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Emotion Emotion

Emotions Organize action, physiology, cognition, and perception to meet ever-changing environmental and internal demands Emotions Organize action, physiology, cognition, and perception to meet ever-changing environmental and internal demands n In patterns constituting core aspects of temperament/personality functioning n Motivate action and thought, creating value in life—and impacting wellness and sickness n [email protected] edu 2

History n Emotions don’t exist (or can’t be studied) – n Emotional expressions are History n Emotions don’t exist (or can’t be studied) – n Emotional expressions are infinitely malleable – n Some anthropological accounts Emotions are things – structural accounts – – – n Behaviorism, ’ 50 s - ‘ 60 s Discrete/Differential theory, ’ 70 s – ’ 80 s Cross-cultural recognition of expressions Demonstrates hard-wiring of universal emotions? Emotions are processes and have functions – Functionalist, dynamic systems, emotion regulation, constuctivist ‘ 90 s – ’ 10 s [email protected] edu 3

Universality Universality

What emotions do you see here? Cohn dmessinger@miami. edu 5 What emotions do you see here? Cohn [email protected] edu 5

Postulate “There are some facial expressions of emotion that are universal. ” n “why Postulate “There are some facial expressions of emotion that are universal. ” n “why do we not press our lips tightly together when happy and curve the corners up when angry, rather than the reverse? ” n • n (Ekman, 1973, p. 219) ‘facial affect program’ • p. 220 [email protected] edu 7

Who’s friends came to visit From Cohn dmessinger@miami. edu 8 Who’s friends came to visit From Cohn [email protected] edu 8

Critique n Are identified expressions posed or spontaneous – n n n Emblematic denotative Critique n Are identified expressions posed or spontaneous – n n n Emblematic denotative expressions – caricatures? Verbal identification of posed expressions Relevant to of expression recognition Not to universality of expression production – Or their innateness [email protected] edu 10

What about development? What about development?

Infant emotions n n Core elements of infant behavior Quickly motivate behavior – – Infant emotions n n Core elements of infant behavior Quickly motivate behavior – – – n n n Hunger-Distress-Cry Interest-Attentive face Engaging playful other – joy - smile Organize action, physiology, cognition, & perception To meet environmental and internal demands Patterns constitute core aspects of temperament/personality functioning twins fight over toothbrush` https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Or 0 Zv 57 Ov. YI [email protected] edu 12

Structuralist vs. functional emotion theories – Structuralist (aka discrete, natural kinds) n Emotions comprise Structuralist vs. functional emotion theories – Structuralist (aka discrete, natural kinds) n Emotions comprise unique patterns of subjective feeling, cognitive appraisal, physiological arousal, facial expressions – Basic emotions promote survival and reproductive success

The Structuralist View “Many models assume that each emotion kind is characterized by a The Structuralist View “Many models assume that each emotion kind is characterized by a distinctive syndrome of hormonal, muscular, and autonomic responses that are coordinated in time and correlated in intensity “ p. 30 Barrett, 2006 16

But where are specific emotions? dmessinger@miami. edu 17 But where are specific emotions? [email protected] edu 17

Key brain regions implicated in emotion-related processing. dmessinger@miami. edu 18 Key brain regions implicated in emotion-related processing. [email protected] edu 18

Emotional brain - Limbic system Border of primitive brain stem and cortex n Lower Emotional brain - Limbic system Border of primitive brain stem and cortex n Lower portions - visceral (bodily) feelings n – Developed at birth Limbic cortex – awareness of feeling n Damasio n – – Emotion is a neurochemical process Feeling is our sensation of that process [email protected] edu 19

Limbic system dmessinger@miami. edu 20 Limbic system [email protected] edu 20

Where is joy located? One possibility is that anterior cingulate cortex, is associated with Where is joy located? One possibility is that anterior cingulate cortex, is associated with joyful responses, whereas basal ganglia are involved in related action tendencies. Greater left than right cerebral activation (Duchenne smiles, tail wagging, etc) [email protected] edu 23

Facial affect programs? n Current evidence: – – Relevant linked brain systems But not Facial affect programs? n Current evidence: – – Relevant linked brain systems But not distinct affect programs Fear may be exception Panskepp and current animal work [email protected] edu 24

What emotions do you see here? Cohn dmessinger@miami. edu 25 What emotions do you see here? Cohn [email protected] edu 25

Discrete infant emotions…? dmessinger@miami. edu 26 Discrete infant emotions…? [email protected] edu 26

Infant negative expressions rated as distress (Oster et al. , 1992) dmessinger@miami. edu 27 Infant negative expressions rated as distress (Oster et al. , 1992) [email protected] edu 27

Situational appropriateness: Production studies Premise: n In response to an appropriate elicitor (situation), hypothesized Situational appropriateness: Production studies Premise: n In response to an appropriate elicitor (situation), hypothesized emotional expression should occur significantly more than other expressions [email protected] edu 28

Negative emotional expressions are not situationally specific n Through 2 months, Justine – n Negative emotional expressions are not situationally specific n Through 2 months, Justine – n shows distress to bathing, being moved, & pacifier removal (inoculation and hunger) After 2 months, anger and, to a much lesser degree, sadness are most common reaction to all negative elicitors – infants cry, not a specific reaction • [email protected] edu Camras, 1992 29

Specifying Specificity: Facial Expressions at 4 Months evidence for a family of frustrating, goalblocking Specifying Specificity: Facial Expressions at 4 Months evidence for a family of frustrating, goalblocking events that elicited expressions and cortisol responses indicative of anger at 4 months. n Yet situations also elicited expressions and cortisol changes indicative of sadness. n Bennett, David S. ; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael Infancy. Vol 6(3), 2004, 425 -429 [email protected] edu 30

Examples n Sad distress smile: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ak. PVt. Ob. BUOk&feature=related n Examples n Sad distress smile: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ak. PVt. Ob. BUOk&feature=related n Fear elicitor distress: https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ND 14 p. BQmtgo n Neutral sad—distress https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Dx 9 Mh 8_fp. D 8 n Distress: n Sad disress: https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=l 7 o. D 9 WX-1 CU n Smiloe Fear/orient distress: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? NR=1&feature=fvwp&v=Qi. Br. Pk. Goq. FM n Fear distress: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=f. ASp 42 Zvj. IM&feature=fvwrel, n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? feature=fvwp&NR=1&v=H-1 me_wsuyk (alligator bite) n Sad : http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=sz. Lj. Xta 0 Szw, dad singing http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=d. Az. Lsn. Yvd. Yo&feature=related (lower lip in response to rasberries) [email protected] edu 34

Maze game—Scary—children n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ZGd 5 Nq. P 6 qd 4 Maze game—Scary—children n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ZGd 5 Nq. P 6 qd 4 n Slow-motion: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=LC 5 q. Pv. TQUdo n Compendium: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=cype. Lu. CIr. U 0 6: 38 n Long: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=q 9 k. NCBGEyfk girl 0: 55 -1: 07, boy 1: 45 -2: 30 [email protected] edu 35

Surprise! Its not in the face Covert toy switch dmessinger@miami. edu 36 Surprise! Its not in the face Covert toy switch [email protected] edu 36

Surprise examples Posed adult: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=f 4 Ayfr. M 8 Q Surprise examples Posed adult: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=f 4 Ayfr. M 8 Q 2 o n Expression on demand: n Coordinative structure? n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=8 Da. Kc. Kq. Vhe. E&NR=1 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=c. Ovt. NPljtv 0&feature=related [email protected] edu 37

Functional and dynamic views Emotion is not inside you. n Emotions are process of Functional and dynamic views Emotion is not inside you. n Emotions are process of changing (or maintaining) relations with environment significant to the individual. n Emotions influence situation. n [email protected] edu 39

Functionalist theory n Emotion is the person’s attempt or readiness to establish, maintain, or Functionalist theory n Emotion is the person’s attempt or readiness to establish, maintain, or change the relation between the person and the environment on matters of significance to that person (Saarni et al. , 1998). – Emotion is associated with goal-attainment, social relationships, situational appraisals, action tendencies, self-understanding, self regulation, etc. [email protected] edu 41

Functions n n n n Interest Fear Anger Joy Sadness Disgust Surprise n n Functions n n n n Interest Fear Anger Joy Sadness Disgust Surprise n n n n Orienting/exploration Avoidance/flight Goal removal Approach/continuation Withdrawal Expulsion Orienting [email protected] edu 42

Chimpanzee “Laugh Faces” https: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=Kc. COs-z. Dt-o Custode Chimpanzee “Laugh Faces” https: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=Kc. COs-z. Dt-o Custode

Chimpanzee “Laugh Faces” n Davila-Ross, Jesus, Osborne, & Bard (2015) Humans combine their facial Chimpanzee “Laugh Faces” n Davila-Ross, Jesus, Osborne, & Bard (2015) Humans combine their facial and vocal expressions, allowing for more versatile meanings and explicit communication. However, we have not explored whether this is true in primates. n Present Study n Are primates able to produce the same types of facial expressions with and without accompanying vocalizations Examine evolutionary relation of chimp open mouth faces to human laugh faces. n n n Custode

Methods n n 46 Chimps (24 Female) in a Wildlife Orphanage in Zambia Video Methods n n 46 Chimps (24 Female) in a Wildlife Orphanage in Zambia Video recorded spontaneous play between two playmates with observer 10 meters away to record if there was laughter. Videos were coded for open-mouth faces, based on the wide parting of lips Chimp. FACS was used to measure the different muscle based movements in the open-mouth faces – n I. E. raising cheeks or lips, pulling up lip corners, protrusion of tongue, dropping jaw, etc. Also measured the contextual use of open mouth faces. Custode

Results Custode Results Custode

Results Custode Results Custode

More Results Custode More Results Custode

Conclusions n Chimps’ facial expressions are not constrained by accompanying vocalizations – n They Conclusions n Chimps’ facial expressions are not constrained by accompanying vocalizations – n They use facial and vocal behaviors differently while in social play and when matching playmates open mouth faces During laughter chimps often showed 3 distinctive AUs that characterize humans – Suggesting human laugh faces gradually emerged from open mouth laugh faces of ancestral apes. Custode 49

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Questions? Limitations? n Strengths and weaknesses of the methods? n – Chimp. FACS, Video Questions? Limitations? n Strengths and weaknesses of the methods? n – Chimp. FACS, Video Coding… What are the implications of this to emotion work? n Do you buy it? n Custode

Infant emotional development Distress is present at birth n Interest and joy emerge in Infant emotional development Distress is present at birth n Interest and joy emerge in the first 2 mos. n – joy developing through at least 6 mos. Anger, sadness, fear differentiate after 4 m. n Pride and shame develop between 1 & 2 years n [email protected] edu 52

Developmental Changes in Emotion n Psychobiological foundations – – n Subcortical mediation of basic Developmental Changes in Emotion n Psychobiological foundations – – n Subcortical mediation of basic emotions Developing subcortical-frontal connections permit more effective emotion regulation Emotion Perception – – Discrimination/categorization of expression by 5 Rely on others’ reactions to interpret unfamiliar situations (social referencing) (12+ months) Understanding of subjective state of emotion (24+ months), allows for prosocial displays of comforting etc.

Developmental patterns n Socialization – – n Emotion displays become more restricted Full-face to Developmental patterns n Socialization – – n Emotion displays become more restricted Full-face to partial face - miniaturization Cognitive input – shame, guilt, contempt emerge n involve rudimentary appraisal of self vis-à-vis other – dynamic systems [email protected] edu 59

Emotion and Self-Development – Increases in self-awareness (2/3 yrs) leads to expression of new, Emotion and Self-Development – Increases in self-awareness (2/3 yrs) leads to expression of new, more complex emotions n Self-Conscious Emotions – – Pride Guilt Shame Embarrassment

Understanding effects of emotions on others The use of display rules – Increased ability Understanding effects of emotions on others The use of display rules – Increased ability to understand apply social rules for display of emotion in social situations n Emotion masking – Primitive forms in preschool; more flexible, reasoned use in middle childhood

Volitional regulation of smiling increases from 4 to 6 to 8 years n Modified Volitional regulation of smiling increases from 4 to 6 to 8 years n Modified disappointing gift paradigm – – n n Children's competence to volitionally regulate their expressions increased with age. This ability was positively associated with children's understanding of how to differentiate between emotion and expression. – n Forty-nine boys and 49 girls aged 4, 6, and 8 were motivated to volitionally deceive an observer by false smiling, regardless of whether they received an attractive, unattractive, or no gift. Ten naïve observers watched children's videotaped behavior in random order and judged the quality of emotion and type of gift. Girls did not display superior regulation than boys. Child Dev. 2015 Mar-Apr; 86(2): 579 -97. doi: 10. 1111/cdev. 12315. Epub 2014 Nov 9. Kromm H 1, Färber M, Holodynski M.

Emotion Regulation n Emotion Regulation – – Adaptive management of emotional experiences Developmental transition Emotion Regulation n Emotion Regulation – – Adaptive management of emotional experiences Developmental transition from other-regulation to self-regulation n Internalization of socialization experiences

Dynamic systems n n Development, interaction, and (emotional) behavior are complex involving multiple interfacing/interacting Dynamic systems n n Development, interaction, and (emotional) behavior are complex involving multiple interfacing/interacting constituents which produce patterns we see as pre-designed regularities A bottom-up approach – Discrete emotions as preferred states formed from the interface of multiple constituents [email protected] edu 64

Qualia: Affective-cognitive schema n Emotion feeling linked to cognitions – produces thoughts and actions Qualia: Affective-cognitive schema n Emotion feeling linked to cognitions – produces thoughts and actions n – Emotion-cognition does not transform feeling n – n i. e. self-appraisals Feeling never changes but feeling linked to different images and thoughts In development, modular systems - emotion, cognition, motor - become less insular and more integrated [email protected] edu 70

Is there emotional feeling without knowledge of feeling? n Infantile memory – – Strong Is there emotional feeling without knowledge of feeling? n Infantile memory – – Strong emotional associations Without explicit knowledge of associations Makes associations inaccessible to reflection and difficult to change Memories of smells, movements, even abuse [email protected] edu 71

Role of cognition n DET – – Emotions are quality of consciousness If emotion Role of cognition n DET – – Emotions are quality of consciousness If emotion = feeling, cognition not necessary n Hence, babies have them! n For Barrett, emotion knowledge necessary. n If emotion is about something, some degree of cognition is involved n No emotions for babies? [email protected] edu 72

Discrete Emotions Theory (DET) Hypotheses n n “Emotion-specific” programs unite expressive, physiological, and phenomenological Discrete Emotions Theory (DET) Hypotheses n n “Emotion-specific” programs unite expressive, physiological, and phenomenological processes As the CNS matures, “basic emotions emerge as structured wholes” – n don’t come together developmentally There are no display rules operating in infancy – In infancy, as discrete emotions arise, they should be accompanied by discrete facial expressions of those emotions (read-outs) [email protected] edu 75

Expressive behavior Expressive behavior

Dynamic systems n n Development, interaction, and (emotional) behavior are complex involving multiple interfacing/interacting Dynamic systems n n Development, interaction, and (emotional) behavior are complex involving multiple interfacing/interacting constituents which produce patterns we see as pre-designed regularities A bottom-up approach – Discrete emotions as preferred states formed from the interface of multiple constituents [email protected] edu 82

 Dynamic phenomena The raised brow of interest occurs with raising the head n Dynamic phenomena The raised brow of interest occurs with raising the head n There are different interest expressions n – Problems with top-down approaches Duchenne smiling as a muscular dynamic n Joy appears to develop in time n Neonatal (Duchenne) smile may emerge before happiness n Importance? n [email protected] edu 84

Dynamic systems alternative ‘Distress-pain, anger, sadness often seen together during crying’ n Perhaps negative Dynamic systems alternative ‘Distress-pain, anger, sadness often seen together during crying’ n Perhaps negative emotion in infancy differs in intensity - phases of crying - distress & anger, with sadness reflecting a weakening of intensity n – Camras [email protected] edu 85

Surprise expressions as coordinative motor structures n Results indicate that MO is selectively associated Surprise expressions as coordinative motor structures n Results indicate that MO is selectively associated with raised brows – n Brow raises occurred after the onset of the MO movement, further suggesting that MO recruits raised brows. Facial criteria may be inappropriate for identifying "surprise" expressions in infants. – Camras, L. A. , Lambrecht, L. , & Michel, G. F. (1996). Infant "surprise" expressions as coordinative motor structures. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 20(3), 183 -195. [email protected] edu 86

Interest expressions as coordinative motor structures n Opening the mouth is accompanied by brow Interest expressions as coordinative motor structures n Opening the mouth is accompanied by brow raising in infants, thus producing "surprise“ expressions in non-surprise situations. – – Raised-brow movements significantly cooccurred with head-up and/or eyes-up movements for both ages. Knit-brows co-occurred with eyes-down at 5 mo and head-down at 7 mo n Michel, G. F. , Camras, L. A. , & Sullivan, J. (1992). Infant interest expressions as coordinative motor structures. Infant Behavior and Development, 15(3), 347 -358. [email protected] edu 87

Criticism Infant facial expression is often ambiguous, could depend more on integrated systems than Criticism Infant facial expression is often ambiguous, could depend more on integrated systems than changes in goal states Response: “facial babbling” is a precursor to functional movements; feedback allows infant to tailor emotion expressions to its environment. Furthermore, success in this can facilitate attachment. n Will M. 88

Response n n n (innate ≠ no environment input required). Developmental constraints will constrain Response n n n (innate ≠ no environment input required). Developmental constraints will constrain optimality (learning and maturation of visual system is necessary) Natural selection will constrain infinite variation. “Open systems” are adaptive when cultural variation affects whether the system leads to an adaptive outcome. Mapping cultural variation to different adaptive outcomes would be a good future direction. Will M. 89

Feedback loops Internal: Proprioceptive n External: Social n – n Feedback loops Internal: Proprioceptive n External: Social n – n "I take smiling to be a social signal, " Messinger says. "I really think that babies are learning what joy is by sharing it with someone else. " In other words, smiling might not be so much an expression of a preexisting state as a path we take to get to that state. Why do babies smile? - Slate Magazine, Jul 1, 2010 – [email protected] edu 90

Mirror Neuron System Neural basis for apperception of others’ experience n What you see Mirror Neuron System Neural basis for apperception of others’ experience n What you see is what you feel n Research limitations n – n Inter-species generalization, imaging constraints, etc But potential source of ASD affective deficits…

Relative reduced activity of pars opercularis of inferior frontal gyrus to facial expressions RH Relative reduced activity of pars opercularis of inferior frontal gyrus to facial expressions RH LH Figure 1 Reliable activity during imitation of emotional expressions. (a, b) Activity in bilateral pars opercularis (stronger in the right) of the inferior frontal gyrus is seen in the typically developing group (a) but not in the ASD group (b). A between-group comparison (c) revealed that this difference was significant (t 4 1. 83, P o 0. 05, corrected for multiple comparisons at the cluster level). RH, right hemisphere; LH, left hemisphere.

Internalization model n 1. 2. 3. Three postulates describing the mechanisms involved in the Internalization model n 1. 2. 3. Three postulates describing the mechanisms involved in the development of the emotion components The processes that differentiate the appraisal and expression components are interdependent Expression signs can be used symbolically Body sensations accompanying emotions are transformed into conscious feeling Oberwelland Holodynski & Friedlmeier (2010). The Development of Emotions and Emotion Regulation

Emotion is not facial expression n “Happiness alone is not sufficient to produce smiles. Emotion is not facial expression n “Happiness alone is not sufficient to produce smiles. Rather, happiness produces smiles only during social interaction. ” (Ferenandez-Dols & Ruiz-Belda, 1995, p. 1114). [email protected] edu 102

Behavioral ecologists. Biologically oriented ethologists attempting to explain signaling behavior across species within a Behavioral ecologists. Biologically oriented ethologists attempting to explain signaling behavior across species within a framework of evolution through natural selection. n Facial expressions do not reflect emotions n They occur during social interaction & reflect social motives and negotiation n [email protected] edu 103

Behavioral ecology view n Facial displays: – – – “signify our trajectory in a Behavioral ecology view n Facial displays: – – – “signify our trajectory in a given social interaction” “’social tools’ aiding the negotiation of social encounters” “specific to intent and context” [email protected] edu 104