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Enabling and Improving the Use of Mobile e-Services Workshop @ Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Enabling and Improving the Use of Mobile e-Services Workshop @ Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (“Mobile HCI MDS”) 2005 Salzburg, Austria September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 1

Agenda q 9: 00 - 10: 30: Introduction Ø to the work and the Agenda q 9: 00 - 10: 30: Introduction Ø to the work and the common parts q 11: 00 - 12: 30: Breakout session #1 Ø User education and Setup tracks q 12: 30 - 14: 00 Lunch q 14: 00 - 15: 30: Breakout session #2 Ø User education and Setup tracks q 16: 00 - 17: 00 Sum-up, conclusions and close of day q 18: 00 Workshop participants’ drink Coffee and convenience breaks will be flexible September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 2

STF 285 q Present: Ø Ø Ø Bruno von Niman, ITS (vonniman consulting) Martin STF 285 q Present: Ø Ø Ø Bruno von Niman, ITS (vonniman consulting) Martin Böcker, Siemens Matthias Schneider-Hufschmidt, Siemens Margareta Flygt, Sony Ericsson Pekka Ketola, Nokia David Williams, Motorola (majire) q Absent with a good reason: Ø Pascale Parodi, Nokia Ø Michael Tate, BT September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 3

Why standards? September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 4 Why standards? September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 4

The GSM Footprint GSM coverage No GSM coverage September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI The GSM Footprint GSM coverage No GSM coverage September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 5

Background to ETSI q Founded 1988, not-for-profit q Officially recognised telecommunications ESO in Europe Background to ETSI q Founded 1988, not-for-profit q Officially recognised telecommunications ESO in Europe q Based in Sophia Antipolis, south of France q ~700 Members from ~60 countries from exactly 5 continents q Manufacturers, network operators and service providers, administrations, research bodies and users providing a forum in which all key players can contribute q http: //www. etsi. org/ September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 6

Background to ETSI Service Providers & Others 24% Manufacturers 51% Users 4% Administrations 8% Background to ETSI Service Providers & Others 24% Manufacturers 51% Users 4% Administrations 8% Network Operators 13% September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 7

A/D ETSI success stories and work programme Virtual Networks Te rm SES EE ltim A/D ETSI success stories and work programme Virtual Networks Te rm SES EE ltim EMC ina ed ia qu Public safety TM ipm en t NA DH TFTS S l. E SP S BRAN ON Mu P R SR DECT D RA T Intelligent Networks TE Mo l HF y ilit b rity Video on N u WA Sec demand DN IS B-ISDN MN T GSM T Hip e UP rla AN L VSAT n R SEC e n werli Po PTS RL L V DT H rks a L o UMTS (3 G) rmin tw STQ Ne Teleworking A Te e /D ss rat e Ac DTV ERM rpo rdl ce B CTM DV o o C ss C B CT 2 DA Vo. IP Testing Methods September 19, 2005 Salzburg ATM FIT Mobile HCI 2005 WS 8

ETSI TC Human Factors q Responsible for human factors issues in all areas of ETSI TC Human Factors q Responsible for human factors issues in all areas of telecommunications and ICT q Responsibility to ensure ETSI takes account of the needs of all usersgeneric, older, young, disabled, etc. q Produces standards, guidelines and reports that set the criteria necessary to ensure the best possible user experience q Chairman: Stephen Furner (BT, UK) q Vice Chairmen: Bruno von Niman (ITS, Sweden) Lutz Groh (Siemens, Germany) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 9

The user experience of ICT: 1876~ 1990 q Intelligent agent-assisted, natural speech-controlled calls and The user experience of ICT: 1876~ 1990 q Intelligent agent-assisted, natural speech-controlled calls and text messages to and from unique wired devices q Safe, secure, always-on q Positioning services, context and location-sensitive q Computers processed by specialists q First Apples and PCs q Major improvements: Ø design; Ø increasing number of users; Ø HW: the handset, handsfree and push-button keys; Ø technology advances. September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 10

Consumer experience of ICT: 1990 - Future Generation q ICT plays a key role Consumer experience of ICT: 1990 - Future Generation q ICT plays a key role in everyday life - e. Society; q Mobile, multimodal, personal, universal, converging, alwayson, ever-smarter; q Capabilities evolving further; q More mobile than fixed; q Growth driven by: Ø Technology; Ø voice-centric users, data adapters and mobile services; Ø user experience. q Complexity, interoperability and connectivity issues September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 11

Everyday life- e-Society September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 12 Everyday life- e-Society September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 12

Mobile Multiple access to information and communication Fixed One-stop authentication Voice communication services Calendar Mobile Multiple access to information and communication Fixed One-stop authentication Voice communication services Calendar Phone and address book Multi-messaging Web content Business applications Professional, personal, private Entertainment … PC September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mixed Mobile HCI 2005 WS 13

The “Usability Gap” q “Featurism” - product complexity increasing q Range of ICT users The “Usability Gap” q “Featurism” - product complexity increasing q Range of ICT users broadening – children, older, disabled people September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 14

Decreasing the “Usability Gap” q Possible ways to decrease complexity include: Ø Ø Ø Decreasing the “Usability Gap” q Possible ways to decrease complexity include: Ø Ø Ø understanding of user needs; excellent user interfaces; simplicity of configuration, operation and maintenance; personalization capabilities and ease of operation. q Also helpful: Ø technological advances (e. g. better speech recognition); Ø a maturing ICT industry. September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 15

Standards- starting with the user experience! September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS Standards- starting with the user experience! September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 16

The e. Europe Initiative q Launched by the European Commission in 2000: “e. Europe The e. Europe Initiative q Launched by the European Commission in 2000: “e. Europe 2002 – An Information Society For All” q Intended to accelerate positive change in the EU q Aims to: Ø secure equal access to digital systems and services for all of Europe's citizens Ø promote computer literacy and Ø create a partnership environment between the users and providers of systems, based on trust and enterprise q Ultimate objective: bring everyone in Europe on-line q Successful q Building on this success, in June 2002 the initiative was extended into e. Europe Action Plan 2005 September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 17

e. Europe e. Europe "action lines" q q q Accessible and cheaper Internet e. Research e. Security e. Education e. Working e. Accessibility e. Commerce e. Government e. Health e. Content e. Transport September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 18

ETSI HF Specialist Task Forces - Requirements for assistive technology devices in ICT - ETSI HF Specialist Task Forces - Requirements for assistive technology devices in ICT - Generic spoken command vocabulary for ICT devices and services - Guidelines on the multimodality of icons, symbols and pictograms - Guidelines for ICT products and services: Design for All - Access to ICT by children; Issues and guidelines - Alphanumeric characters in European languages: sorting orders and assignment to the 12 -key telephone keypad - Human Factors of work in call centers - Multimodal interaction, communication and navigation - Maximizing the usability of UCI based systems - Guidelines for generic UI elements of mobile terminals and services - Telecare in and outside of intelligent homes - User profile management - Guidelines for the design and use of ICT by children - Duplex universal speech and text communication - Multicultural aspects of ICT - Etc. September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 19

STF 285: User Education and Set-up Procedures q Contracted experts representing Ø Ø Nokia, STF 285: User Education and Set-up Procedures q Contracted experts representing Ø Ø Nokia, Siemens, Sony Ericsson and Independent consultants q Takes into account previous work q Open, result-oriented, pro-active work based on consensus q All results agreed with key players in the industry q ETSI Guide to be published in 2006 September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 20

STF 285: Scope q Elaborate the previous work in two key areas: Ø Set-up STF 285: Scope q Elaborate the previous work in two key areas: Ø Set-up procedures Ø User Education q Provide guidelines on both areas in order to support device and service design: Ø Support users in first-time device and service set up Ø Support users in using features and services Ø Principles identifying minimum quality standards q Ensure a design-for-all approach (universal design) Ø Outline solutions for ensuring access by the widest possible range of users September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 21

Rationale for minimum standards in user guides q User guides are frequently neglected by Rationale for minimum standards in user guides q User guides are frequently neglected by manufacturers q Modern ICT devices are complex, miniaturised, evolving fast, used by novices, borrow inadequate UI concepts from computers, interact with other devices, have features based in device and others based in the network q Bad user education leads to failure of feature set up, low or no service uptake, decreased trust in manufacturer and service provider September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 22

Rationale for minimum standards in user guides q The user guide is not complete Rationale for minimum standards in user guides q The user guide is not complete (i. e. the information is not there) q The information cannot be found q The language of the user guide is inadequate q The structure of the guide is inadequate q The explanation of how to use a feature is to abstract q The information cannot be perceived adequately q The functionality / software implementation is not frozen at the time the user guide has to be completed September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 23

Areas covered: user guides q q q q Legal and safety Localization User characteristics Areas covered: user guides q q q q Legal and safety Localization User characteristics User education in product life cycle Factors influencing usage Generic guidelines Paper-based user guides User guides in the device September 19, 2005 Salzburg q Web-based user guides q User guides on CD-ROMs Audio user guides q User groups and for a q User education and design for all q Evaluation of user education Mobile HCI 2005 WS 24

User education guidelines for mobile terminals and e-services Workhop held as part of Mobile User education guidelines for mobile terminals and e-services Workhop held as part of Mobile HCI 2005 Salzburg, Austria 19. 9. 2005 September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 25

The general image… September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 26 The general image… September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 26

Why bother? q User Guides matter: Ø They are a part of the overall Why bother? q User Guides matter: Ø They are a part of the overall user experience Ø They contribute to the user’s perception of the product quality Ø They are one of the means for expressing brand values and messages Ø A function that is not known or understood will not generate ARPU Ø They are required (legal and regulatory requirements) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 27

Who needs them? q No need for user guides if the UI is sufficiently Who needs them? q No need for user guides if the UI is sufficiently self explanatory. q But Mobile ICT products: Ø Ø Ø are highly complex are difficult to set up have miniaturized input and output devices become even smaller even if screen resolution increases evolve fast are used by non experts September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 28

Who needs them? q No need for user guides if the UI is sufficiently Who needs them? q No need for user guides if the UI is sufficiently self explanatory. q But: Ø UI concepts are inadequately borrowed from PCs Ø They interact with PCs and other devices (e. g. for synchronization) Ø Many feature concepts aren’t understood Ø Services are often presented seamlessly Ø The source of errors (device, service, network) is often unclear September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 29

Who needs them? q Users are heterogeneous Ø Previous knowledge about features and UI Who needs them? q Users are heterogeneous Ø Previous knowledge about features and UI concepts differs Ø The range from power users to one-feature-only users Ø Users differ in their physical and psychological needs and abilities (e. g. immigrants with limited local-language skills, low-literacy users, elderly or handicapped users) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 30

When is user education needed? q User education is needed throughout the product life When is user education needed? q User education is needed throughout the product life cycle September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 31

Wider problem context q Further problmens: Ø Users fail to set up their device Wider problem context q Further problmens: Ø Users fail to set up their device Ø Users don’t know about their personal subscription Ø User guides are needed in first-time set up and in error situations Ø Some features (e. g. Call Forwarding) are complex and have consequences Ø Little or no information available on tariffing for services September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 32

Wider problem context q Problems with current user guidance: Ø Ø Ø Ø User Wider problem context q Problems with current user guidance: Ø Ø Ø Ø User guide is incomplete The information cannot be found The language used is inadequate The structure of the guide is inadequate The explanation is too abstract The information cannot be perceived adequately The functionality or SW implementation is not frozen at the time the user guide has to be completed Ø The technical writer describes a product s/he doesn’t really know September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 33

Cost-benefit trade-offs q Some relevant cost-benefit trade-offs related to providing user education are: Ø Cost-benefit trade-offs q Some relevant cost-benefit trade-offs related to providing user education are: Ø Frustration with failure to fully being able to use a product leads to reduced ARPU and low brand loyalty Ø Insufficient user education can lead to costs in customer care centres Ø Written user guides are often not up to date at time of print Ø Sometimes even the product is out of date at time of shipping (SW updates) Ø Products are sent in as faulty because users don’t understand how they work September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 34

Current practice q In spite of cost-benefit trade-offs: Ø Ø Ø Cheapest, minimum effort Current practice q In spite of cost-benefit trade-offs: Ø Ø Ø Cheapest, minimum effort solutions Very small fonts for cost saving Symbols to save space for text and costs for translating Reduced volume to save paper and reduce box sizes Wrong assumptions about what the users know User-guide related activities are outsourced No effort spent of user education for handicapped users Too little time for adjusting user guides to product changes Not all procedures are mentioned in detail Functions are described without preconditions Usability tests of user guides are the exceptions Same text different target groups and products September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 35

What to think of when writing user guides q q Legal requirements Customers’ needs What to think of when writing user guides q q Legal requirements Customers’ needs and expectations Management - Service Providers requirements Internal and external processes (defined, managed, repeatable) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 36

General guidelines for better user information q Write style guides for language, illustrations and General guidelines for better user information q Write style guides for language, illustrations and information structure for consistency q Conduct usability studies not only for mobile terminals, but also for user education q Use experienced staff for writing, lay-out, translation and usability testing – well aware of the customers’ needs. q Include lessons learnt for comming products September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 37

To think of q Localization – the user guide is used worldwide q Write To think of q Localization – the user guide is used worldwide q Write style guides and conduct validations for translations q Terminology – use simple and clear, consistent language, industrystandard and user-friendly terms (invisible, intuitive, logical in its context, easy to understand, avoid jargon or abbreviations) q Lay-out – simple and clear q Illustrations – as information bearer q Information structure - consistent September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 38

Information to include q Product description – not how it works, but how to Information to include q Product description – not how it works, but how to use it! q Safety information q How to use (turn on/off) q Troubleshooting q Maintenance & service q Recycling & disposal q If not complete – where can you find more information September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 39

Paper based User Guide + q Still the most required and used kind of Paper based User Guide + q Still the most required and used kind of UG q Often the master UG on which other medias are built on q Required for legal reasons and legal texts q Long leadtimes (translation and print) Contact publishers and check their capabilities and restrictions of production in advance September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 40

Paper based User Guide September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 41 Paper based User Guide September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 41

When do you want which information? q Quick guide – to get started q When do you want which information? q Quick guide – to get started q Paper based user guide – basic learning q Support in device (on the run, start-up wizards, tips, avatars) q Web – extended versions and further explanations, FAQs, Support, product information Recommendation: Decide which information is useful for which media. September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 42

User guide in the device / SID (Support in the Device) q Support in User guide in the device / SID (Support in the Device) q Support in the device is available in many forms: q Help texts q Demonstrations q Interactive tutors / avatars q Tips q Setup / configuration wizards September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 43

Web-based user guides q Disadvantages q Advantages Ø Content can be updated in real Web-based user guides q Disadvantages q Advantages Ø Content can be updated in real time Ø Text can be read in the dark Ø Text can be searched for easily Ø Text can be varied in size for partially sighted users Ø The reader can be automatically led through the text Ø The screen can be interactive September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS Ø Everyone can read a book Ø Computers are not always available for use Ø Computers are not always connected to the web Ø Computers are normally in a fixed location Ø Prolonged reading can produce eye strain Ø Readers scan information rather than read in a linar fashion as they do with text 44

Web-based user guides September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 45 Web-based user guides September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 45

Web-based user guides September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 46 Web-based user guides September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 46

Other ways of providing user education q User guides on CD-ROM q Audio user Other ways of providing user education q User guides on CD-ROM q Audio user guides q User groups and fora September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 47

User education and Design for All q User eduation for Ø Ø Elderly users User education and Design for All q User eduation for Ø Ø Elderly users Visually-impaired users Hearing-impaired users Users with cognitive impairments Ø Users with communication impairments Ø Children September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 48

Open Issues q q q Which media for which users / products / situations? Open Issues q q q Which media for which users / products / situations? The future of user education? User education and the need for cost cutting? User education in a perfect world? Feeding back lessons learnt to the designers September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 49

Which media for which users / products / situations? September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile Which media for which users / products / situations? September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 50

Which media for which users / products / situations? Ease of updating Completeness Use Which media for which users / products / situations? Ease of updating Completeness Use of Animations Flexibility Interactivity Pro-activeness (push) Promptness of response Support of lowliteracy users Controlled by manufacturer Support of visuallyimpaired / blind users Support of hard-ofhearing / deaf users Life cycle: Replacement + ++ -- 0 -- ++ + - - ++ SID -- ++ + + ++ + - 0 ++ Web-based UG ++ + 0 + -- ++ ++ ++ -- + + 0 - ++ UG on CD-ROM -- ++ + + -- -- ++ ++ -- + + + - ++ Audio -- + + 0 -- -- -- 0 -- ++ ++ ++ Call centre staff + ++ ++ -- ++ ++ 0 ++ -- ++ ++ + User groups and fora ++ ++ - + + -- + + + 0 0 0 Avatars -- ++ ++ + 0 ++ - + ++ Point of sales staff ++ + -- ++ 0 -- ++ ++ + Friends and family ++ + 0 0 - -- + + + ++ -- September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobility Life cycle: Ownership Life cycle: Purchase -- Life cycle: Prepurchase Paper-based UG Mobile HCI 2005 WS 51

Rationale for minimum standards in set-up procedures q Failure to set up successfully mobile Rationale for minimum standards in set-up procedures q Failure to set up successfully mobile devices and services leads to low or no service uptake, decreased trust in manufacturer and service provider q Mobile devices and services are complex and abstract, and cannot always be pre-installed by the manufacturer q Trends that underline the importance of the issue: Ø Ø Ø Changing population demographics; Population mobility; Increasing user expectations; The deployment of advanced social services; Access to services by all; Increasing variability in the segmentation of customers. September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 52

Areas covered: set-up procedures q Importance of set up procedures q Previous work q Areas covered: set-up procedures q Importance of set up procedures q Previous work q Initial set up and product replacement q Life cycle, user activity and context of usage q Use cases for set-up activities September 19, 2005 Salzburg q Generic set-up guidelines q Terminal-specific set-up guidelines q e-service-specific set-up guidelines q Set-up procedures and design for all q Development and evaluation of set-up procedures Mobile HCI 2005 WS 53

Draft ETSI Guide: Setup Procedure Design Guidelines for Mobile Terminals and e-services q The Draft ETSI Guide: Setup Procedure Design Guidelines for Mobile Terminals and e-services q The complexity of mobile services and devices creates a digital divide between users with the ability to use new services and those who do not know how to get access to these services q Goals: Ø Support service and device designers through user interface design guidelines for the development of appropriate setup procedures; Ø Enable all users to access mobile services through their devices; Ø Overcome the hurdle to using remote services for firsttime users with limited capabilities. September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 54

Our approach: from use cases to guidelines q Use cases provide a common non-technical Our approach: from use cases to guidelines q Use cases provide a common non-technical language for investigating user activities and their relation to system behaviors q From these use cases we develop user interface design guidelines for the development of appropriate procedures and interfaces q These guideline are categorized into main “themes”: major principles for the user interface design of setup procedures q Strive for completeness through a comprehensive set of use cases which cover all major aspects of setup procedures September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 55

Setup activity framework To ensure that our use cases cover all relevant aspects of Setup activity framework To ensure that our use cases cover all relevant aspects of setup activities, we classify them using a three-dimensional framework: q The Life-cycle of device/service usage: Ø A new service or device is first put into use, Ø during standard usage, or Ø at the end of its lifetime when the device or service is replaced by a successor. q The Types of User Activities: High-level setup activities are considered in the following areas: Ø Ø Ø Ø Communication, Fun/Filling Grey-Time, M-Commerce, Content Gathering/Browsing, Personalisation, and Synchronisation/Update. q The Context of Usage: Key aspects of context are: Ø the User (personas can be used to address needs of special user groups) , Ø Mobility (walking or standing, static but in transit (e. g. in a train), static with/without laptop (e. g. in the kitchen)). September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 56

Example use cases q Personalization: PETER WANTS TO GET THE SAME SETTINGS (SKINS, MUSIC, Example use cases q Personalization: PETER WANTS TO GET THE SAME SETTINGS (SKINS, MUSIC, RINGER TONES etc. ) THAT HE HAS ON HIS OLD PHONE ON A NEW PHONE BOUGHT IN SPAIN Ø Peter is a retired UK inhabitant, living in Spain, with PC available q Synch/Update: BRUNO WOULD LIKE TO ACTIVATE A NEW SERVICE (COST-OPTIMIZED GPRS-ROAMING) AND DISABLE THE PREDECESSOR Ø Bruno is a deaf power-user q M-Commerce: JOHANNA WANTS TO UPDATE CREDIT CARD INFORMATION AT HER FAVORITE ON-LINE STORE Ø Johanna is a female adult q Communication: WHILE COMMUTING TO SCHOOL LEA WANTS TO SEND AN MMS BUT CANNOT SEND THE MESSAGE Ø Lea is a high-school student q Sync/Update: PETER HAS LOST HIS PHONE AND NEEDS TO RECOVER HIS PERSONAL INFORMATION ONTO A NEW DEVICE. ALSO, HE WANTS TO PROTECT HIS INFORMATION ON THE LOST PHONE Ø Peter is a male adult September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 57

Use case template USE CASE 1 q Based on Cockburn (1997) q Use case Use case template USE CASE 1 q Based on Cockburn (1997) q Use case describes a highlevel set-up activity to be achieved q Variations/extensions explore problems during set-up q Guidelines generated from problem solutions q Solutions are near-term A setup goal Goal in Context User, Life-Cycle, Activity Scope & Level NA Preconditions Assumptions? Success End Condition When is goal accomplished? Failed End Condition When is goal not accomplished? Primary, Secondary Actors User and others? Trigger What starts the use case? DESCRIPTION (Main success scenario) Step 1. . x EXTENSIONS in user actions Alternative sub-steps (Potential problem and error cases) Ideal set-up solution 1. . X VARIATIONS in the phone states and behaviour September 19, 2005 Salzburg Action Mobile HCI 2005 WS Alternative sub-steps Branching Action. These are also potential user eroors. Branching Action. These are also potential system 58

Example use case (1) q PETER WANTS TO GET THE SAME SETTINGS (SKINS, MUSIC, Example use case (1) q PETER WANTS TO GET THE SAME SETTINGS (SKINS, MUSIC, RINGER TONES etc. ) THAT HE HAS ON HIS OLD PHONE ON A NEW PHONE BOUGHT IN SPAIN Ø Peter is English and has retired to Spain. He has a PC available USE CASE Data transfer between phones in second country. Goal in Context Life-Cycle: Initial use Activity: Synchronisation: Copy content from old phone to new phone provided by an operator in another country for initial use. Context: User is 65 years old with slight visual impairment. User is at home seated in living room. PC access is possible. Prefers guided instructions. Scope & Level Device configuration for initial use. Preconditions User has access to old phone. User has backed-up data on his home network due to reminders from UI avatar in his old phone. User is aware that back-up is possible Success End Condition All required data is copied onto the new phone. Failed End Condition No data is copied onto new phone. Primary, Secondary Actors User, new phone, old phone, PC Trigger New phone has been bought in Spain September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 59

Example use case (2) User enters user name and password in “back-up” page User Example use case (2) User enters user name and password in “back-up” page User navigates to last back-up that they made on their home network. 4 User activates back-up from network to new phone 5 Mobile HCI 2005 WS User accesses Spanish operator WAP portal using new phone 3 September 19, 2005 Salzburg (Main success scenario) 1 2 q The ideal flow All content appears on new phone. 60

Example use case (3) q Extensions : alternative sub-flows or user problem sub-flows EXTENSIONS Example use case (3) q Extensions : alternative sub-flows or user problem sub-flows EXTENSIONS in user actions Alternative: Rather than WAP, user activates preloaded back-up management application. The application accesses the network. User does not know WAP address for operator portal 2. 1 User has forgotten user name and/or password 2. 2 User advised he incorrectly entered name/password 3. 1 Mobile HCI 2005 WS 1 1. 1 September 19, 2005 Salzburg (Potential problem and error cases) Branching Action. These are also potential problem and error cases User has trouble navigating due to small text and ambiguous labelling of menu options. 61

Example use case (4) q Variations : device/service/network problem sub-flows VARIATIONS in the phone Example use case (4) q Variations : device/service/network problem sub-flows VARIATIONS in the phone states and behaviour Branching Action. These are also potential problem and error cases WAP is not configured correctly and connection to network server is refused. 1. 2 User uses PC to navigate to operator portal 2. 1 User account is not recognised (because it is in the UK) and user is asked to re-enter password 3. 1 Latest back-up is not shown 4. 0 New phone is not compatible with backed-up data 4. 1 Phone battery is spent during backup 4. 2 User receives a call during back-up 4. 3 Phone loses coverage during back -up as peter walks into the garden 5. 0 Mobile HCI 2005 WS The device is set to Spanish language 1. 1 September 19, 2005 Salzburg 1. 0 Back-up is partially completed 62

Use cases to explore (1) q “Filling grey-time” Ø DIRK (20) IS MAKING AN Use cases to explore (1) q “Filling grey-time” Ø DIRK (20) IS MAKING AN MMS OF VIDEO AND AUDIO TO SEND TO A V-JAYING COMPETITION BUT HE DOESN’T HAVE “RIGHTS” TO USE THE CONTENT ON HIS PHONE (student) Ø DOMEK (30) WANTS TO UPDATE A TRIAL VERSION OF A GAME THAT WAS PREINSTALLED ON HIS HANDSET (freelance designer) Ø TIBO (45) WANTS LESS REGULAR WEATHER UPDATES ON THE “LIVE CONTENT” AREA OF HIS HOME SCREEN (keen hiker) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 63

Use cases to explore (2) q “Browsing for content” Ø BRUNO (45) HAS JUST Use cases to explore (2) q “Browsing for content” Ø BRUNO (45) HAS JUST UPGRADED HIS HANDSET AND WANTS TO SEE HOW THE LATEST F 1 GAME FROM HIS FAVOURITE GAMES PORTAL LOOKS ON THE NEW HANDSET (manager) Ø SOPHIE (37) WANTS TO CHANGE HER WAP HOME PAGE AND STORE A FAVOURITE MEDIA SITE THAT SHE IS CURRENTLY VIEWING (journalist) Ø RICCARDO (55) HAS HEARD THAT MOBILE TRANSACTIONS ARE NOT SECURE AND WANTS TO UPGRADE THE SECURITY SETTING OF HIS BROWSER (bank employee) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 64

Use cases to explore (3) q “Synchronisation/ update” Ø TASMIN (50) HAS JUST RECEIVED Use cases to explore (3) q “Synchronisation/ update” Ø TASMIN (50) HAS JUST RECEIVED AN AUTOMATIC OTA UPDATE OF HER CONTACTS APPLICATION THAT SHE DOESNT LIKE. SHE WANTS TO RETURN TO HOW THINGS WERE BEFORE THE UPDATE (personal recruiter with visual problems) q “Personalisation” Ø MARCO (40) WOULD LIKE TO CHANGE THE GREETING ON HIS NETWORK VOICEMAIL. HE WOULD LIKE TO USE AN AMUSING MP 3 FILE THAT HE SON HAS DOWNLOADED ONTO HIS PHONE (construction worker) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 65

Main UI principles for device and service setup UIs q q q q q Main UI principles for device and service setup UIs q q q q q Leave the control of the setup process with the user Automate the setup process as far as possible Keep the configuration at a minimum number of steps Always keep necessary addresses for help/information Provide all necessary information to the user Provide all configuration information in the user's native or other preferred language Provide all configuration information in the user’s vocabulary Use existing standards and guidelines Design for different abilities and know-how September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 66

Leave the control of the setup process with the user q Always allow for Leave the control of the setup process with the user q Always allow for interrupts from the user (Cancel button) “Always allow a way out, but make it easier to stay in” q Provide "back", "next", "cancel", and "finish" as well as "help" controls q Indicate the progress of the configuration procedure to the user q Make actions reversible, allow for human error q Navigation should be under user control throughout the configuration procedure September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 67

Leave the control of the setup process with the user q If the configuration Leave the control of the setup process with the user q If the configuration procedure fails or is aborted the state of the terminal should revert to that previous to the start of the configuration procedure. The user should be informed on how to proceed in order to complete the configuration q If a service recognizes that it is not configured properly it should inform the user and initiate the setup process if requested September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 68

Leave the control of the setup process with the user q Success or failure Leave the control of the setup process with the user q Success or failure for each setup step should be communicated to the user. Steps to correct the failure should be communicated as well q During the transfer of setup information from one device to another non-optimal transfer should require confirmation by the user q Transfer of setup information from one device to a second device should not modify the contents on the first device. (Attention: license information may be a problem) Any modification on the source device should be confirmed by the user q As far as possible, avoid forcing the user to input entries for settings. Provide appropriate default entries for settings September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 69

Automate as far as possible q Pre-configuration is the preferred solution for configuration of Automate as far as possible q Pre-configuration is the preferred solution for configuration of terminal and service access q If pre-configuration cannot be achieved, some means of guided configuration should be provided, taking into consideration the needs of all users (including elderly or disabled users) q Provide means for guided and/or manual configuration in the terminal, if pre-configuration cannot be achieved q Subsequent updates of settings, e. g. OTA, should provide the default entries for terminal or service resets September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 70

Automate as far as possible q It should be possible to return to an Automate as far as possible q It should be possible to return to an interrupted setup procedure without loss of earlier input q A service/device should be usable with minimum setup/come preconfigured with place-holder values like e. g. “greeting message” September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 71

Automate as far as possible q Use the language selected for the phone as Automate as far as possible q Use the language selected for the phone as a default for configuration of services q A service should be able to control/correct its configuration on the user’s device without user intervention, as long as there is no cost implication q Basic setup should be available OTA e. g. by sending a short message to a service centre, which automatically configures the service and the device settings September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 72

Keep configuration at a minimum number of steps q Don’t ask for unnecessary confirmations Keep configuration at a minimum number of steps q Don’t ask for unnecessary confirmations q Don’t provide extraneous information during the setup process q Avoid disturbances during setup wherever possible q Provide auto-completion where appropriate; allow disabling of this feature under user-control q If a service is unavailable due to other reasons (e. g. network not available, service not configured for roaming while user is abroad) the user should get a correct indication of the reason for failure September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 73

Keep necessary addresses for help/information q Provide simple access to call-centres or to detailed Keep necessary addresses for help/information q Provide simple access to call-centres or to detailed information during setup processes q Links to information and information in the service/device should be kept up-to-date during the lifetime of a device/service q Relevant information on how to deal with for worstcase scenarios (e. g. lost or stolen phone) should be available (on the service provider side) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 74

Keep necessary addresses for help/information q As a fallback solution a service phone number Keep necessary addresses for help/information q As a fallback solution a service phone number should be available through which the configuration can be initiated from a call centre q Each service provider should provide a manual, face to face channel to modify sensitive data details in the event of failure of the automated process q Operator-specific service information should be provided directly in the handset, including the means to control the service September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 75

Provide all necessary information to the user q Provide a clear description of what Provide all necessary information to the user q Provide a clear description of what equipment and information the user needs to have ready to hand during the configuration procedure, and if necessary, how to obtain it q Convey what settings need to be configured and what effect configuring a setting will have by providing natural entry points into the configuration procedure q Indicate the progress of the configuration procedure to the user q Success or failure for each setup step should be communicated to the user. Steps to correct the failure should be communicated as well September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 76

Provide all necessary information to the user q Provide clear indication and differentiation of Provide all necessary information to the user q Provide clear indication and differentiation of what the setting is and what the actual entry of the setting is q Provide clear instructions on what type of information is required at each step of the configuration procedure. Provide illustrative examples q Provide examples of the correct format for the required setting entries and support for handling the formats q Provide information to the user on which settings are pre-configured q Provide a clear overview of the steps of the configuration sequence September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 77

Provide all necessary information to the user q Provide a logical and consistent order Provide all necessary information to the user q Provide a logical and consistent order to the configuration procedure. Provide information on how to change settings later q Provide clear feedback when the configuration procedure ends q Only provide steps that involve instructions, choices or feedback relevant to the configuration procedure. All other steps are redundant q Exploration: users should have easy access to all features that can be configured Ø Where possible these features should be related to the user’s experience, know -ow, environment, preferences, and location q Cost consequences should be shown to the user September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 78

Provide all necessary information to the user q The user interface should communicate if Provide all necessary information to the user q The user interface should communicate if the configuration is related to a remote or a local feature q During the transfer of setup information/contents from one device to another, steps that cannot be completed or are completed in a non-optimal way need to be signalled to the user q Pending automated registration should be communicated to the user q If a service is unavailable due to the unavailability of underlying network services this should be clearly indicated to the user to prevent frustrating configuration attempts or un-intended reconfiguration of the requested service September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 79

Provide all necessary information to the user q Reasons for unavailability of services should Provide all necessary information to the user q Reasons for unavailability of services should be clearly indicated q If a setup-action has not been successful the device should inform the user as to why the action has not been carried out. State of the system must be clear to the user and should be communicated to the user q Information should be provided on authentication and authorisation q Where common services are provided on web/WAP these services should be indicated (space permitting) q Changes impacting the service should be indicated to the user; if they necessitate reconfiguration q If a service can be activated and deactivated through several channels, the result should be the same (and the information channels should interoperate) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 80

Provide all configuration information in the user's native or other preferred language q Option Provide all configuration information in the user's native or other preferred language q Option to explicitly select a preferred language should be part of every setup process q The language of the device can be a good default for the service setup language q Users should be prompted to select their ideal language when using a new device September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 81

Provide all configuration information in the user’s vocabulary q Do not display machine code Provide all configuration information in the user’s vocabulary q Do not display machine code error messages q Where necessary, provide explanations of concepts that need to be understood by the user during configuration q Provide consistent terminology across all sources of configuration information q Avoid giving unnecessary information to the user q As far as possible, hide technical concepts that the user does not need to understand during configuration q Help information is required for each entry in the MMS configuration as most parameters are not selfexplanatory September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 82

Allow for human error q Provide error handling to prevent a change of setting Allow for human error q Provide error handling to prevent a change of setting entries, preventing access to basic services q If the user is permitted to change the setting entries, resetting the terminal to factory settings should present the user with a choice of whether to keep or reset the current settings for terminal and service access q Error messages should include information on how to correct errors, e. g. in case of server unavailability: Ø “Please control the server setting on your device by sending an empty SMS to phone number xxxx. Follow the instructions after the receipt of the return SMS. If your settings are correct, please retry to send your message. If this fails again, the server may unavailable. Please retry after 15 minutes or call xxx for further support” September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 83

Allow access to setup-information during setup-procedures q Access to the main menu of the Allow access to setup-information during setup-procedures q Access to the main menu of the device should be possible during OTA setup procedures q The user should have access to device information pertinent to setup processes for services Ø Ø Ø September 19, 2005 Salzburg Phone model and serial number Username/Password IMEI Software version Possibly Hardware version Subscription details (services subscribed) Mobile HCI 2005 WS 84

Use existing standards and guidelines q The most recent versions of management protocols and Use existing standards and guidelines q The most recent versions of management protocols and mechanisms, as specified in OMA working documents and reference specifications (see bibliography), with corresponding UI elements, are the recommended, generic technical solution for configuration for terminal and service access q Follow customer/service provider specific guidelines q Guidelines for changing modalities/ use of applicable modalities, see reference [11] in the draft EG q Setup dialogs are user-machine interactions: if style guides exist in the environment, use them! q Refer to outcome of the Multi-cultural STF, when available q There should be consistency between device, bearer (e. g. MMS), and service (e. g. “ticketing”) setup procedures September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 85

Design for differing user abilities or know how q Multimodal interaction should be used Design for differing user abilities or know how q Multimodal interaction should be used wherever possible; as a fallback access to a personal callcenter support is strongly advised q Reminders with easy access to a setup-dialog are helpful for first-time users of a service. q An option to use a large font should be provided. q The user preference for detailed or short feedback, wizards and other guided procedures should be considered (even if setup is automated the activities carried out in each automated setup may be required by the user). q Feedback to the user should be confirmed to the user in the preferred way September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 86

Terminal-specific setup guidelines q Provide consistent and coherent categories of settings q Easy back-up Terminal-specific setup guidelines q Provide consistent and coherent categories of settings q Easy back-up method should be available, and user should be encouraged back-up phone data frequently. q The result of back-up should be confirmed q The reason and importance of back-up should be explained to the user q Simple guidance and support for first back-up should be available. Especially problem solving for handling data and phone incompatibilities should be supported q The result of restore should be confirmed. q All device internal settings should be preset by the device manufacturer (with the option of modification by the service provider) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 87

Terminal-specific setup guidelines q While the initial configuration over a web site using a Terminal-specific setup guidelines q While the initial configuration over a web site using a PC may be the preferred option it must be possible to initiate a configuration attempt from the device itself. q The back-up summary/history displayed in the user interface should indicate where the backed-up data is and exactly what was backed-up (those elements that could not be backed-up should be shown) q The time since the last back-up should be available in the user interface q Objects that can be backed up, e. g. images/music should have “last backed-up” and “location” information associated with them Ø This could be presented in text form (Date), iconic form (location) or by using other display characteristics such as colour (to show age) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 88

Terminal-specific setup guidelines q If a back-up process is interrupted by an external event Terminal-specific setup guidelines q If a back-up process is interrupted by an external event or the user, some indication should remain in the user interface that back is still in progress or that it has terminated with failure q Prompts reminding users to back-up should be unobtrusive and not interrupt task flow (unless a back -up has not been made for a long (user/operator defined) time) q Instructions on recovery of back-ups should be available at time of back-up and should be associated with content that may be backed up (rather than being in a sync or back-up menu) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 89

Terminal-specific setup guidelines q If basic back-up setup is not complete on the device, Terminal-specific setup guidelines q If basic back-up setup is not complete on the device, the user should be notified as soon as possible. In order to complete back-up the user should be directed to Web, IVR or human customer service agents q Users should be prompted to make periodic back-ups to network, PC, memory card etc. q If approved by the user, the back-up process should be automatic based on pre-configuration / user configuration q The first step in the recovery/setup process should be to inform the user if their phone is compatible with the backed -up data. Ø In addition, the data elements which can and cannot be backed -up should be represented; Ø Where possible reasons should be given for those elements which cannot be backed-up. September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 90

Terminal-specific setup guidelines q During the back-up process, users should be allowed to modify Terminal-specific setup guidelines q During the back-up process, users should be allowed to modify the available locations for back-up, e. g. PC, network, external memory card q The user should be able to view a back-up history and location on their device without being connected to the network q Labelling of menu items should clearly describe their contents (pre-design labelling studies may be required for abstract functions such as synchronisation/back-up q The information that is needed in a lost-phone situation should be available easily q User should have easy-to-find and easy-to-access guidance for actions in a lost-phone situation September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 91

Terminal-specific setup guidelines q Simple guidance and support for first back-up should be available Terminal-specific setup guidelines q Simple guidance and support for first back-up should be available q Simple guidance and support for restore should be available. Especially problem solving for handling data and phone incompatibilities should be supported q The result of restore actions should be confirmed. q A wireless method for protecting the content of lost phone should be available q A wireless method for backing-up the content of lost phone should be available September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 92

e-service specific setup guidelines q The user should be informed at an appropriate level e-service specific setup guidelines q The user should be informed at an appropriate level and through appropriate channels of the costs connected to the service to be configured q Clearly describe the means by which the setting entries will be delivered to the terminal, e. g. via SMS. q For remote configuration via a web site, provide a "send" control with instructions to confirm that the terminal is switched on q No automatic reconfiguration if cost issues are relevant q A wireless method for protecting the content of a lost phone should be available q A wireless method for backing-up the content of a lost phone should be available September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 93

e-service specific setup guidelines q If a service is not properly configured (e. g. e-service specific setup guidelines q If a service is not properly configured (e. g. missing service provider phone number) the device should inform the user or try to reconfigure before attempting to access the service (cost savings). q Each service provider should provide an interface through which the user can select OTA configuration for all subscribed services q Service providers should offer an SMS address which can be used to initiate re-configuration processes Ø This number should be stored on the SIM; Ø The configuration server should be able to handle all necessary configuration processes required to make a service usable. September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 94

e-service specific setup guidelines q For personal “critical” information: If the modification action has e-service specific setup guidelines q For personal “critical” information: If the modification action has not been successful the service provider should be informed and action should be taken to contact the user q The user should be made aware of where their personal details are stored and should be able to manage these personal details q The information provided about new services should be complete and accurate q When configuring a new service, the dependencies on other services should be indicated and explained to the user, preferably in a personalized way September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 95

Proposal for Part II of the Workshop q Open discussion on document structure q Proposal for Part II of the Workshop q Open discussion on document structure q Open discussion on existing guidelines ------------ q Work in groups on three different use cases. q Try to identify missing guidelines ------------ q Summary and final discussion (Plenum) September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 96

“It’s all about the users, not the technology” Tim Berners-Lee W 3 C 10 “It’s all about the users, not the technology” Tim Berners-Lee W 3 C 10 th Anniversary December 1 st, 2004, Boston September 19, 2005 Salzburg Mobile HCI 2005 WS 97