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Enabling Technologies Impact on Curricula and Instruction A Work in Progress Daniel Hull OP-TEC Enabling Technologies Impact on Curricula and Instruction A Work in Progress Daniel Hull OP-TEC Elaine Johnson Bio-Link Rachel Bower, ATE Central Mel Cossette, Mat. Ed Deb Newberry, Nano-Link

Objectives of this Presentation • Introduce the concept of enabling technologies in the context Objectives of this Presentation • Introduce the concept of enabling technologies in the context of how they could enhance and update AAS curricula. • Provide a draft example of enabling technologies in the physical sciences. • Discuss a model for enabling technologies in the bio/chem technologies. • Engage participants in activities to contribute information about how technologies enhance their field, and how this could improve/update their curriculum.

What are Enabling Technologies? Definition: Technical concepts, materials, devices and processes that are developed What are Enabling Technologies? Definition: Technical concepts, materials, devices and processes that are developed in one technology and used in another technology to “enable” advances, new understanding, equipment and applications. Enabling technologies can be applied to drive radical change in the capabilities of a user or culture. They can also be used to update and streamline technical curricula.

Prominent Enabling Technologies in the Physical Sciences • Electronics Technology • Information Technology: Digital Prominent Enabling Technologies in the Physical Sciences • Electronics Technology • Information Technology: Digital Systems, Including Communications, Networks, computing and graphic design • Materials Technology and Nanotechnology • Photonics Technology : optics and electrooptics, including lasers

Electronics as an Enabling Technology Definition: The application of the movement of electrons in Electronics as an Enabling Technology Definition: The application of the movement of electrons in the creation of devices, systems and components used in all cutting edge technologies • Enabling Communications: Radio, TV, IT networks, computers, cell phones, cable, smart phones • Enabling Controls: Automation, robotics, manufacturing, home control, appliances, security, toys & games • Enabling Instrumentation: Semiconductor manufacturing • Enabling Information Systems: IT networks, PCs, servers, mainframes, desktops/laptops, hand held devices, processors, peripherals

Electronics as an Enabling Technology (Cont’d) • Enabling Components & Devices: Displays, discrete components, Electronics as an Enabling Technology (Cont’d) • Enabling Components & Devices: Displays, discrete components, MEMs, ICs • Enabling Energy Production & Storage (fossil, nuclear, solar, wind & batteries) • Enabling Energy Transmission (power lines & substations • Enabling Energy Utilization Devices/Systems (motors, heating, lighting etc. ) • Enabling Photonics: power supplies, controllers, modulators & detectors in lasers and other electro-optic devices.

Information/Communications Technology as an Enabling Technology Definition of IT: The technology involved with the Information/Communications Technology as an Enabling Technology Definition of IT: The technology involved with the transmission and storage of information, especially the development, installation, implementation, and management of computers and control systems within companies, colleges, and other organizations. Definition of Communications: The safe and secure delivery of voice, video and data over optical, wireline and wireless transmission media. Enabled Technologies: All Fields

Materials Technology as an Enabling Technology Materials Science is the “Science of Stuff” Definition: Materials Technology as an Enabling Technology Materials Science is the “Science of Stuff” Definition: Creating, altering, selecting and using appropriate materials for buildings, vehicles, furnishings, displays, simulations, equipment, molds/castings, coatings, electrical and mechanical devices and environmental control. Converting and/or refining raw physical and biological materials, creating new materials with suitable properties and characteristics for durability, extreme temperature and corrosion tolerances, lighter weight and increased strength. Includes biomanufacturing and nanotechnology…essentially, materials are everywhere. Materials Technicians: refers to the technicians that, in the course of their work, handle materials.

Materials Science • Enabled technologies: all manufacturing sectors including electronics/IT, construction, welding, manufacturing, entertainment, Materials Science • Enabled technologies: all manufacturing sectors including electronics/IT, construction, welding, manufacturing, entertainment, transportation, aerospace, energy production/transmission/utilization, consumer products, photonics, and medical instrumentation/prosthetics/devices. • Emerging areas: include additive manufacturing (AM creates a three dimensional model/object one layer at a time) and nano-materials (defined as smaller than 1/10 th of a micrometer). • AM: polymers and metals such as nickel, stainless steel. • Nano-Materials: research changes in material properties when taken from the macro scale to nano scale.

Nanotechnology as an Enabling Technology Definition: The ability to observe, study measure and manipulate Nanotechnology as an Enabling Technology Definition: The ability to observe, study measure and manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic scale. Within a material the arrangement of atoms will define the physical, electrical and biological properties of that material Correlation of nanoscience to traditional science subjects Pulling in aspects of physics, chemistry, biology and materials science Translating to all engineering and science disciplines Finding applications in every market segment Observing the world at the nanoscale is inherently multi-disciplinary No escaping the requirement for multi-disciplinary learning (and teaching) at all levels.

New Technology Could Combine Detection and Treatment Immediate sensing as a tumor is removed! New Technology Could Combine Detection and Treatment Immediate sensing as a tumor is removed! © Deb Newberry 2008 Sandia National Laboratories

Nanotechnology Technicians • Technicians are finding jobs in electronics, materials, biotech, quality assurance, testing, Nanotechnology Technicians • Technicians are finding jobs in electronics, materials, biotech, quality assurance, testing, sales etc. • Companies of all sizes: Very small to 3 M and IBM • Part of a research or product development team or independent workers • Education & Training requires a broad technical base including other technologies

Biotechnology as an Enabling Technology Biotechnology deals with the use of “living organisms” Definition: Biotechnology as an Enabling Technology Biotechnology deals with the use of “living organisms” Definition: The use of living organisms to produce useful products. Commercialization: We are now experiencing the growth of companies that are producing medicines, biofuels, gene therapies, stem-cell applications, forensics, pest-resistant plants, improved nutritional products, vaccines, biosecurity assays, environmental testing, personalized medicine, synthetic biology, and countless other new applications. Because most of these are highly regulated, in addition to technicians who actually do the research and production, there is a growing requirement for regulatory and quality technicians. Skills: Increasingly, community and technical colleges throughout the nation are implementing programs to provide relevant competencybased education that prepare biotechnology technicians. Biotechnology Technicians: Technicians that work in research, testing, and production facilities that use living organisms to produce useful products.

Biotechnology • Biotechnology Industry: the bioscience industry is rapidly changing to include working relationships Biotechnology • Biotechnology Industry: the bioscience industry is rapidly changing to include working relationships with other scientific disciplines and technologies • Enabling technologies: Restriction Enzyme Technology, Gene Transfer, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Sequencing • Enabled applications: agriculture, medicine, environmental monitoring, industrial enzymes, forensics, heredity, bioinformatics, food testing, genetic testing, biofuels, biomaterials, biomedical devices, nano-bio, stem cell research, personalized medicine, synthethic biology

Photonics as an Enabling Technology Definition: The application of optics and electromagnetic energy whose Photonics as an Enabling Technology Definition: The application of optics and electromagnetic energy whose basic unit is the photon, incorporating optics, electro-optics, lasers, and electronics. • Enabling Advanced Manufacturing: laser-based additive manufacturing; Laser-scanned reverse engineering. • Enabling Materials Processing: laser welding, cutting, scribing, drilling and heat treating. • Enabling Nanotechnology: atomic force microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, quantum dot lasers, quantum dot LEDs, carbon nanotubes. • Enabling Biotechnology: optical microscopy, Fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorter, spectrophotometers, electron microscopy, laser microscopy • Enabling Biomanufacturing: spectrophotometers, cell counting, characterizing biodiesel fuel • Enabling Microelectronics: photolithography, micro-optic inspection.

Photonics as an Enabling Technology (cont’d) • Enabling IT/Communications: fiber optics for transmission; laser Photonics as an Enabling Technology (cont’d) • Enabling IT/Communications: fiber optics for transmission; laser diode transmitters, photo detectors • Enabling Energy Production, Transmission and Utilization: solar voltaics, solar hot water, laser-induced thermonuclear energy, solid state (LED) lighting • Enabling Defense/Aerospace: LIDAR, laser target designators, space communication, laser-guided missiles, destruction of drones, missiles & mine fields • Enabling Sensing and Displays: LED & LCD displays/monitors, Image recognition, environmental monitoring, spectral of atmosphere & other gasses, laser radars & survey instruments • Enabling Biomedical Equipment: laser surgery, LASIK surgery, laser photocoagulation, laser prostrate & vascular relief, fiber optics for colonoscopy, laparoscopes, optical coherence tomography (OCCT)

Prominent Enabling Technologies in the Biological & Chemical Sciences • • Materials Technology Information Prominent Enabling Technologies in the Biological & Chemical Sciences • • Materials Technology Information Technology Nanotechnology Biotechnology & Biomanufacturing – Restriction Enzyme Technology – Gene Sequencing – Gene Transfer – Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) – Stem Cell Technology – Synthetic Biology

Enabling Technology Impact on Technical Curriculum and Teaching Example#1 Laser Course Infusion in Other Enabling Technology Impact on Technical Curriculum and Teaching Example#1 Laser Course Infusion in Other Technologies One or two laser/optics courses are being taught as electives in the following technologies: • • • Fiber Optics Communications Biomedical Equipment Advanced Manufacturing Nanotechnology Others? ?

Enabling Technology Impact on Technical Curriculum and Teaching (cont’d) Example#2: Photonics Systems Technician Curriculum Enabling Technology Impact on Technical Curriculum and Teaching (cont’d) Example#2: Photonics Systems Technician Curriculum • 80% of photonics employers prefer broad-based, interdisciplinary technicians, with a specialty in lasers. (2013 employer focus groups) • 28 of the 33 colleges teaching photonics in the U. S. are teaching 2 -3 photonics courses, built on an electronics core that also includes IT, digital control, and properties of materials. • The PST Curriculum requires only one photonics faculty member and less expensive lab equipment. • Completers of the PST program receive an AAS in electronics with a photonics certificate. • The same core that supports photonics can also support majors in robotics, instrumentation, communications etc. This is an effective, efficient delivery system that is saving colleges $$.

Photonics Systems Technician(PST) • Photonics systems technicians (PSTs) work in industries whose processes and Photonics Systems Technician(PST) • Photonics systems technicians (PSTs) work in industries whose processes and operations require the extensive use of photonics devices to meet production or mission goals. PSTs frequently integrate photonics devices or subsystems into larger systems, where photonics is an enabling technology. PSTs have the responsibility of ensuring these photonic devices operate within prescribed specifications and are compatible and/or complementary with the entire integrated system. • These technicians must know how these photonic devices operate and interface with the equipment or systems in which they are embedded. They must also understand how photonics devices and subsystems enable equipment and systems to accomplish specific tasks. • These technicians must have broad, working knowledge and skills of electronic and electromechanical devices/systems, combined with their specialty knowledge and skills in photonics to efficiently and effectively repair systems, and operate, maintain, and calibrate photonics subsystems, and integrate these subsystems into full systems.

Curriculum for PST’s • New curriculum will require 3 -4 semesters of photonics courses Curriculum for PST’s • New curriculum will require 3 -4 semesters of photonics courses – Based on an Electronics core – Course 1: Fundamentals of Light and Lasers – Course 2: New version of Course 2 (2 semesters) – An additional course could be added, depending on resources and employer service area needs(Fiber Optics, advanced optics and/or selected photonics applications modules) – Degree: AAS in Electronics with a Photonics Specialty

Course #1 Fundamentals of Light and Lasers 1 -1 Nature & Properties of Light Course #1 Fundamentals of Light and Lasers 1 -1 Nature & Properties of Light 1 -2 Optical Handling and Positioning 1 -3 Light Sources & Laser Safety 1 -4 Basic Geometrical Optics 1 -5 Basic Physical Optics 1 -6 Principles of Lasers

Course #2 A Laser Systems and Applications • 2 -1 Q-Switched and Mode Locked Course #2 A Laser Systems and Applications • 2 -1 Q-Switched and Mode Locked Lasers ⁻ ⁻ Operating Principles, Intracavity Modulators Temporal Output Characteristics Frequency Doubling Techniques • 2 -2 Laser Output Characteristics and Measurements ⁻ ⁻ ⁻ • • Power, Energy, Irradiance, Divergence Beam Profiling/M 2, Beam Mode, Pulse Shape Spectral Bandwidth 2 -3 Overview of Laser Systems & Applications 2 -4 CO 2 Lasers 2 -5 Diode Lasers 2 -6 Fiber Lasers Note: Order of Modules 2 -4, 2 -5, 2 -6, 2 -7, 2 -8 and 2 -9 may be exchanged according to priorities set by local employers

Course #2 B Laser Systems, Systems Integration & Troubleshooting • 2 -7 Argon & Course #2 B Laser Systems, Systems Integration & Troubleshooting • 2 -7 Argon & Ion Lasers ⁻ Operation, components and Output characteristics • 2 -8 Nd: YAG & other Optically Pumped Solid Lasers ⁻ Operation, components and Output characteristics • 2 -9 Excimer Lasers ⁻ Operation, components and Output characteristics • 2 -10 Laser Troubleshooting Strategies ⁻ ⁻ ⁻ Using Equipment Manuals Testing Procedures Data Analysis & Fault Identification • 2 -11 System Integration Techniques ⁻ ⁻ ⁻ Specification Sources for Laser Systems Installation Plans Start-up Procedures Verification Testing Documentation Procedures Safety Considerations

Course #2 B Laser Systems, Systems Integration & Troubleshooting • 2 -7 Argon & Course #2 B Laser Systems, Systems Integration & Troubleshooting • 2 -7 Argon & Ion Lasers ⁻ Operation, components and Output characteristics • 2 -8 Nd: YAG & other Optically Pumped Solid Lasers ⁻ Operation, components and Output characteristics • 2 -9 Excimer Lasers ⁻ Operation, components and Output characteristics • 2 -10 Laser Troubleshooting Strategies ⁻ ⁻ ⁻ Using Equipment Manuals Testing Procedures Data Analysis & Fault Identification • 2 -11 System Integration Techniques ⁻ ⁻ ⁻ Specification Sources for Laser Systems Installation Plans Start-up Procedures Verification Testing Documentation Procedures Safety Considerations

Three Interlocked Curricula • Photonics Applications Techs – Electronics Core + Specialty Courses in Three Interlocked Curricula • Photonics Applications Techs – Electronics Core + Specialty Courses in an Technology Area enabled by Photonics – 1 - 2 Photonics Courses infused in Electronics Core – Degree: AAS in the Enabled Technology Area with a certificate in Photonics • Photonics Systems Techs – Electronics Core + 2 - 4 Specialty Photonics Courses – Degree AAS in Electronics with a Specialty in Photonics • Photonics Specialist – – Reduced Electronics Core + 8 Specialty Course in Photonics Degree: AAS in Photonics. Currently taught in only 4 -5 colleges ~20% of new jobs

Discussion and Suggestions Rachel Bower Discussion and Suggestions Rachel Bower