Скачать презентацию Employee Empowerment in the European Cultural Context Findings Скачать презентацию Employee Empowerment in the European Cultural Context Findings

d081dd489aeca0597f418d1b4380e059.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 17

Employee Empowerment in the European Cultural Context: Findings from the Hotel Industry by Antonios Employee Empowerment in the European Cultural Context: Findings from the Hotel Industry by Antonios K. Klidas IRIC, The Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation Tilburg University

Research Background ¨ Financed by the European Commission in the context of the Training Research Background ¨ Financed by the European Commission in the context of the Training and Mobility of Researchers Programme (TMR) – Marie Curie Fellowships ¨ Hosted by the Department of Leisure Studies at Tilburg University in the Netherlands ¨ Started in November 1997 ended in April 2001

Research Aim To provide an understanding of the concept of empowerment within the five-star Research Aim To provide an understanding of the concept of empowerment within the five-star hotel industry and examine the implications of applying the concept in the international, crosscultural context within Europe.

Main Concepts ¨ Empowerment of (customer-contact) employees in Hospitality defined as: “The notion of Main Concepts ¨ Empowerment of (customer-contact) employees in Hospitality defined as: “The notion of devolving decision-making authority and responsibility to frontline employees for control and enhancement of service quality and customer satisfaction. ” ¨ National Culture defined as: “The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another” (Hofstede, 1991)

The cultural relativity of empowerment ¨ Propositions about organisation: - Flat structure Low centralisation The cultural relativity of empowerment ¨ Propositions about organisation: - Flat structure Low centralisation Low formalisation BUT: Is this likely in large power distance and strong uncertainty avoiding cultures?

The cultural relativity of empowerment ¨ Propositions about leadership: - Employees demand participation Employees The cultural relativity of empowerment ¨ Propositions about leadership: - Employees demand participation Employees wilfully accept responsibility Employees independent in thinking and acting Leaders share power, delegate ¨ BUT: Is this likely in large power distance and strong uncertainty avoiding cultures?

The cultural relativity of empowerment ¨ Propositions about motivation: - Self-actualisation as top motivator The cultural relativity of empowerment ¨ Propositions about motivation: - Self-actualisation as top motivator Satisfaction from increased autonomy, responsibility and self-direction ¨ BUT: Is this likely in strong uncertainty avoiding cultures?

The cultural relativity of empowerment ¨ Propositions about employee behaviour: - Creativity and innovative The cultural relativity of empowerment ¨ Propositions about employee behaviour: - Creativity and innovative behaviour Risk taking (decision-making, initiative) (Creative) rule-breaking ¨ BUT: Is this likely in strong uncertainty avoiding cultures?

Research Design ¨ Research in 16 upscale hotels of a single (US) hotel-company in Research Design ¨ Research in 16 upscale hotels of a single (US) hotel-company in 7 EU countries ¨ Qualitative part: - Interviews with HR, FO and F&B Managers - Some (participant) observation ¨ Quantitative part: Survey among customer-contact employees in FO and F&B outlets (personal administration)

Sample Country (No. of hotels) Employee survey (n) Interviews England (5) 81 15 Sweden Sample Country (No. of hotels) Employee survey (n) Interviews England (5) 81 15 Sweden (1) 20 3 Netherlands (2) 38 5 Italy (4) 192 13 Greece (1) 13 2 Portugal (1) 30 2 Belgium (2) 53 5+1 Total: 427 46

Findings ¨ ¨ Southern Europe Low delegation Lower levels of “empowered behaviour” Low intensity Findings ¨ ¨ Southern Europe Low delegation Lower levels of “empowered behaviour” Low intensity of training, mostly on the job. Less open communication (taking place informally) ¨ Less willingness to share information ¨ ¨ ¨ Northern Europe High delegation Higher levels of “empowered behaviour” More extensive, intensive and formal training More open communication (many formal processes for upward communication) Systematically sharing information

Findings (continued…) ¨ ¨ Southern Europe Imposed equal compensation according to seniority and rank Findings (continued…) ¨ ¨ Southern Europe Imposed equal compensation according to seniority and rank Mainly local, sporadic recruitment Very low labour turnover – very experienced workforce Rigid regulatory framework Northern Europe ¨ Merit pay allowed, but restricted to incentives ¨ International, intensive recruitment ¨ High labour turnover – less experienced workforce ¨ More flexible regulatory framework

Conclusions ¨ The notion of empowerment more readily embraced in N. Europe compared to Conclusions ¨ The notion of empowerment more readily embraced in N. Europe compared to S. Europe ¨ Different cultural context, which seems to influence employee empowerment ¨ Considerably different environmental context (e. g. regulatory framework, labour market, business environment), generally favouring empowerment in the north

Implications for management ¨ Need for local understanding not only of visible, but also Implications for management ¨ Need for local understanding not only of visible, but also invisible factors ¨ Need for empowerment initiatives to consider and adapt to national context ¨ Empowerment not incompatible with non-Anglo. Saxon cultures ¨ Empowerment process: - In the north can rely on formal processes - In the south cannot rely as much on formal processes, management style is crucial

A final word of caution… Empowerment, just as many existing theories (e. g. organisation, A final word of caution… Empowerment, just as many existing theories (e. g. organisation, management, HRM) are strongly Anglo-Saxon in origin and perspective

Antonis K. Klidas Employee Empowerment in the European Hotel Industry: Meaning, Process and Cultural Antonis K. Klidas Employee Empowerment in the European Hotel Industry: Meaning, Process and Cultural Relativity Amsterdam: Thela Thesis

Σας ευχαριστώ πολύ. . . (Thank you very much…) Σας ευχαριστώ πολύ. . . (Thank you very much…)