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EMECO (European Marine Ecosystem Observatory) & Western Shelf Observatory ‘Creating better evidence and new EMECO (European Marine Ecosystem Observatory) & Western Shelf Observatory ‘Creating better evidence and new knowledge about our coastal seas’ Dave Mills (Cefas) Remi Laane (Deltares) (David. [email protected] co. uk)

Question ‘To what extent can EMECO contribute to the build of a more integrated Question ‘To what extent can EMECO contribute to the build of a more integrated European observing system that can serve the needs of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive? ’ Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

The problem – policy pull National government needs evidence to meet their international and The problem – policy pull National government needs evidence to meet their international and EU policy obligations The evidence must be: – Based on sound science – Underpinned with reliable quality assured data – Transparent and auditable (from sensor to advice) – Collected efficiently and cost effectively – Able to withstand legal scrutiny Policy drivers: – OSPAR, HELCOM – Nitrates Directive – Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive – Water Framework Directive – Birds and Habitats Directive – MSFD – Others NERC SOFI Workshop

Assessment of eutrophication Assessments challenged • Infraction proceedings – UWWTD (France, UK) • National Assessment of eutrophication Assessments challenged • Infraction proceedings – UWWTD (France, UK) • National assessments – not universally approved §Why Potential Problem Area Non -Problem Area • Differences in interpretation of policy e. g. eutrophication • Lack of consistency and coherence Needs • More & better information Outcome to 2 nd Application OSPAR CP Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

MSFD Descriptors “The marine environment is a precious heritage that must be protected, restored MSFD Descriptors “The marine environment is a precious heritage that must be protected, restored and treated as such with the ultimate aim of providing biologically diverse and dynamic oceans and seas that are safe, clean, healthy and productive. ” Desc 1 Biodiversity Desc 4 Food Webs Desc 2 Invasive Species Desc 7 Hydrography Desc 5 Eutrophication Desc 11 Energy Desc 3 Commercial species Desc 9 Fish shellfish hygiene Desc 8 Contaminants & pollution Desc 10 Marine Litter Desc 6 Seafloor Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

Marine Framework Strategy Directive Policy (and science) questions • “Good Environmental Status” • What Marine Framework Strategy Directive Policy (and science) questions • “Good Environmental Status” • What indicators – cause and effect • Reference conditions, assessment methods • Setting assessments into context, distinguishing between anthropogenic and natural causes of measured changes to ecosystem • Ecosystem based approach • Cross boundary – assessment at the right scale • Physics to fish • Monitoring and assessment sustained for time scale of requirements - decades Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

The case for change ! • 100 m & 1. 4 billion € spent The case for change ! • 100 m & 1. 4 billion € spent on monitoring in UK & EU • Pressure to reduce costs Research vessels • Pressure for openness, accountability, sharing and access CPR • New observational strategies, tools, & Towed technologies bodies • Many players with diverse ‘systems’ – no common ‘language’ • Partnership & Satellites collaboration the way forward Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010 Ferries Gliders Buoys Models

The science (& technology) push • Most marine observatories science lead – – Hypothesis The science (& technology) push • Most marine observatories science lead – – Hypothesis driven, technology driven Short term (R&D) funding and goals Policy uptake an afterthought Spatial scale relevant to science question • Primarily science driven papers at ESF observatories meeting • Thrust of that meeting was observatories for science not for policy ! • Avoid the ‘solution’ in search of a ‘problem’ Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

Integrated monitoring Autonomous data buoys CPR Cefas Smart. Buoys Data poor to data rich Integrated monitoring Autonomous data buoys CPR Cefas Smart. Buoys Data poor to data rich Data rich to information rich Ferries Numerical models Ferry. Box Traditional approach Smart. Buoys R. V. Cefas Endeavour Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Integrated approach Dec 2010 Remote sensing 3/5

 • • • WHY Efficient use of resources Strengthen the evidence base Reduce • • • WHY Efficient use of resources Strengthen the evidence base Reduce uncertainty Add confidence to assessments Assessments able to withstand legal scrutiny Assessment variable Integrated assessments Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010 Threshold Above line + Below line -

EMECO Stakeholder Engagement Towards a Data Integration & Assessment System • User generated maps EMECO Stakeholder Engagement Towards a Data Integration & Assessment System • User generated maps • ‘Agreed’ international map of chlorophyll • Transparent information product with estimate of confidence • Step towards EU harmonisation Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

Building the partnerships… EMECO – NOOS North Sea Observatory meeting Lowestoft June 2009 Western Building the partnerships… EMECO – NOOS North Sea Observatory meeting Lowestoft June 2009 Western Shelf Observatory Kick-Off meeting AFBI, Belfast June 2010 Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

EMECO - European Marine Ecosystem Observatory Creating better evidence and new knowledge EMECO is EMECO - European Marine Ecosystem Observatory Creating better evidence and new knowledge EMECO is a an informal European network for integration of monitoring, modelling & research. • Builds on existing infrastructure • Multi-scale – time & space • Supports Ecosystem Based Management • Promotes interoperability • Anticipates EU current & future policy needs MSFD UK-Cefas, EA, NOC, SAHFOS; NL-Rijkswaterstaat, Deltares, NIOZ, Norway-IMR, NERSC, Met Off; DEGKSS, BSH, BE – MUMM, F – IFREMER, Ro. E – Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, www. emecogroup. org Marine Institute, Denmark – NIVA; S - SMHI Dec 2010

EMECO - Western Shelf Observatory ‘ The EMECO Western Shelf Observatory is an integrated EMECO - Western Shelf Observatory ‘ The EMECO Western Shelf Observatory is an integrated programme of sustained marine observing systems that will improve knowledge and understanding of marine ecosystems. It will strengthen the evidence base for environmental assessments, underpin future research, increase uptake of marine data and information and address gaps in current marine monitoring, modelling and research. ’ Partner Programmes • • • Western Channel Observatory Irish Sea Observatory Ship survey, inshore buoy network, offshore mooring (AFBI) Cefas Smart. Buoy and Wavenet Irish (MI) monitoring programme - instrumenting met buoys Ellet Line, Tiree mooring Marine Scotland monitoring CPR routes Ferry. Box lines Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, (www. westernshelfobservatory. org) Dec 2010 PAP Eurosites mooring

EMECO – WSO Science questions • To what extent is the carrying capacity of EMECO – WSO Science questions • To what extent is the carrying capacity of European shelf seas determined by exchange of nutrients across the shelf • Is the outcome to environmental assessments (e. g. eutrophication) influenced by shelf-edge processes • To what extent is ecosystem health (structure and vigour) in the inner shelf regions influenced by shelf edge processes • How will this far field forcing be influenced by climate change • How will understanding of these interactions influence environmental assessments of inner shelf regions and advice to policy end users? • Can we use the new observations to better determine background and therefore reference conditions for environmental assessments of our shelf seas. NERC SOFI Workshop

EMECO - Western Shelf Observatory An exercise in scaling ! Map Room NERC SOFI EMECO - Western Shelf Observatory An exercise in scaling ! Map Room NERC SOFI Workshop (www. westernshelfobservatory. org)

Making a difference……. . Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010 Making a difference……. . Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

EMECO – Information & evidence pipeline Delayed mode UK Delayed mode Data Archive Centres EMECO – Information & evidence pipeline Delayed mode UK Delayed mode Data Archive Centres Calibration Validation CPR Delayed mode Marine Core Service Provision QA’d EMECO Assessment database Data Delayed mode ICES Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010 Assessment map EMECO User Query Real time & delayed mode EMECO Datatool Interface Real time EMECO Web – enabled Datatools Time-series/trends KML–Google Earth Gridded data Data XML, CSV

EMECO – Information & evidence pipeline Delayed mode UK Delayed mode Data Archive Centres EMECO – Information & evidence pipeline Delayed mode UK Delayed mode Data Archive Centres Assessment map EMECO User Query EMECO Datatool Interface Real time EMECO Web – enabled Datatools Time-series Marine A streamlined ‘on-line’ assessment system that: - Core Service Provision “enables rapid integration and assessment of EMECO multi-national, multi-agency QA’d multi-platform, and multi-variate data” Calibration Validation CPR Delayed mode Assessment database KML–Google Earth Data Delayed mode ICES Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010 Gridded data Data XML, CSV

An integrated monitoring & assessment system for the North Sea - Objectives To consolidate An integrated monitoring & assessment system for the North Sea - Objectives To consolidate a North Sea Observatory to provide a network of routine measurements of biological, chemical and physical variables encompassing ships, moorings, ships of opportunity, satellites and modelling. To improve coordination and efficiency of current operational programmes to include promoting interoperability of sustained observations in the observatory between partners. To develop a shared vision and strategy between funders of sustained observations and monitoring programmes by engagement at a national and European level To ensure the observatory includes all the relevant partners To demonstrate that the North Sea Observatory can make a positive difference: by improving marine scientific evidence and creating new knowledge Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

How do we do it • Prepare costed proposal to EMODNET • Tasks – How do we do it • Prepare costed proposal to EMODNET • Tasks – Build on detailed review of current monitoring and sustained observing programmes e. g. EEA GISC-GMES report and other prior work (Euro. GOOS, EDIOS, OOS’s) • What observations, where, who, why • Current costs • Assess level of interoperability – Agree requirements • Better scientific evidence – at the scale of policy need • New knowledge • Stakeholder engagement – Develop agreed plan to meet needs • Fill gaps – Identify new products • Further develop EMECO datatools Clarity about information needs is critical ! Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

How do we do it • How – Workshop - bringing key policy, science, How do we do it • How – Workshop - bringing key policy, science, monitoring community together for each country – User requirement analysis – what do we need to measure, where, how, – Interoperability survey and gap analysis • Resources – – Approx 50 k € for proposal preparation 250 – 300 k € for delivery of proposal 1 year Planning and implementation group • Outcome (Report) – Detailed knowledge of monitoring in North Sea (both policy and science driven) – Clarity about costs – User needs assessment – policy and science (evidence and knowledge) – Strategic (and costed) plan to address gaps – Engage (stakeholders) to sustain ! Brussels, Marine Infrastructures, Dec 2010

UK-MECO Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010 UK-MECO Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

UK Integrated Observatories e-Infrastructure DAC – Species DAC – Bathy Satellites DAC - Fish UK Integrated Observatories e-Infrastructure DAC – Species DAC – Bathy Satellites DAC - Fish Vess 1 DAC - Merman DAC – Oceanog. Fish Vess 2 Models FV Dowsing DAC PAP Smart Buoy CPR Route 1 Community M Hub S CPR Route 2 Cefas ED GI IN Services CPR Route … AFBI ICES FB Bottom Lander Mar. Sc WCO Nodes Fish Vessel Nodes Buoys Vessel Mon Net Sensor Observin g system Nodes RV survey ISO Nodes FB Endeavour Fish Tag EMECO Nodes CPR e NOC Other sites WN GMES FB Warp NERC SOFI Workshop

UK Integrated Observatories e-Infrastructure DAC – Species DAC – Bathy Satellites DAC - Fish UK Integrated Observatories e-Infrastructure DAC – Species DAC – Bathy Satellites DAC - Fish Vess 1 DAC - Merman DAC – Oceanog. Fish Vess 2 Models FV DAC PAP FB NOC Dowsing Tools & Services Smart Buoy CPR Route 2 CPR Route … ICES • Community models • GIS/Mapping tools • Mashup tools • Auto cal/val FB Bottom Lander AFBI Mar. Sc WCO ISO Nodes RV survey Vessel Mon Net Sensor Observin g system NERC SOFI Workshop FB Endeavour Nodes Fish Vessel Nodes Fish Tag Cefas Nodes CPR e • Data discovery Other sites WN GMES • Data catalogue CPR Route 1 Warp Nodes Buoys

Marine Information and Evidence Pipeline GMES MCS TAC Sea Level Ocean Color Assessment map Marine Information and Evidence Pipeline GMES MCS TAC Sea Level Ocean Color Assessment map SST Sea Ice & Wind Bathymetry CPR Geology Assessment database User Query Ur-EMODNET Lots Datatool Interface In Situ Time-series/trends KML–Google Earth Physics Chemistry Gridded data Biology Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010 Data XML, CSV

Marine Information and Evidence Pipeline GMES MCS TAC Sea Level Ocean Color Assessment map Marine Information and Evidence Pipeline GMES MCS TAC Sea Level Ocean Color Assessment map SST Sea Ice & Wind Datatool Interface In Situ Bathymetry CPR Geology Assessment database User Query A WISE Move ! Ur-EMODNET Lots Time-series/trends KML–Google Earth Physics Chemistry Gridded data Biology Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010 Data XML, CSV

Summary • Major challenges to address – Better evidence – policy pull – New Summary • Major challenges to address – Better evidence – policy pull – New knowledge – science push – How do we align ? • Pressure on resources (UK up to 30% budget reductions) • Do more with less • Quick wins – Build on progress, modernisation, make best use of all resources, engage to sustain • EMODNET can play a key role in meeting the challenge. Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, • And the answer to Dec 2010 question……. . the

‘To what extent can EMECO contribute to the build of a more integrated European ‘To what extent can EMECO contribute to the build of a more integrated European observing system that can serve the needs of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive? ’ • EMECO already hold the vision of why the community needs to work together – To meet EU policy evidence needs – To address key science question with a strong policy relevance – To make a difference ! • Addressing the challenge – From physics to fish - an ECOSYSTEM observatory – Building partnerships at the spatial (regional) scale required for policy delivery – Build an open and transparent ‘integration and assessment system’ to meet policy needs • EMECO provides a solution to a problem – not a homeless solution! Brussels, Marine Infrastructures, Dec 2010

The End Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010 The End Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

Integrating physical, chemical and biological data • What does it mean • What does Integrating physical, chemical and biological data • What does it mean • What does it entail • How does it serve the needs of the MSFD Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

What does it mean • The act of combining parts to make a unified What does it mean • The act of combining parts to make a unified and harmonious whole. – The parts are things that we measure (or simulate) – At what point do you combine the parts data and in what order – Combining same data for same variable • Measured using same method/platform • Measured using different methods/platform • Disparate in time and space Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

What does it entail • Depends on requirements ! • Demonstrate intercomparability – intercalibration What does it entail • Depends on requirements ! • Demonstrate intercomparability – intercalibration – Does same method use by different, people, laboratories give an acceptable level of agreement • When do we do it in the work flow • Render data into same format (e. g. XML) • Integrating across time and space scales Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

Why do we want to integrate • Science (better knowledge) – Want to understand Why do we want to integrate • Science (better knowledge) – Want to understand relationships between bits • Policy (better evidence) – Increasing pool of data for assessment may lead to an increase in confidence – Assessment methodology – we have to do it to meet end-user needs Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010

But what’s the real reason? • The world is unity – when we measure But what’s the real reason? • The world is unity – when we measure it we break it into bits or parts • In order to understand it we reassemble (integrate) those bits (according to theory) • So integration is required to understand the world ie to interpret what the bits mean when joined together • Important to do this in an open and transparent way ! Marine Infrastructures, Brussels, Dec 2010