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EMMA 2 Airport Surface Management 2008 -04 -15 DLR Michael Roeder, Joern Jakobi DLR EMMA 2 Airport Surface Management 2008 -04 -15 DLR Michael Roeder, Joern Jakobi DLR 2008 -04 -15 ENAV Antonio Nuzzo, Daniele Teotino Internet: http: //www. dlr. de/emma 2 Integrated Project of the Sixth Framework Programme, Priority 1. 4: Aeronautics and Space, sponsored by EC, DG TREN Contract FP 6 -513522

European Airport Movement Management by A-SMGCS Agenda • Short introduction of EMMA 2 • European Airport Movement Management by A-SMGCS Agenda • Short introduction of EMMA 2 • EMMA 2 approach to ground traffic control DLR 2008 -04 -15 • A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Aerodrome Vis. Cond. © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 2

The Airport • airport system: the bottle-neck from gate to gate • Advanced Surface The Airport • airport system: the bottle-neck from gate to gate • Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS) airport operations are weather dependant state of technology is often not up to date DLR 2008 -04 -15 • Problem solution: © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 3

Opportunities of A-SMGCS • focuses to the airport Problem solution: (bottleneck) Advanced Surface Movement Opportunities of A-SMGCS • focuses to the airport Problem solution: (bottleneck) Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System level I (surveillance) and • it is a modular system, based level II(A-SMGCS) (RWY alerting) on a level implementation – technology is available and step by step mature • ICAO doc 9830 is the worldwide several European airports have baseline for the A-SMGCS started to implement A-SMGCS concept level I & II • It aims to allow a safe and higher services (e. g. flow on the expeditious traffic planning) are undermovement area in all airport development DLR 2008 -04 -15 weather conditions © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 4

24 Contributors with EMMA DLR 2008 -04 -15 (in alphabetical order) © EMMA, ASAS-TN 24 Contributors with EMMA DLR 2008 -04 -15 (in alphabetical order) © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 5

Structure of EMMA 2 GP 0 Management DLR 2008 -04 -15 GP 7 User Structure of EMMA 2 GP 0 Management DLR 2008 -04 -15 GP 7 User Forum SP 5 Malpensa SP 4 Toulouse SP 3 Prague SP 2 Onboard SP 1 Concept SP 6 Validation © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 6

EMMA Focus SMA TCD HUD-guidance EMM -C DB Upload T C TIS-B Monitoring and EMMA Focus SMA TCD HUD-guidance EMM -C DB Upload T C TIS-B Monitoring and RWY Alerting I AX DL P DLR 2008 -04 -15 Surveillance EFS © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris DMAN - SMAN 7

Simulation Platforms DLR Cockpit Simulator Thales Cockpit Simulator Airbus Cockpit Simulator DLR 2008 -04 Simulation Platforms DLR Cockpit Simulator Thales Cockpit Simulator Airbus Cockpit Simulator DLR 2008 -04 -15 NLR Tower Simulator TU-D Cockpit Simulator © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris DLR Tower Simulator SICTA/ENAV Tower Simulator 8

Field Test Platforms AIF Test Aircraft Funkwerk GA Aircraft DLR Research Aircraft TUD Research Field Test Platforms AIF Test Aircraft Funkwerk GA Aircraft DLR Research Aircraft TUD Research Test Van Paris CDG (Data analysis) Prague Ruzyne DLR 2008 -04 -15 Toulouse Blagnac © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris Milano Malpensa 9

Systems Installed PRG TLS MXP ASR stations 1 1 1 SMR stations 1 1 Systems Installed PRG TLS MXP ASR stations 1 1 1 SMR stations 1 1 2 MLAT stations 15 5 10 ATCO HMI 4 1 4 RWY Conflict Detection ATCO Vehicles ADS-B equipped 80 10 5 Ground based Guidance TWY Conflict Detection and Planning ATCO TIS-B TAXI-CPDLC A/C Van SIM Onboard Moving Map Display Onboard Traffic Display Onboard SMA Onboard TCM DLR 2008 -04 -15 Type HUD Database upload © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 10

EMMA 2 Alerting While A-SMGCS level I&II based only on the surveillance information, the EMMA 2 Alerting While A-SMGCS level I&II based only on the surveillance information, the higher A-SMGCS services compare the operational status with tactical information and could do a cross checking of clearances (conformance monitoring). DLR 2008 -04 -15 EMMA 2 conflict prediction, detection and alerting based on: • surveillance monitoring • conformance monitoring (deviation alerting) • cross check of clearances • exclude automatic conflict resolution • exclude alert transmission between ground air • observe only the manoeuvring area (TWY & RWY, no Apron) © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 11

EMM, SMA, TCD, Ground Traffic, TAXI-CPDLC EMMA 2 Services TAXI-CDPDLC TAXI-CPDLC VDL 2 Ground EMM, SMA, TCD, Ground Traffic, TAXI-CPDLC EMMA 2 Services TAXI-CDPDLC TAXI-CPDLC VDL 2 Ground Radio Mode A/C/S SSR ADS-B 1090 ES DB Upload Traffic Situation + Electronic Flight Stripes TIS-B LAN TIS-B Ground Station Conflict Prediction, Detection, and Alerting DLR 2008 -04 -15 Surveillance FDPS © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris MET Routing / Planning SMAN DMAN STAND 12

EMMA 2 Control Services A-SMGCS Level I & II Conflict detection on RWY Surveillance EMMA 2 Control Services A-SMGCS Level I & II Conflict detection on RWY Surveillance based Conflict detection on TWY DLR 2008 -04 -15 Onboard SMA Onboard TCD © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris Surveillance based A-SMGCS Higher Services Surveillance, Conformance monitoring Surveillance based 13

EMMA 2 Approach It was suggested that conflict situations where more than one movement EMMA 2 Approach It was suggested that conflict situations where more than one movement are involved should be detected and displayed by the ground system. Alerts can be transmitted to the cockpit by voice or, when the means is available, via data link. DLR 2008 -04 -15 As a general principle, it was proposed that if there is enough time to avoid the conflict by alerting the controller, only the controller should receive the alert and take appropriate action. When less time is available (and data link is implemented), both the flight crew /vehicle driver and the controller should receive the alert. © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 14

Service to ATCO The A-SMGCS conflict prediction, detection and alerting service provides the ATCO Service to ATCO The A-SMGCS conflict prediction, detection and alerting service provides the ATCO with two types of alerts: T 1 - INFORMATION: When receiving an ‘Information Alert’, a potential dangerous situation may occur. The ATCO will use his skill and backgrounds to decide if, with remaining possible actions, the situation can be saved without using a too restrictive procedure (e. g. Go-around). DLR 2008 -04 -15 T 2 - ALARM: When receiving an ‘Alarm’, it is said that a critical situation is developing and that an immediate action should be performed. © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 15

Service to Flight Crews 1/3 ICAO states, that for low visibility conditions “The flight Service to Flight Crews 1/3 ICAO states, that for low visibility conditions “The flight crew may need an airport moving map function to follow the assigned route. The function displays the own ship position with respect to aerodrome geographic locations and in particular, the aerodrome elements referenced in the ATC instructions. ” DLR 2008 -04 -15 This Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) provides: 1. The SMA with its main rationale not to create additional alerts on the flight deck. The intention is to enable the crew, by means of improved situational awareness, to avoid potential conflicts proactively at a strategic or pre-tactical level. © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 16

Service to Flight Crews 2/3 2. The main goal of the ground traffic display Service to Flight Crews 2/3 2. The main goal of the ground traffic display function is to reduce the potential for conflicts, errors and collision by providing enhanced situational awareness to the flight crew operating on the airport surface especially in all weather conditions using ADS-B and TIS-B (TCD). DLR 2008 -04 -15 Taxi-CPDLC is not intended to replace entirely voice communications, especially in emergency situations. Such service aims first at supporting ground communication (e. g. start up, push back, taxi). Controller and pilot responsibilities with low visibility procedures (LVP) might be reconsidered. © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 17

Service to Flight Crews 3/3 DLR 2008 -04 -15 Outside view and with CDTI Service to Flight Crews 3/3 DLR 2008 -04 -15 Outside view and with CDTI Source: Airbus © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 18

Conflict Resolution 1/4 The ICAO A-SMGCS Manual § 2. 5. 4 stated in the Conflict Resolution 1/4 The ICAO A-SMGCS Manual § 2. 5. 4 stated in the event of conflicts “The A-SMGCS should be able to predict the conflict, to detect it and finally to propose a solution. Once a conflict has been detected, the A-SMGCS should either automatically resolve the conflict or, on request from the controller, provide the most suitable solution. ” DLR 2008 -04 -15 The reliability of an automated conflict resolution depends very much on the complexity of the conflict situation and the availability of all relevant information as prerequisite (at least all traffic information the ATCO is aware of). As the ATCO is responsible for the complete aerodrome traffic he remains the supreme authority to resolve a conflict situation. © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 19

Conflict Resolution 2/4 As an example for a complex situation: 1. A got a Conflict Resolution 2/4 As an example for a complex situation: 1. A got a conditional clearance: „Line up after landing C“ 2. A was not aware of just departing B 3. A identifies departing B as landing C 4. A lines up after departing B 5. A causes a conflict with landing C W 14 B 32 DLR 2008 -04 -15 C A © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 20

Conflict Resolution 3/4 Proposed solution (1): A vacate RWY via taxiway W C continuing Conflict Resolution 3/4 Proposed solution (1): A vacate RWY via taxiway W C continuing landing C 32 14 W DLR 2008 -04 -15 A © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 21

Conflict Resolution 4/4 Proposed solution (2): C go around A take off C 32 Conflict Resolution 4/4 Proposed solution (2): C go around A take off C 32 14 W DLR 2008 -04 -15 A © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 22

A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Visibility Conditions Definitions (1/2) Ø Reduced Aerodrome Visibility Conditions: Meteorological A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Visibility Conditions Definitions (1/2) Ø Reduced Aerodrome Visibility Conditions: Meteorological conditions such that all or part of the manoeuvring area cannot be visually monitored from the aerodrome control tower. DLR 2008 -04 -15 Ø Visibility Condition 2: Visibility sufficient for the pilot to taxi and to avoid collision with other traffic on taxiways and at intersections by visual reference, but insufficient for personnel of control units to exercise control over all traffic on the basis of visual surveillance. © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 23

A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Visibility Conditions Definitions (2/2) Ø Visibility Condition 3: Visibility sufficient A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Visibility Conditions Definitions (2/2) Ø Visibility Condition 3: Visibility sufficient for the pilot to taxi but insufficient for the pilot to avoid collision with other traffic on taxiways and at intersections by visual reference, and insufficient for personnel of control units to exercise control over all traffic on the basis of visual surveillance. For taxiing, this is normally taken as visibilities equivalent to an RVR of less than 400 m but more than 75 m. DLR 2008 -04 -15 Ø Visibility Condition 4: Visibility insufficient for the pilot to taxi by visual guidance only. This is normally taken as an RVR of 75 m or less. Ø LVPs: specific procedures applied at an aerodrome for the purpose of ensuring safe operations during Category II and III approaches and/or departure operations in RVR conditions less than a value of 550 m. © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 24

A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 3 1/5 TODAY: Block Spacing Control Preconditions: Ø A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 3 1/5 TODAY: Block Spacing Control Preconditions: Ø No Cooperative Surveillance (SMGCS) Features: Ø ATCO relies on position reports provided by the pilots Ø the responsibility for maintaining the appropriate spacing is in charge of the ATCO. DLR 2008 -04 -15 AZA 1225 31 B 737 © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris DLH 1354 31 B 737 BWA 1245 31 A 340 25

A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 3 2/5 TOMORROW: Enhanced Block Spacing Control Preconditions: A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 3 2/5 TOMORROW: Enhanced Block Spacing Control Preconditions: Ø Ø enhanced Surveillance (SMR+MLAT) E-SCA Features: Ø Reduction of the block size TWY Throughput Improvement!!! Ø ATCO does not need pilot’s position reports Ø the responsibility for maintaining the appropriate spacing is in charge of the ATCO. DLR 2008 -04 -15 AZA 1225 7265 31 MD 80 31 B 737 © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris DLH 1354 31 B 737 BWA 1245 31 A 340 26

A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 3 3/5 THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW: Virtual Block A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 3 3/5 THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW: Virtual Block Spacing Control Preconditions: Ø Ø enhanced Surveillance (SMR+MLAT) E-SCA RCM Airport Moving Map Features: Ø Reduction of the block size through the introduction of virtual blocks and virtual stop bars on ATCO TSD and Pilot MMD No need of GND infrastructure!!! Ø the responsibility for maintaining the appropriate spacing is in charge of the ATCO. Moving map equipped DLR 2008 -04 -15 AZA 7265 31 MD 80 © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris Virtual stopbar displayed on the moving map AZA 1225 31 B 737 DLH 1354 31 B 737 BWA 1245 31 A 340 27

A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 3 4/5 NEXT WEEK: Safety Bubble Spacing Control A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 3 4/5 NEXT WEEK: Safety Bubble Spacing Control Preconditions: Ø Ø Ø enhanced Surveillance (SMR+MLAT+ADS-B+TIS-B) E-SCA RCM Airport Moving Map Ground Traffic Display Features: Ø Safety bubble around each aircraft Ø Pilot able to follow a preceding aircraft Ø Spacing task shared between ATCO and pilot DLR 2008 -04 -15 “AZA 7265 taxi to holding point RWY 31 via TWY Tango, follow preceding traffic DLH 1354 Boeing 737 at XXX metres. ” AZA 7265 31 MD 80 © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris DLH 1354 31 B 737 BWA 1245 31 A 340 28

A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 3 5/5 NEXT MONTH: Advanced Safety Bubble Spacing A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 3 5/5 NEXT MONTH: Advanced Safety Bubble Spacing Control Preconditions: Ø Ø Ø enhanced Surveillance (SMR+MLAT+ADS-B+TIS-B) E-SCA RCM Airport Moving Map Ground Traffic Display Traffic Conflict Detection Features: Ø Alerting function on-board and on-ground Ø Reduced vis. cond. can be managed as good vis. cond Ø Spacing task completely delegated to pilot. DLR 2008 -04 -15 “AZA 7265 taxi to holding point RWY 31 via TWY Tango number 3 on sequence preceding traffic DLH 1354 Boeing 737” AZA 7265 31 MD 80 © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris DLH 1354 31 B 737 BWA 1245 31 A 340 29

A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 4 VIS-4 Ø From an ATC perspective, there A-SMGCS Procedures in Reduced Vis. Cond. 4 VIS-4 Ø From an ATC perspective, there is no difference from visibility conditions 3 and 4 Ø From the flight crew perspective the pilot ability to steer the aircraft is severely impaired as well as the ability to taxi. DLR 2008 -04 -15 Ø Specific on-board equipments can represent a valid means to overcome this limitation (i. e. Moving Map and HUD Surface Guidance Symbology systems) © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 30

DLR 2008 -04 -15 http: //www. dlr. de/emma/ http: //www. dlr. de/emma 2/ © DLR 2008 -04 -15 http: //www. dlr. de/emma/ http: //www. dlr. de/emma 2/ © EMMA, ASAS-TN 2, Paris 31