make, Model, Color, License Plate Number, Insurancecompany name & policy number, etc. Property other than vehicles: Serial Number, Product Name, Manufacturer, Description, Condition, etc Narrative: section designed to provide space for the details of the incident
What type of patrol is used in known “hot spots”? • Saturation patrols • Directed patrols
What types of patrol are most common? foot • automobile •
What are the responsibilities of the first responder (traffic- wreckcrime scene)? • • Initial response/Receipt of information Safety Procedures Emergency Care Secure and control persons at the crime scene Boundaries: identify, establish, protect and secure Turn over control of the scene to the investigator in charge upon their arrival Document actions and observations
Which case allows victims to sue police officers for monetary damages if a search or arrest is conducted with a faulty warrant? • Malley vs. Briggs
Under what conditions can an officer be sued? • • • • Failure to protect property in police custody Negligence of care of person in police custody Failure to render proper emergency aid Failure to prevent foreseeable crime Failure to aid a private citizen Lack of due regard for the safety of others False arrest False imprisonment Inappropriate use of deadly force Unnecessary assault or battery Malicious prosecution Violation of constitutional rights Patterns of unfair or inequitable treatment Racial Profiling
What are some of the disease related dangers that an officer may encounter during a routine shift? HIV/AIDS • TB • Hepatitis •
Chemical components of OC Spray n This agent is also well known as pepper spray and is an inflammatory agent; not an irritant. When someone is sprayed with OC pepper spray, the person's eyes slam shut. OC dilates the capillaries and causes temporary blindness. OC is a natural chemical. It is a derivative of hot pepper plants, hence the name pepper sprays. The time it takes for OC to wear off is anywhere from 20 to 30 minutes.
List several positive ways to deal with the stress of responding to a disaster/crisis. • • Get enough sleep Eat a balanced diet Exercise Counseling (talk it out) Balance work, play and rest Allow yourself to receive as well as give Seek spiritual resources
What is triage? What are three ways a victim may be marked during a disaster? Triage is a French word meaning to sort. This technique is used to quickly examine patients to determine priority for treatment; wounded outnumber caregivers and this becomes a necessary task. Three Categories of victims: • • • Immediate (I)- life-threatening injuries require immediate attention or victim will die Delayed (D)- injuries do not jeopardize victim’s life Dead (DEAD)- No respiration after two attempts to open airway
In an emergency situation: What are three “killers”? Airway Obstruction • Excessive bleeding • Shock •
How do you initially clear an airway? • Place one palm on the forehead of the victim and use two fingers on the other hand to help tilt the head back slightly
What are three types of bleeding? • Arterial bleeding- spurting bleeding • Venous bleeding- Flowing • Capillary- oozing
What methods are used to stop bleeding? Direct pressure • Elevation • Pressure points •
Describe or explain activities prior to conducting a crime scene search Obtain information from the responding officer and secure the scene 1. The responding officer should provide medical assistance to anyone who needs it. 2. The responding officer is responsible for arresting the perpetrator if they are on the scene 3. Ropes and barricades will help you preserve the crime scene from contamination. 4. The lead investigator evaluates the scene and determines the boundaries. They do an initial walk through and develop a strategy. a.
Certify Death b. Demonstrate proper procedures for checking vital signs of a victim and certifying death of a victim. n Pulse rate and rhythm: Checking your pulse rate is counting the number of times your heart beats in a minute. Pulse checks can be taken at the wrist (radial pulse) or at the neck (carotid pulse). Do not use your thumb; instead use your index and middle fingers.
Explain and demonstrate the use of crime scene photography a. Demonstrate proper crime scene photography 1. Three methods of crime scene recording: Photography, sketches and notes. 2. The crime scene should not be altered unless there are injuries. 3. Objects must not be moved 4. Photos must form an organized sequence and show all locations and objects. 5. Take photos of the body’s location, position. 6. Take close ups of injuries, weapons near the body. 7. Photo the surface under the body after the body has been removed. 8. More is better motto 9. Digital cameras allow for enhancement & examination in fine detail. 10. 3 types of vantage points: n Long range may include aerial view or the view from the entry way n Mid-range may include using different angles 8 to 10 feet from the victim n Close-up may include body and body parts, weapons, casings, blood patterns usually taken within 5 feet or less from the victim.
Document photographs taken at the crime scene. n n n A measuring device will show the actual size of all objects. Photos with measurement and without are necessary. The first should be a title card that includes the crime location, date, case number, photographer. All photos will be identified by a number and entered in the photo log.
Photography: Purpose 1. 2. 3. 4. To record the original scene and related areas To record the initial appearance of physical evidence It will provide investigators and others with this permanent visual record of the scene for later use Photographs are also used in court trials and hearings EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 56
Photography n n n Scene must be unaltered except for medical assistance Completely photograph entire scene Include all adjacent areas Overview of the scene Start at body and work to less significant evidence EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 57
Photography n n Get injuries and all evidence on body Take two photographs of each item of evidence One should be an orientation (midrange) shot to show the item is related to its surroundings n The second photograph should be a close-up to bring out the details of the object itself n n Use ruler on objects where size is important for scale EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 58
Demonstrate standard procedures for searching for, collecting, removing and evaluating physical evidence from a crime scene n n n Explain and demonstrate appropriate search method to use Spiral-used in outdoors, begin in the outermost corner and walk in a decreasing spiral towards a central point. Never do this in reverse order, because you will destroy evidence. Strip search pattern is used outdoors or in large indoor areas. Imagine a series of lanes dividing up the entire space to be searched. The searchers move up and down each lane. Grid search pattern-begins like a strip search, however after completing the horizontal lanes, the searchers double back at right angles to the original strip search. This is ore time consuming and more thorough. Zone search is when the investigator creates two imaginary axes, which divide the area into four quadrants. Each quad can then be examined with one of the previous describe patterns.
EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 61
Searching the Crime Scene Must be thorough, ALWAYS n Assign a supervisor to coordinate search and oversee collection of evidence n Search is based upon nature of crime. n Final search is for trace evidence n Autopsy is also a search n EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 62
Identify evidence at a crime scene: n n n The officer must do a walk through and look for all types of evidence. The crime scene should be secured and protected against interference by unauthorized people Securing the crime scene may require covering suspected items with paper, boxes, or plastic to ensure they are not moved. Set up barricades, tape off the area, or station officers to guard against entry into the area. Photographing and sketching the crime scene should be done before physical evidence is collected. Search for latent fingerprints, casts of footprints tracks, and tool impressions
Document location where evidence was collected:
Explain methods for collecting DNA evidence n n n A process where DNA is extracted from biological evidence samples collected at a crime scene and compared with samples taken from the victim and suspects. The DNA samples are analyzed and compared to determine whether they have a common origin. Hair found at the scene should be placed in a paper packet and then placed in an
Type of evidence that has DNA • Blood and bloodstains • Semen and seminal stains • Tissues and cells • Bones and organs • Hairs with follicles • Urine and saliva (with nucleated cells) Other types of biological evidence, such as tears, perspiration, serum and other body fluids without nucleated cells are not amenable to DNA analysis.
Evidence Examples Tiny Pieces of Evidence Paint • Physical and chemical analysis of paint evidence (chips or residue) can indicate it’s class, such as automobile paint, house paint, nail polish, etc. The evidence can be compared to 40, 000 different types of paint classified in a database, which can be used to identify a particular make or model of car or brand of tool. • Paint evidence can also indicate individual characteristics if an investigator is able to find similarities between two samples, such as the color, number of layers, chemical composition, or a physical match between the edges of two paint chips – one from a tool and one from a crime scene. Paint Transfer on a Car Did you know? Most paint evidence submitted to a lab will come from hit-and-run cases involving automobiles. Paint Layers Physical Match of Paint Chip Edges Images: http: //www. state. nj. us/njsp/divorg/invest/criminalistics. html
Glass • Glass particles can be found at various crime scenes, such as breaking and entering, hit and run, vandalism, or murder. • Glass at a crime scene is analyzed to determine its color, surface characteristics, tint, thickness, density, chemical composition, and refractive index (RI). • The results of the tests provide clues about the crime and help investigators connect the evidence to a suspect or other object used in a crime, such as matching glass from a crime scene to a headlight to a suspect’s car. CSI Glass Analysis Magnified image of glass fragments The pattern of cracks in a windshield fracture can reveal information about speed, occupant position, and angle of impact. Images: http: //www. rsc. org/images/b 606109 e-300 -(FOR-TRIDION)%20(i. Stockphotos)_tcm 18 -68354. jpg, http: //www. mtcforensics. com/investigation. html
Explosives • Explosive substances can be examined to determine its chemical composition to identify the type of explosive used and its origin. • Traces of explosives found on a suspect’s clothing, skin, hair, or other objects may be matched to explosives from the crime scene. • Materials used to make an explosive device will be compared to evidence found in the suspect’s possession to confirm a match. CSI & Explosives Image: http: //www. state. nj. us/njsp/divorg/invest/criminalistics. html
Ballistics • Characteristics of ammunition, firearms, and residue are examined to find matches between suspects and the evidence found at a crime scene. • Chemical tests can reveal gunshot residue (GSR) on the hands, face, or clothing of a victim or suspect to indicate how close a person was to a fired gun. • Rifling (grooves) in a gun barrel causes distinctive grooves, indentations and scratches upon fired bullets, which can be matched to the weapon that fired them. • Police are able to search the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS) database to compare markings from bullets, cartridge cases, and shotgun shells to ballistic evidence. Did you know? Caliber (handguns & rifles) or gauge (shotguns) refers to the size of the internal diameter of a gun’s barrel. Investigators can compare the striations on bullets to see if they match. Learn more about ballistics … Image: http: //www. geocities. com/j_ksinha/img/mid 1. gif
Dust & Dirt • Dust, dirt, or sand evidence can reveal where a person has traveled and may be picked up at a crime scene or left behind. Microscopic Image of Sand • Investigators examine the samples for chemical composition, pollen, plant material, and other organic matter to find links to a specific crime scene. Fingerprints • There are 3 types of fingerprint patterns: arches, loops, and whorls. Investigators also identify unique ridge characteristics in a fingerprint that can be used to identify a suspect or victim. • AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System) is a database used by investigators at local, state, and national levels to search for matches to fingerprints found at a crime scene. Images: http: //www. npsg. uwaterloo. ca/resources/images/microscope/Sand%200004. jpg
Impression Evidence Shoeprints & Tire Tracks • Impression evidence can be photographed, lifted with tape, or cast with plaster to compare to a suspect’s shoes or tires. • Investigators will examine the evidence to identify the brand of shoe or tire based on its tread pattern and other physical features to provide leads in the case. • Shoes and tires will also show wear patterns after being used for a period of time as well as other features (scratches, nicks, and cuts) that can be used to match evidence to specific items. For example, shoeprints can be matched to a suspect based on how the treads on the shoes that are worn down due to that person’s walking style. Bite Marks • Each of the 32 teeth in humans is unique due to age and wear. • Impressions and photographs of bite marks left on a victim, assailant, or other object at a crime scene can often be matched to dental records. Tool Marks • Tiny nicks and chips form on the edges of a tool as it is used, which can be used to identify matches between evidence and suspects. • Tools may also pick up traces of blood or other substances that can be tested or have fingerprints that can be lifted. Images: http: //www. wrongfulconvictionlawsuitdefense. com/uploads/image/28 santos_600. jpg, http: //www. dps. state. ia. us/DCI/Crime_Lab/images/toolmarks. jpg, & http: //www. masterpiecestudios. com/images/171463. gif
Fracture Matches • When an object broken, torn, or cut, two unique edges are formed, which are referred to as fracture lines. • These edges can be compared by the naked eye or with microscopes to see if they fit together , which indicates that they may have been part of the same object at one time. • Investigators may compare the edges on pieces of tape, glass fragments, paint chips, pieces of a car from an accident, paper bag, etc. to find possible matches. Duct Tape Evidence Images: http: //www. modernmicroscopy. com/main. asp? article=11&print=true&pix=true
Wounds • Wounds can often be matched to weapons or tool marks on the weapon. Investigators may also be able to determine the weapon's size, shape, and length. • Analysis of a wound may provides clues to a victim’s injuries, characteristics of the suspect (left-handed, right-handed, height, etc. ), and positions of the victim and suspect at the time of the incident. Questioned Documents • Examiners will analyze a ransom note or other document to find clues to link it to a crime scene or a specific suspect. They will analyze the type of paper used, printing method or handwriting style, and type of ink. FBI Questioned Documents UNIT • Other unique features, such as watermarks on stationary or indentations made as someone wrote on a page in a notebook, may provide useful clues. Image: (Bottom Left): http: //dofs. gbi. georgia. gov/vgn/images/portal/cit_11783501/81672146 questioned%20 document. jpg
Insects • Flies, beetles, and other insects can provide useful clues about a corpse. • Forensic entomologists use factors such as weather conditions, the location and condition of the body, and their knowledge of the life cycles of insects to help them estimate the postmortem interval or PMI (the time between death and the discovery of the body). DNA • Investigators can extract DNA from almost any tissue, including hair, fingernails, bones, teeth and body fluids. The DNA is used to create a profile that can be compared to profiles from suspects or victims. • CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) is a database maintained by the FBI that is used to find matches to unknown DNA samples from a crime scene. Images: http: //biology. arizona. edu/sciconn/lessons 2/Vuturo/vuturo/photos/desmus. gif
Skeletal Remains • Forensic anthropologists analyze skeletal remains to determine four characteristics for a victim: age, sex, race, and stature (height/build). Sex - Determined by examining the pelvis, humerus, and femur Age and stature – Determined by analyzing the development of the teeth, bone growth, and the length of specific bones, such as the femur. Race – Determined by analyzing the skull for characteristics that are common among people of different races. • DNA samples can be collected from bone, teeth, and hair to provide clues to a person’s identity. Scientists may also be able to gain clues as to a person’s past, recent injuries, or the cause of death based on bone fractures and other signs of trauma. Source: http: //www. crime-scene-investigator. net/excavation. html Images: http: //www. celticnz. org/images/Feedback/Skull. Skeleton. JPG and http: //www. legacyhealth. org/images/Housecalls/claviclefx. jpg
Body Fluids • Blood, semen, saliva, sweat, and urine can be analyzed to give investigators information about the crime as well as its victim or the suspect. • Chemicals and ultra violet light can be used at a crime scene to find body fluid evidence. Areas with potential evidence are swabbed, bagged and collected in vials, which are air tight and have a low risk of cross contamination. Examples: Vomit and urine can be used to test for alcohol, drugs, and poisons. Cigarette butts may contain dried saliva. Semen containing sperm is valuable for DNA analysis. Blood can provide DNA evidence and blood spatter can provide clues about the crime. Source: http: //www. virtualsciencefair. org/2004/fren 4 j 0/public_html/trace_evidence. htm Images: http: //www. trutv. com/library/crime/criminal_mind/forensics/chinatown_widow/4. html
Hairs & Fibers • Hairs and fibers may be transferred from the suspect or the suspect’s clothes to the victims’ and vice versa. For example, a suspect may pick up carpet fibers on his shoes or leave hairs behind at a crime scene. • Hairs can be examined to identify their origin, such as human or animal. Hairs with roots intact can be tested for DNA. • Fibers are used to make clothing, carpeting, furniture, beds, and blankets. They may be natural fibers from plants or animals or synthetic fibers that are man-made. Microscopic Image of Hairs & Fibers
n n n Explain and demonstrate proper bagging and marking of all evidence. Packaging evidence separately prevents damage through contact and prevents crosscontamination. All items should be carefully packaged and marked upon their retrieval at crime sites. Normally, the collector’s initials & date of collection are inscribed directly on the article. The evidence container must also be marked with collector’s initials, location of evidence, & date of collection.
Druggist Fold n n Consists of folding one end of the paper over one third, then folding the other end one third over that, and repeating the process from the other two sides. After the paper is folded in this manner, the outside two edges are tucked into each other to produce a closed container that keeps specimen from falling out.
Follow chain of custody protocols n n Always use gloves and never move anything before it has been recorded by sketch or photo. You must document the evidence from the time it is discovered until it is produced in court
Draw a crime scene sketch using proper measurements, symbols and labels n n Demonstrate proper use of measurements. The typical sketch is presented as a bird’s eye view of the scene. The investigator must decide what scale to use the largest scale possible. To determine what scale to use, divide the longest measurement at the scene by the longest measurement of the sketching paper to be used. Most reports and records are kept on 81/2 X 11 -inch paper. Thus if the longest measurement at the scene is 100 feet, let 1 inch equal 10 feet so that the drawing will fit comfortably within the 11 inch length of the paper. All sketches should include a compass or an orienting compass arrow indicating north; a legend or key to explain letters, numbers, or symbols used; and an indication of the scale used
Sketch Methods n n n Rectangle coordinates method requires two reference lines at right angles to each other. Often used to locate objects in the room. Triangulation method requires measuring the distance of an object from two fixed reference points. In a room, the corners are the fixed objects and the locations of objects are recorded by their distances from the two points. Base line method requires measurement to be taken from a single reference line. The base line should be established by using a length of string. The measurements indicating the location of a given object are then taken from left to right alond the baseline to a point ar right angles to the objects being plotted. Compass point method requires a protractor. The corner of a room, is selected as the point of origin. A line extending from the origin is used as an axis from which angles can be measured. Cross projection method the crime scene takes on the appearance of a box opened out. The ceiling opens up like the lid of a hinged box, with the four walls opening outward. In some law enforcement circles, this method is also called an exploded sketch. It is an effective way to portray evidence found on or in the walls or ceiling of a room
Sketches n Rough sketch at crime scene n Show location of all items that have any bearing on the crime n Dimensions and measurements must be 100% accurate n use tape measure n measure from 2 fixed points EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 86
EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 87
EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 88
Sketches Required elements: n n n Specific location Date & Time Case Number Full name of preparer & assistants Key or legend EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 89
Sketches Required elements: Continued n Weather conditions n “Scale=“ or “Not to scale” n North indicated n All evidence n All Measurements EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 90
Sketches - Order n Lay out parameters n Draw in fixed objects n Insert evidence n Record all measurements n Indicate North n Insert Key or legend EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 91
Sketches n Finished Sketches are done later with templates, drafting tools, or CAD EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 92
Sketches: Rough vs. Finished EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 93
Notes n Must be taken CONSTANTLY! n Detailed description of the scene n Must I. D. : n Time evidence is found n By Whom n How and by whom it was packaged n Disposition after it was collected EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 94
Notes n Tape recording is a good idea n Must be transcribed n Tapes must be held like other case evidence b/c they are used in court n no joking on the tape EQ: How do investigators record and preserve a crime scene? 95
Demonstrate proper use of symbols and labels
Apply proper procedures for collecting clear and legible latent fingerprints from a crime scene n n To develop the print, one applies a small amount of fingerprint powder to the area believed to have been touched. Typically, the powder is applied with a small feather brush, spreading the powder very gently to discover the print without destroying the impression
Explain and demonstrate the ability to properly lift and mount a latent fingerprint from a designated item of evidence n Latent Prints An impression transferred to a surface by sweat, oil, dirt, blood, or some other substance on the ridges of the fingers. n May be visible or invisible. n A latent print not visible without some form of developing. n
Lifting Prints n Generally, fingerprints are lifted with a length of clear tape. n n n One end of the tape is placed just beyond the end of the print, and the tape is then gently pressed over the print with an even pressure. Once the tape is in place, the tape may be left in place on the object to protect the print, and the entire object may be sent to the crime lab. If the object is too large or it is not feasible to send it to the lab, the tape may be lifted from the surface of the object and carefully transferred to a card.
Latent prints n Latent prints: Impressions left by friction ridge skin on a surface, such as a tool handle, glass, door, etc. Prints may be collected by revealing them with a dusting of black powder and then lifted with a piece of clear tape. n Some investigators use fluorescent powder and UV lights to help them find latent prints on multicolored or dark surfaces. n Magnetic powder can also be used to reveal latent prints and works on shiny surfaces or plastic baggies or containers. n The cyanoacrylate fuming method (super glue method) is a procedure that is used to develop fingerprints on a variety of objects. invisible prints can be made visible by using cyanoacrylate vapors that polymerize, or bond, with an invisible print, producing a visible chemical reaction in the form of a white deposit on the print. n n Ninhydrin is a chemical that bonds with the amino acids in fingerprints and will produce a blue or purple color. It works well on paper or cardboard surfaces.
Demonstrate the proper technique for marking a latent fingerprint card Lifted, developed latent prints should be marked or sealed in marked envelopes. n Photograph the developed latent prints with and without identifying markings and scale.
Check for legibility of collected prints n n Fingerprints must be clear and legible. It is best to collect prints that show the ridge characteristics and the patterns. They will be classified by this pattern. Ridge Characteristics or minutiae are used to individualize a print after the pattern has been established.
Demonstrate procedures to arrest and search a subject in a simulated situation • Approach subject safely and professionally and use procedures that insure safety at all times n The Danger Zone is within arms length of the suspect n The Reactionary Gap is 6 -10 feet. This gives the officer time to draw his weapon or move away. n 21 feet away from the suspect is the most safe position and allows you to continue to talk to the suspect. n Always handcuff THEN search n Treat every call as person with a gun call n “Plus One” Mentality is important. When encountering a suspect, you should always assume that there is more than the one person that you see. n Weaver stance is when you angle your body so that the gun faces away from the suspect and is shielded and protected by you. n Always use Clear, Concise, and Convincing verbalizations n You want superior positioning n Suspect should be at disadvantage
Safe approach of the suspect n n n You want superior positioning Suspect should be at disadvantage 0 is most dangerous 2 ½ is called the escort position and this is used for moving suspects 3 is safest, but limited and this is where searches conducted from here
Obtain identification from subject n Request Identification May request identification when there is reasonable suspicion of criminal activity n State must set specific standards for the types of identification that may be required. Based on Terry v Ohio, you can take fingerprints from the suspect in the field. You cannot take the suspect to the station to get prints. n
Identify and describe probable cause prior to arrest n n Probable cause requires more than mere suspicion. It requires facts or proof that would lead a person of reasonable caution to believe a crime has been committed. Officers may use the following to decide probable cause. n n Officer observation-what he sees or hears Officer expertise Circumstantial factors Information communicated to officers-info from roll call, from witnesses, victims
Probable Cause n PC justifying officer’s arrest without warrant has been defined as situation where officer has more evidence favoring suspicion that person is guilty of crime than evidence against such suspicion, but there is some room for doubt.
Check for active warrants through dispatcher n n n Universal Prowords SEND: Initial call received, continue with the rest of your message. SAY AGAIN: I have not understood your transmission, please repeat. OVER: This is the end of my current transmission and I am now expecting a response. OUT: This is the end of my transmission. No answer is needed or expected. (Note that "OVER" and "OUT" have mutually exclusive meanings and so should never be used at the same time in a single transmission). ROGER, RECEIVED, COPY: Your last transmission has been received and understood. WILCO: Your last transmission has been received and understood and I will comply. (Note that "ROGER" and "WILCO" should never be used together since "WILCO" already includes the acknowledgement of the last transmission). AFFIRM, AFFIRMATIVE: I confirm, or "Yes". NEGATIVE: I do not confirm, or "No". RADIO CHECK: What is my signal strength? Can you hear and understand my transmission? LOUD AND CLEAR: Your transmission has been received clearly. BROKEN AND UNREADABLE: Your transmission has been received, but cannot be
Phonetic Alphabet n n n n A=Alpha B=Bravo C=Charlie D=Delta E=Echo F=Foxtrot G=Golf H=Hotel I=India J=Juliet K=Kilo L=Lima M=Mike n n n n N=November O=Oscar P=Papa Q=Quebec R=Romeo S=Sierra T=Tango U=Uniform V=Victor W=whiskey X=X-ray Y=Yankee Z=Zulu
NUMERICAL PRONUNCIATIONS n n n Numeral Spoken As Ø ZE-RO 1 WUN 2 TOO 3 TREE 4 FOW-ER 5 FIFE 6 SIX 7 SEV-EN 8 AIT 9 NIN-ER
Place subject under arrest and notify subject of reason for arrest n n Advise the suspect that he is under arrest for ? ? ? and give him verbal commands as to what you want him to do. Turn around, do not face me, place your hands behind your back with palms out. You may then approach to handcuff.
Use safe handcuffing procedure to secure subject n n n n n Identify yourself as a police officer. Command the suspect to turn around and put their back to you. Do not face me! “Set up” the handcuffs correctly in your hand. Key holes should be placed on the bottom and the bow (single blade) of the cuffs should be facing out and the bow should be pivoted to the smallest size. Command the person to spread their legs and bend over at the waist. Command the person to place their hands behind their back, (the exception a medical condition), thumbs up and palms out. Upon placement of the cuffs, turn your hand place the cuffs on the suspect’s right wrist first. Push-HIT the "bow” against the left wrist of the person, which will pivot the bow and allow securing through the various tracks in the bow. . Use the double locking mechanism to "double lock" the handcuffs to prevent them from being tampered with. Leave a pinkie finger’s worth of room between the cuff and the wrists. Handcuff with backs of hands facing each other
Pat down or search subject using safe procedure n When a custodial arrest is made the officer may conduct a thorough search of: n the person arrested and n the area under his/her immediate control (“arms reach” or “wingspan” rule)
Search of the suspect n n Must be done immediately (“contemporaneous”) after the arrest Items seized do not have to be related to the crime the person was arrested for committing
Find and remove weapons from subject n n • A terry stop allows the officer to search the person’s outer clothing for weapons for officer safety with Reasonable suspicion. After handcuffing the suspect, a thorough search of the person must be conducted. If suspect is in a car at time of arrest the passenger compartment of the car may be searched.
Secure removed weapons n n n Found weapons may be placed in the patrol car after discovery. Initially found weapons may be placed in the officers waistband until the search is completed. The weapon may be handed to another officer if found. It may placed on the floor and kicked away until the suspect is secure.
Describe the operations of home and commercial security systems • Identify types of security systems • Explain the operation of various types of security systems