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Emerging steel markets and their impact on coking coal and coke. Dr. Kalyan Sen Emerging steel markets and their impact on coking coal and coke. Dr. Kalyan Sen CFRI

India Govt. thrust on infrastructure projects, lower interest rates, booming economy: The steel production India Govt. thrust on infrastructure projects, lower interest rates, booming economy: The steel production is expected to grow at rapid pace. The buoyancy in Indian steel market is a combination of demand for exports, mainly to China and a positive outlook in certain sectors. This will lead to increased demand of good quality coking coal and Low ash metallurgical (LAM) coke.

Part II 3 Part II 3

Estimated Demand of Met Coke • By 2011 -12 India would require 31 million Estimated Demand of Met Coke • By 2011 -12 India would require 31 million tonnes (mt) • 12. 5 mt produced & consumed by main producers • 18. 5 mt will be required by secondary steel producers out of which 14 mt need to be produced by Merchant coke producers. 31 mt of coke is equivalent to ~ 44 mt of washed coking coal !! What are the supply sources ?

Fuel supply chain Existing trend (2002 -03) · Import of coke 2. 245 mt Fuel supply chain Existing trend (2002 -03) · Import of coke 2. 245 mt · Import of coking coal 12. 947 mt · Washery Cleans ~ 8 mt

Fuel supply chain Future projection (2011 -12) ·Import of coke 4. 5 mt ·Washery Fuel supply chain Future projection (2011 -12) ·Import of coke 4. 5 mt ·Washery cleans ~ 8 mt (The output of the existing washeries is likely to decline) · Import of coking coal 30 mt ? Considering steep increase in price of both coke & coking coal and their availability, the situation is rather gloomy

Constraints of price & availability Coke imports in india were 2, 782 mt in Constraints of price & availability Coke imports in india were 2, 782 mt in 02 -03 out of which 89% was from China. . Coke price rise < Explosion in coke demand in China < Large rise in Chinese coke production costs < Gradual erosion of coke capacity out side of China The rise in coke price coupled with its unavailability has become the biggest challenge confronting the secondary sector pig iron industry

Coking coal having good coking properties, low sulphur and ash contents has become world Coking coal having good coking properties, low sulphur and ash contents has become world wide a costly and rare commodity. Additional global sources for long term availability ; China & USA- envisaged increased production will mostly be consumed by the respective countries. ; Indonesia - a meagre amount may be available ; Russia - a lot , but requires major infrastructural investment

Scope for utilsation of Indigenous resources Area for Improvement Quality Quantity Optimisation Cost Culture Scope for utilsation of Indigenous resources Area for Improvement Quality Quantity Optimisation Cost Culture

Indian Coal Scenario: Total Coal Reserves 246 Bt Others 3. 0% 84. 0% Noncoking Indian Coal Scenario: Total Coal Reserves 246 Bt Others 3. 0% 84. 0% Noncoking Inferior grade 68% 13. 0% Coking 6% 11% Semi-coking HVC 15% MVC 50% LVC 19% Prime coking GSI, Jan. 2004

Imperatives for enhancing washed coal production • Renovation & modernisation of existing washeries to Imperatives for enhancing washed coal production • Renovation & modernisation of existing washeries to maximise the output at desired quality; with further deterioration of feed quality the washery output, in the absence of drastic modernisation programme , is going to decline. • Installation of fine coal treatment plant to treat the ‘waste’ slurries & the freshly generated fines to produce Cleans in the ash range 10 -14%. • Installation of new washeries to treat the Low Volatile NLW coals (LVC coal, if prepared judiciously, has the potentiality to offer excellent quality coke)

The challenge of minimising the import dependency on desired fuel can be met • The challenge of minimising the import dependency on desired fuel can be met • by increasing the capacity of washed coal production, adoption of innovative coke making technology and PCI route. • by utilising abundantly available non -coking coal through adoptation of alternate routes of steel making

Characteristics of LVC(NLW) p p High raw coal ash 35 -45% High Maturity Ro Characteristics of LVC(NLW) p p High raw coal ash 35 -45% High Maturity Ro = 1. 3 Low volatile matter content 15 -20% High Inertinite content (60 -70%) p Poor washability potential

Beneficiation in existing washeries k 2 -product circuit About 70 -75% with 40 -45% Beneficiation in existing washeries k 2 -product circuit About 70 -75% with 40 -45% ash with no market outlet

Beneficiation in existing washeries k 3 -product circuit LVCC requires disposal of 20% as Beneficiation in existing washeries k 3 -product circuit LVCC requires disposal of 20% as reject 50% middling with 41% ash (outlet ? )

Coals of western Jharia coalfields need a different beneficiation strategy INTEGRATED MULTI-STREAM BENEFICIATION Coals of western Jharia coalfields need a different beneficiation strategy INTEGRATED MULTI-STREAM BENEFICIATION

4 -Product Circuit k Cleans (25 -30%), 17 -18% ash k Cleans II (18 4 -Product Circuit k Cleans (25 -30%), 17 -18% ash k Cleans II (18 -20%), 22 -28% ash k Middlings (20 -22%), 34% ash k Rejects (28 -30%), 60 -65% ash

Suggested beneficiation scheme: ç Coal crushed to a nominal top size of 100/75 mm Suggested beneficiation scheme: ç Coal crushed to a nominal top size of 100/75 mm and screened at lower size, 25/20/13 mm ç Coarser fraction ( oversize) treated in washing unit to produce POWER COAL (~ 34% ash) ç Finer fraction (undersize) deep beneficiated for metallurgical coal of ash 17 -18% ç Combined rejects (ash 50 -55%) sent to FBC boilers

For a typical SR - process, Judicious beneficiation of available coal is a necessity For a typical SR - process, Judicious beneficiation of available coal is a necessity

Beneficiation strategy Category I: I Non-coking coal (ash 30 -40%) Jigging Cleans Reject (ash Beneficiation strategy Category I: I Non-coking coal (ash 30 -40%) Jigging Cleans Reject (ash 60 -65%) 75 -80% (ash 25%) (FBC boiler)

Beneficiation strategy …. . . Category III: LVC coal (ash > 35%) III 3 Beneficiation strategy …. . . Category III: LVC coal (ash > 35%) III 3 -pdt Jig Yld% (A%) Total Cls 4 -pdt washing User Yld% (A%) --- 24 -27 (17 -18) Steel Jig Cleans 50 (22 -24) -- Corex Cleans II --- 18 -20 (25 -30) Corex** Middling 20 -22 (34) 20 -22 (33 -35) Power Reject 28 -30 (60 -65) 25 -30 (55 -65) FBC

Thank You Part II 22 Thank You Part II 22

Scope for utilsation of Indigenous resources Area for Improvement Quality Quantity Optimisation Cost Culture Scope for utilsation of Indigenous resources Area for Improvement Quality Quantity Optimisation Cost Culture