- Количество слайдов: 55
End Falls this Fall Pharmacy Update
Medications and Falls Risk l Medication reviews to identify falls risks l l Recommendations for caregivers, prescribers Managing the risks l l Medications that have a high risk for falls l l l Decreasing doses, decreasing the overall number of medications (polypharmacy), identifying side effects Sedatives; benzodiazepines, “Z drugs” like zopiclone Antidepressants Anticholinergic agents (oxybutynin/Ditropan®) Antihypertensives, anticonvulsants (including gabapentin, pregabalin) Opioids Increasing client safety l l Decrease the medication related risks for falling Decrease the risk for fracturing
Decreasing Falls & Fractures – Where could we improve? l l Reducing Polypharmacy, since multiple medications contribute to risk of falls Reducing the use of medications that are associated with a high risk for falls Identifying men at risk for osteoporosis and fractures Recognizing disease states that increase risk for falls and fractures
Prescribing Cascade l l Develops when an adverse drug reaction or side effect is mistaken as a new medical condition and further drug therapy is added to manage this new “condition” For example: a movement disorder develops from use of an antipsychotic medication like olanzapine (Zyprexa®) and this is misinterpreted as Parkinson’s disease and treated with levodopa
Prescribing Cascade l Another example occurs when an older person is put on an NSAID such as Naproxen for arthritis pain, • The next visit to health care provider, blood pressure is elevated ankle edema is present so……. l antihypertensive diuretic hydrochlorothiazide started… • Then electrolytes are low and a potassium supplement is started…. • Then heart burn develops so omeprazole is started
Avoiding Prescribing Cascades l l Side effects/Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) are most likely to be experienced soon after a new medication is started or after the dose increased 90% of patients with an ADR report it within 4 months of starting the new drug l l 75% of these patients have the ADR within the first month of treatment For every new condition or symptom, first ask, Is it an adverse effect of existing drug therapy? Don’t just add another medication !
Consider Reducing Medications in the Elderly We are pretty good at adding medications but not so great at reevaluating and stopping them l Avoiding certain possibly “more risky” drugs is only part of the picture eg. Beers list drugs, anticholinergic drugs l The patient on 13 non Beer’s list meds may still be at risk for harm, especially if dose/duration inappropriate l Minimizing anticholinergic medications is helpful l l Decreasing the use of anticholinergic agents (eg amitriptyline, tolterodine, paroxetine) which can cause cognitive decline, confusion, hallucination, urinary retention, constipation and increased mortality is helpful but may only be part of the picture in for example, someone also on high doses of glyburide with poor renal function
Is there a need for Deprescribing? l l A study that looked at emergency hospital admissions related to adverse drug reactions, for those age 65 or older found l 6. 6% admissions were associated with Beers List meds l 67 % admissions occurred with non Beers list meds (warfarin, insulin, oral antiplatelet drugs, oral hypoglycemic drugs) Starting to hear the term “Deprescribing” l Or related terms like discontinuation, prescription pruning, and pharmacolysis Budnitz DS, Emergency hospitalizations for adverse drug events in older Americans N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 2002
Is there a need for Deprescribing ? • Challenging to manage a complex older adult with multiple comorbidities when each set of disease specific clinical practice guidelines recommends treatments • For example, someone with COPD, DM Type II, HTN, OP and OA ends up on a minimum of 12 meds • Often guidelines are based on research done in younger persons without multiple diseases • • Some treatment goals may be overly aggressive in managing an older person ie diabetes or hypertension A systematic approach is needed for reevaluating and streamlining a person’s medication list & making it appropriate for their needs and goals With the understanding that polypharmacy (≥ 4 or 5 Rx) Increases risk for drug interactions, ADRs, risk for hip fractures •
The thought process for Rational Deprescribing • Begin with a regular & thorough review of current drug therapy – have • them bring all their prescription bottles, vitamins, eye drops , natural health products, Over-the-counter meds Tailor medication regimen according to individual’s conditions and their goals & goals for care l What are the treatment goals? • Prevention (consider time lines), optimize cognition, pain management, comfort l Has the individual changed? • Eg. decreased weight, declining renal function l Does each drug have a reason for use? • Eg match diagnosis list to drug list l Does the reason for use still exist? • Eg post op anemia 1 year ago, still getting iron tx
Rational Deprescribing l Does the dose need decreasing ? • l Does a medication need to be added? l l 2 or more drugs in the same category eg 2 NSAIDs Are there new symptoms? l l Eg adding a bisphonate after a fracture Are there duplicate therapies? l l Eg drug is necessary but side effects experienced *Could they be an adverse reaction to meds? Are there non pharmacologic therapies? l Eg sleep hygiene and relaxation techniques for insomnia instead of benzodiazepines
Some Tools for Deprescribing l Screening Tool of Older Person’s Prescriptions (STOPP) l considers identification of drug interactions, duplicate therapies l Identified significantly more patients with ER visit due to medication related effect than the Beers list (2003) Hamilton HJ, Gallagher PF, O’Mahony D. Inappropriate prescribing and adverse drug events in older people. BMC Geriatrics 2009; 9: 5. l Screening Tool to Alert doctors to the Right Treatment (START) l Helps to detect sub-optimal treatment or omissions in elderly patients therapy Barry PJ et al. START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to the Right Treatment)—an evidence-based screening tool to detect prescribing omissions in elderly patients. Ageing. 2007; 36: 632 -638.
One approach to Deprescribing Educate client and family about this therapy approach l Identify polypharmacy, adverse drug reactions or side effects, falls, effectiveness (or lack of), treatment goals l Wean one medication at a time, gradually l Begin with a medication thought to be responsible for undesired side effect or a fall etc l For beta blockers, benzodiazepines, opioids, long term systemic corticosteroids and levodopa wean down over weeks & perhaps months l Monitor patient and reassess frequently for withdrawal syndromes, reappearance of illness, cognition, falls, quality of life, etc *Deprescribing, Le. Couteur D, Banks E, Aust. Prescr 2011; 34: 182 -5 l
Can Medications be Withdrawn? l Many medications can be safely withdrawn slowly, gradually & with medical supervision l l l Although not a lot of data there are both potential risks and benefits in stopping Some medications can’t be stopped suddenly: especially : l l benzodiazepines (withdrawal, confusion, seizures etc) beta blockers (sudden stopping can result in rebound hypertension and tachycardia ) clonidine (sudden stopping can cause rebound hypertension), levodopa needs to be tapered very slowly or serious withdrawal & neuroleptic malignant syndrome can occur with muscle stiffness, decreased consciousness
Don’t abruptly stop these either: l l l Systemic corticosteroids if taken for several weeks need to be tapered gradually SSRI’s eg paroxetine, should be tapered gradually to avoid discontinuation syndrome Proton Pump inhibitors- stopping suddenly can result in hypersecretion of acid
Does Deprescribing Work? • A similar systematic approach was developed into an *algorithm and used in a Feasibility study • Evaluated the need to continue or discontinue meds for 70 elderly community living people with multiple co-morbidities taking a mean number of 7. 7 medications • stopped 58% of medications, only 2% required restarting due to recurrence of the original indication • successful discontinuation achieved in 81% of those patients Garfinkel, D; Mangin, D; Feasibility Study of a Systematic Approach for Discontinuation of Multiple Medications in Older Adults. Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(18): 1648 -1654 *see Resources slides
Does Deprescribing Work? l 88% of those elderly patients reported global improvement in health!!! l LESS is MORE ! Garfinkel, D; Mangin, D; Feasibility Study of a Systematic Approach for Discontinuation of Multiple Medications in Older Adults. Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(18): 1648 -1654
Future Study The Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently funded Bruyère Research Institute scientist and Universities of Ottawa and Waterloo assistant professor, Barbara Farrell, Pharm. D, approximately $430, 000 to study the development and implementation of deprescribing guidelines aimed to minimize medications that are causing side effects or are no longer needed. “Reducing medication use can be a challenging process, but with the introduction of guidelines and attention to implementation, there will be better consistency in reducing the number of medications prescribed to older adults with the goal of improving quality-of-life, ” says Dr. Farrell. For example, a Bruyère Geriatric Day Hospital patient, says he is well on his way to restoring his active lifestyle, thanks in part to the slow tapering of some of his medications. l from The Ottawa Citizen, July 3 2013
Decreasing Falls & Fractures – Where could we improve? l l Reducing Polypharmacy as multiple medications contribute to risk of falls Recognizing disease states that increase risk for falls and fractures Identifying men at risk for osteoporosis and fractures Reducing the use of medications that are associated with a high risk for falls
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Falls l Up to 10% of seniors are affected by depression and SSRIs are first-line treatment l l Depression itself is not associated with fractures A large prospective study looked at daily SSRI use in adults in the community
SSRIs Increase Fracture Risk Daily SSRI use in those 50 yrs or more can • Increase the risk for fragility fracture by 2 x l l l • Increase the risk for falling by 2 x • Lower BMD of the hip May be due to changes in bone and on risk of falling, possibly increased risk for hypotension & syncope Serotonin receptors found on cells that build and remodel bone suggesting possible decreased bone quality
SSRI and Increased Fracture Risk Similar studies have found the risk for O/P fractures associated with corticosteroid use was 1. 66 for persons 50 or older versus risk for fracture of 2. 1 with SSRI use, so similar increased risk for fracture with an SSRI as with corticosteroids l Since elderly are already at increased risk for osteoporosis these risks should be weighed against the benefits in treating depression l l Consider lowest effective dose, shortest duration ** Effect of selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on the Risk of Fracture, Richards, J, Papaioannou, A et al, Arch Intern Med/Vol 167, Jan 22 2007, 188194
Other Potential effects of SSRIs l Hyponatremia increased risk with elderly l usually occurs within 2 weeks of starting l can present with confusion, drowsiness, fatigue, delirium and hallucinations, urinary incontinence, hypotension or vomiting Possibility of Serotonin syndrome symptoms l can present with symptoms of tremor, agitation, myoclonus, muscle rigidity or confusion. l l
Decreasing Falls & Fractures – Where could we improve? l l Reducing Polypharmacy, since multiple medications contribute to risk of falls Identifying men at risk for osteoporosis and fractures Recognizing disease states that increase risk for falls and fractures Reducing the use of medications that are associated with a high risk for falls
2010 Osteoporosis Canada Guidelines l Women and men over age 50 should be assessed for risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture l l To identify those at high risk for fracture Those who have had a fragility fracture
Fragility Fracture: Definition l A fracture occurring spontaneously or following minor trauma such as a fall from standing height or less 1, 2 l Excluding craniofacial, hand, ankle and foot fractures 1. Kanis JA, et al. Osteoporos Int 2001; 12(5): 417 -427. 2. Bessette L, et al. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19: 79 -86.
Care Gap l l 90 % men with clinical fragility fracture were untreated for osteoporosis Only 10% men with a clinical fracture reported being diagnosed with osteoporosis About 20% women with fragility fracture receive treatment to prevent further fractures If men are diagnosed with osteoporosis, they are more likely to be treated l 67% with osteoporosis diagnosis received bisphonate and 87% were on calcium and/or Vitamin D * The osteoporosis care gap in men with fragility fractures: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, Osteoporosis International April 2008, Vol 19, Issue 4, p 581 -587.
Therapeutic Care Gap: Most Men Do Not Receive Treatment for Osteoporosis after Fracture Papaioannou A, et al. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19(4): 581 -587.
Care Gap l Men have 1/3 of all hip fractures and are less likely to survive afterwards l One year mortality 31 to 38% men vs 12 to 28% women 2 x more likely to be institutionalized after a hip fracture l
Why did we forget them ? l l Bone loss occurs later in men, after the age of 70 Women are more likely to fracture than men until age 80, then similar risk Men have higher peak bone mass and larger bones have less risk of fracture Men have lower rates of bone loss
W. H. O. Fracture Risk Factors in Men l Previous fragility fracture over 40 yo Especially vertebral compression #’s (height loss of ≥ 6 cm or kyphosis) l l Glucocorticoid therapy equivalent to ≥ 7. 5 mg prednisone/day x 3 months or more l Advanced age (> 65 yr)
More Factors that Increase Male Fracture Risk from W. H. O. l Condition associated with bone loss l l l l DM Type I, untreated hyperthyroidism, chronic malnutrition Family history O/P, parental # High alcohol intake > 2 units/day Hypogonadism, delayed puberty Low BMI < 20 kg/m² Smoking (past or present) Anti-androgen therapy treatment for prostate cancer (ie Casodex®/bicalutamide, flutamide)
2010 Osteoporosis Canada Guidelines Which men should be treated? l Deciding to give treatment should be based on preventing fractures l Those identified at high risk for a major osteoporotic fracture ( > 20% risk for a fracture over 10 years) should be offered treatment If > 50 yo + fragility fracture (hip/vertebra) or >1 fragility fracture = high risk for future fractures should be offered medications l
2010 Osteoporosis Canada Guidelines l l l State to treat male or female at high risk for future fracture The key is identifying men at high risk for future fractures – that is where improvement is needed Two tools integrate the key risk factors for fracture with (and without) BMD at femoral neck l CAROC and FRAX
Integrated Approach Moderate risk (10 -year fracture risk 10%-20%) Lateral thoracolumbar radiography (T 4 -L 4) or vertebral fracture assessment may aid in decision-making by identifying vertebral fractures Factors warranting consideration of pharmacologic therapy: Repeat BMD in 1 -3 yr and reassess risk • Additional vertebral fracture(s) (by vertebral fracture assessment or lateral spine radiograph) • Previous wrist fracture in individuals aged > 65 or those with T-score < -2. 5 • Lumbar spine T-score much lower than femoral neck T-score • Rapid bone loss • Men undergoing androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer • Women undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer • Long-term or repeated use of systemic glucocorticoids (oral or parenteral) not meeting conventional criteria for recent prolonged use • Recurrent falls (> 2 in the past 12 mo) • Other disorders strongly associated with osteoporosis, rapid bone loss or fractures Good evidence of benefit from pharmacotherapy
Which Treatments for Men ? l l Most osteoporosis meds were tested in women Some smaller trials with men & osteoporosis, - Alendronate 10 mg daily (Ca. Co 3 500 mg and Vit D 400 units daily) x 24 months increased BMD - Risedronate 5 mg daily decreased vertebral fractures by 60% in men within 12 months l Risedronate and Alendronate effective in prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid induced O/P in men and women
What Osteoporosis Canada Says For men needing osteoporosis treatment Alendronate, risedronate and zoledronic acid can be used as first line treatments in the prevention of fractures l Testosterone is not recommended for treatment of osteoporosis in men l Individuals > 50 yo on ≥ 3 months of glucocorticoids equivalent to prednisone ≥ 7. 5 mg daily in the preceding yr l should start on alendronate, risedronate or zoledronic acid at outset of the glucocorticoid and continued for at least the duration of the glucocorticoid
What Osteoporosis Canada Says: l l Individuals ( M or F) already at high risk for fracture who are also taking glucocorticoids (≥ 7. 5 mg prednisone/day x 3 months or more should be considered for teriparatide daily Men on anti-androgen therapy should be evaluated for fracture risk and osteoporosis therapy considered to prevent fractures
Don’t Forget Non-Prescription Treatments l l Weight bearing exercise Falls risk assessment l l l multifactorial intervention (ie home safety, cataract sx, med review, physio assessment) 1200 mg calcium daily from all sources & the emphasis on dietary sources Vitamin D 800 to 2, 000 units/ day
Summary l We can reduce falls and fractures by l l Reducing prescribing cascades Regular review and pruning of medication lists Using medications with a high risk for falls more cautiously Assessing men for fracture risks too!
References and Resources l Hamilton HJ, Gallagher PF, O’Mahony D. Inappropriate prescribing and adverse drug events in older people. BMC Geriatrics 2009; 9: 5. l Barry PJ et al. START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to the Right Treatment)—an evidence-based screening tool to detect prescribing omissions in elderly patients. Ageing. 2007; 36: 632 -638. l Garfinkel, D; Mangin, D; Feasibility Study of a Systematic Approach for Discontinuation of Multiple Medications in Older Adults. Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(18): 1648 -1654 l http: //www. osteoporosis. ca
From: Feasibility Study of a Systematic Approach for Discontinuation of Multiple Medications in Older Adults: Addressing Polypharmacy Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(18): 1648 -1654. doi: 10. 1001/archinternmed. 2010. 355 Figure Legend: Improving drug therapy in elderly patients—the Good Palliative–Geriatric Practice algorithm. Revised from Garfinkel et al with permission from the Israel Medical Association Journal. Date of download: 9/18/2013 Copyright © 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(18): 1648 -1654. doi: 10. 1001/archinternmed. 2010. 355
Absolute 10 -year Fracture-Risk Tools l Tools validated in Canada (choice based on personal preference and convenience) l l l CAROC: Joint initiative of the Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada 1 FRAX: Fracture Risk Assessment Tool developed by the World Health Organization 2 There are large differences in fracture rates from country to country 3 -5 l Assessment tools need to be country specific 1. Leslie WD, Berger C, et al. Osteoporosi Int; In press. . 2. Leslie WD, Lix LM, et al. Osteoporosi Int; In press. 3. Kanis JA, et al. J Bone Miner Res 2002; 17(7): 1237 -1244. 4. Melton LJ, III. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2003; 32(1): 1 -13. 5. Leslie WD, et al. J Bone Miner Res 2010; in press.
CAROC tool l Assesses 10 -YEAR FRACTURE RISK for Women and Men using age and BMD stratifies into 3 zones: low risk (< 10%), medium (10 -20%), and high risk (>20%) l Fragility fracture after age 40 or recent prolonged systemic glucocorticoid use, increases CAROC base risk by one category (i. e. , from low-risk to moderate or moderate risk to high) l The T-score for the femoral neck is derived from the National Health and Nutrition Education Survey III (NHANES III) reference database for white women.
Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada (CAROC) Risk Assessment Tool
10 -year Risk Assessment for Men (CAROC Basal Risk) Age Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk 50 above -2. 5 to -3. 9 below -3. 9 55 above -2. 5 to -3. 9 below -3. 9 60 above -2. 5 to -3. 7 below -3. 7 65 above -2. 4 to -3. 7 below -3. 7 70 above -2. 3 to -3. 7 below -3. 7 75 above -2. 3 to -3. 8 below -3. 8 80 above -2. 1 to -3. 8 below -3. 8 85 above -2. 0 to -3. 8 below -3. 8 Papaioannou A, et al. CMAJ 2010 Oct 12. [Epub ahead of print].
Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada (CAROC) Risk Assessment Tool
Risk Assessment Using FRAX l Uses age, sex, BMD, and clinical risk factors to calculate 10 -year fracture risk* l l BMD must be femoral neck FRAX also computes 10 -year probability of hip fracture alone This system has been validated for use in Canada 1 There is an online FRAX calculator with detailed instructions at: www. shef. ac. uk/FRAX * composite of hip, vertebra, forearm, and humerus 1. Leslie WD, et al. Osteoporos Int; In press.
FRAX Tool: On-line Calculator www. shef. ac. uk/FRAX.
Using CAROC to decide which risk category (see chart for men) l Men ≥ 65 yo with T score < - 3. 7 considered high risk Men ≥ 50 yo & Fragility or Vertebral # & T score in moderate risk range are determined to be high risk l Men any age, on equiv of ≥ Prednisone 7. 5 mg/day x 3 months & T score in moderate risk range are determined to be high risk l l Men any age with clinical hypogonadism and T score in the moderate risk range are determined to be high risk l Treatment should be offered to men considered to be at high risk for a fracture
More about Treatments for Men l Although testosterone treatment in hypogonadal men increased BMD at spine and hip, no trials showed fracture risk reduction so use is not recommended l Teriparatide reduced the risk for moderate or severe fractures in men with osteoporosis l Denosumab (Prolia™) increases bone mass in men with osteoporosis at high risk for fracture, (history of osteoporotic fracture, or multiple risk factors for fracture) or patients who have failed or are intolerant to other available osteoporosis therapy. l Sub. Q: 60 mg as a single dose, once every 6 months l However it is currently a Limited Use Benefit on ODB for women (Teriparatide effects on vertebral fractures and BMD in men with osteoporosis, Osteoporos Int, 2005 May: 16(5): 510 -6 Kaufman JM et al