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EMC Test Equipment Amplifiers and Antennas George Barth Product Engineer, Systems ar rf/microwave instrumentation EMC Test Equipment Amplifiers and Antennas George Barth Product Engineer, Systems ar rf/microwave instrumentation 160 School House Road Souderton, PA 18964 -9990 gbarth@ar-worldwide. com

Topics • Ideal Amplifier Environment • The EMC Reality • Review of Amplifier Technologies Topics • Ideal Amplifier Environment • The EMC Reality • Review of Amplifier Technologies • Tube (Vacuum tube) • Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) Amplifiers • Solid-State: Different classes • Amplifier Use • Proper drive levels • Loads G. Barth

Topics • Amplifier Care and Maintenance • Power and Field Measurements • Antennas • Topics • Amplifier Care and Maintenance • Power and Field Measurements • Antennas • Technologies • Applications • Equipment Pairing and Sizing • Power vs. Field G. Barth

Ideal Conditions What Amplifiers Love • Always run in a low ambient room temperature Ideal Conditions What Amplifiers Love • Always run in a low ambient room temperature • ~72°F • Use in a dust free environment • Have clean power supplied • Install in a fixed location by professionals • Never exceed required input level • depends on specification of each amplifier • Never have a load fail • Connect amplifier only to a matched load • 50 Ω loads <1. 5: 1 VSWR • Only use fully tested and verified coax & waveguide G. Barth

Ideal Conditions Majority of the worlds amplifiers are designed for single uses. transmitters, cell Ideal Conditions Majority of the worlds amplifiers are designed for single uses. transmitters, cell phones, radios… These types of applications have known environmental conditions. Load is constant Frequency is usually narrowband Trained professionals are installing Environmental temperature constraints are known Amplifiers can be designed much more easily in these cases and are simple. G. Barth

Less Than Ideal Conditions EMC testing does not fall anywhere near ideal or simple Less Than Ideal Conditions EMC testing does not fall anywhere near ideal or simple conditions. The extremes for the EMC market High VSWR Amplifier is still required to deliver power or at a minimum not be damaged Bad loads, cables, connections Use in many tests, locations, and setups EMC Test engineers & technicians do not have to be amplifier experts G. Barth

Less Than Ideal Conditions What is needed Different engineering techniques are used to extend Less Than Ideal Conditions What is needed Different engineering techniques are used to extend these constraints so the amplifier is more useful. • Better heat removal for extended operating temperature range, which inherently extends the life of the amp • Use better, more durable power supplies • Rugged physical design • Class A design • Added VSWR protection (active protection) • Added ability to handle VSWR G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies • Tube (Tetrode tube) • TWT (Traveling Wave Tube) Amplifier • Solid-state Amplifier Technologies • Tube (Tetrode tube) • TWT (Traveling Wave Tube) Amplifier • Solid-state • Class AB • Class B What are the differences? G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies FET DC IV-Curve Operating Modes & Bias G. Barth Amplifier Technologies FET DC IV-Curve Operating Modes & Bias G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies FET DC IV-Curve Operating Modes & Bias Class AB Class B G. Amplifier Technologies FET DC IV-Curve Operating Modes & Bias Class AB Class B G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class A G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class A G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class A G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class A G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class A G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class A G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class A G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class A G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class A Full current and voltage swing No harmonics G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class A Full current and voltage swing No harmonics G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class B Clipping High Harmonic content G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class B Clipping High Harmonic content G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class AB G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class AB G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class AB Good small signal response G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class AB Good small signal response G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class AB G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class AB G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class AB Clipping and Harmonics introduced G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class AB Clipping and Harmonics introduced G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class AB Shorted Harmonics G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class AB Shorted Harmonics G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class AB Shorted Harmonics G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class AB Shorted Harmonics G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class AB Shorted Harmonics Good small signal performance G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class AB Shorted Harmonics Good small signal performance G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class AB Shorted Harmonics Self biasing G. Barth Amplifier Technologies Class AB Shorted Harmonics Self biasing G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Class AB Shorted Harmonics Good performance due to self biasing limited to Amplifier Technologies Class AB Shorted Harmonics Good performance due to self biasing limited to sub octave bandwidth G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Amplifier Linearity 1 d. B point Harmonics at 1 d. B Harmonics Amplifier Technologies Amplifier Linearity 1 d. B point Harmonics at 1 d. B Harmonics Noise power Ability to above 1 d. B* density/ handle Spurious VSWR* Frequency coverage Tube Bad Good Worst Bad Best Low freq. <250 MHz TWTA Worst Worst High freq. >1 GHz Solid state Class A Best Good Best Full coverage Solid state Class AB Bad Good to bad Full coverage Solid state Class B Bad Good Bad Best Good to bad Full coverage * Results greatly depends on how the technology is implemented G. Barth

Amplifier Technologies Important specifications (other than the power, frequency, and VSWR protection you require) Amplifier Technologies Important specifications (other than the power, frequency, and VSWR protection you require) are linearity and harmonics, which are related. High harmonics may have undesirable effects on recorded test levels. As the amplifier approaches compression the harmonics increase. Class A solid state amplifiers seem to have the best performance even into compression. But large variations can be seen depending on the technology used. A recommended level is -6 d. Bc of the field. Example: IEC 61000 -4 -3 G. Barth

Compression • Running the test while the amplifier is in compression will distort the Compression • Running the test while the amplifier is in compression will distort the test signal CW in compression Harmonics • The compressed wave starts to resemble a square wave, producing higher harmonics. G. Barth

Example of compressed power Compression points at one frequency G. Barth Example of compressed power Compression points at one frequency G. Barth

Amplifier Driving What is the correct drive level to the amplifier? There will always Amplifier Driving What is the correct drive level to the amplifier? There will always be a max drive level before damage. • Most of AR’s amps have +13 d. Bm max input level. • In most cases there is no reason to come even close to max input level. • Amplifiers are rated with a 0 d. Bm input to reach rated output. • Most testing should not be done with saturated power • Therefore -5 - -10 d. Bm may be all you need to drive the amplifier G. Barth

Amplifier Driving This brings us to the proper input to produce the desired linear Amplifier Driving This brings us to the proper input to produce the desired linear output G. Barth

Amplifier Driving An amplifier requiring 0 d. Bm input to reach rated output does Amplifier Driving An amplifier requiring 0 d. Bm input to reach rated output does not mean 0 d. Bm of input is required to get the results you may need. TWT amplifiers in some cases with a 0 d. Bm input and full gain will be over driving the TWT. Over time this could be damaging. Application Note # 45 Input Power Requirements… For further explanation G. Barth

Amplifier & VSWR • The amplifier’s ability to deal with VSWR will determine the Amplifier & VSWR • The amplifier’s ability to deal with VSWR will determine the possible use and application. • TWTAs have a relatively low threshold to VSWR • The TWT will fail at high VSWR without protection or precautions. • 2: 1 VSWR at rated power 1. Fold back at 20% reflected power (best) [AR] pulsed amps fold back at 50% reflected power [AR] 2. Shutdown at 2: 1 VSWR 3. Rely on user to take responsibility to be proactive • Low Power Solid State can have high threshold to VSWR • Dependent on technology used • Infinite VSWR handling, no protection needed [AR] G. Barth

Amplifier & VSWR • High Power Solid State can have high threshold to VSWR Amplifier & VSWR • High Power Solid State can have high threshold to VSWR • Dependent on technology used • High VSWR handling, some protection required • Can handle up to 50% of rated power (6: 1 VSWR) when used at full power • Folds back so that reverse power does not exceed reverse power limit • Why can’t higher power amplifiers handle infinite VSWR like lower power versions? • Combining • Components see up to twice the power (4 x voltage and current) • Combiners also act as splitters and direct energy back to output stages G. Barth

Large Amplifier Makeup OUT IN Attenuator Pre-amplification splitters G. Barth Final stages combiners Large Amplifier Makeup OUT IN Attenuator Pre-amplification splitters G. Barth Final stages combiners

Amplifier Technologies • Why is protection from mismatch needed? • There is only so Amplifier Technologies • Why is protection from mismatch needed? • There is only so much that can be done to protect the amplifier without adding exorbitant cost G. Barth

Care • General care • Keep original packaging for shipping • If new packaging Care • General care • Keep original packaging for shipping • If new packaging is required contact AR for suggestions • Do not disconnect RF connection while amplifier is not in standby! • The amplifier is protected from this but you are not! • Make sure heat is not re-circulated back into amplifier • Temperature is monitored and protected in the amplifier, but cooler is always better G. Barth

Care • Tube [Vacuum tube] amplifiers • Oil cooling system • New unit: make Care • Tube [Vacuum tube] amplifiers • Oil cooling system • New unit: make sure to fill oil correctly. • Do not tip over and place on it’s side to work on! • Will drive full power and not fold-back into any load. • Maintain recommended operating temperature. • Over time tubes will slowly decrease power output and require replacement. G. Barth

Care • TWTA • TWT is most expensive part of the amplifier (Protect It) Care • TWTA • TWT is most expensive part of the amplifier (Protect It) • Make sure heat outtake and intake are not confined • Be very careful not to overdrive input! • This can be damaging to the TWT. • Take care not to let the amplifier sit unused for extended periods of time [months – years]. • The TWT will “Gas up”, then when activated the Tube may be damaged. • A De-gassing start up routine needs to be used • Do not leave the TWTA powered up and not being used for extended periods of time. • Tube can “Gas up” • Do not disable sleep mode feature • Take care not to use badly mismatched loads • AR’s amps are fully protected for all mismatches but is still stressful to TWT G. Barth

Care • Solid-state • Do what ever you want they can take it! G. Care • Solid-state • Do what ever you want they can take it! G. Barth

Power and Field Measurement What is the proper way to measure power and field? Power and Field Measurement What is the proper way to measure power and field? • What is the measurement device • Power meter (w/directional coupler) • Diode sensor • Thermocouple sensor • Peak power meter • Field probe • Diode sensor • Thermocouple sensor • Pulse probe • Spectrum analyzer G. Barth

Power and Field Measurement Technology differences Diode Thermocouple • More sensitive • Can measure Power and Field Measurement Technology differences Diode Thermocouple • More sensitive • Can measure true RMS of a CW signal. • Can be used to measure RMS of modulated signals if used within the linear region. Usually this is in the lower region but it’s difficult to know exactly. • A signal in compression can have error in the actual reading. • Faster response • Less sensitive • Less dynamic range • Measures true RMS of any signal G. Barth

Power and Field Measurement Technology differences Broad-Band Device (power meter, field probe) • Will Power and Field Measurement Technology differences Broad-Band Device (power meter, field probe) • Will measure whole frequency spectrum including harmonics • Care must be taken that harmonics are not contributing to reading • Can be very accurate if used correctly • Easy setup and use G. Barth Frequency Selective Device (Spectrum Analyzer) • Can discern between different frequency signals • Measures peak – RMS = Peak/SQRT(2) • Can measure modulated signals • Possible time consuming setup

Power and Field Measurement • For measuring amplifier output, using a directional coupler with Power and Field Measurement • For measuring amplifier output, using a directional coupler with a power meter is acceptable. Care should be taken in a reverberation chamber, for example. • In most ALSE testing, forward power is a relative number and care only needs to be taken that this can be reproduced. • If harmonics are a concern harmonic filters can be used. G. Barth

Power and Field Measurement Verify measurements are correct when using a broad-band device to Power and Field Measurement Verify measurements are correct when using a broad-band device to take measurements • It is a good idea to verify the readings are correct with a spectrum analyzer. 1. Run a calibration with the power meter and then a calibration with the spectrum analyzer to see if the forward power reading matches up 2. Use an antenna and spectrum analyzer to spot check V/m reading from probe during calibration especially where the amplifier is being driven hard. Don’t assume that if the harmonics are out of band that they are no longer a factor! (amplifier, probe, antenna…) G. Barth

Antennas E-Field Generator • 10 k. Hz-100 MHz • Field created between elements or Antennas E-Field Generator • 10 k. Hz-100 MHz • Field created between elements or elements and ground • Non-radiating • Power limited by Impedance Transformer G. Barth

Antennas Biconical (Bicon) • 20 MHz-300 MHz • Extremely broad beam width • Power Antennas Biconical (Bicon) • 20 MHz-300 MHz • Extremely broad beam width • Power limited by Impedance Transformer (Balun) G. Barth

Antennas Log Periodic (LP) • 26 MHz-6 GHz • Beam width narrows with frequency Antennas Log Periodic (LP) • 26 MHz-6 GHz • Beam width narrows with frequency • Power limited by input connector and antenna feed G. Barth

Antennas Horn • 200 MHz-40 GHz • High Gain • Beam width dependant on Antennas Horn • 200 MHz-40 GHz • High Gain • Beam width dependant on design • Power limited by input connector or waveguide G. Barth

Equipment Pairing and Sizing Pairing Considerations • Frequency • Antennas and Amplifiers do they Equipment Pairing and Sizing Pairing Considerations • Frequency • Antennas and Amplifiers do they match? • Will switching be required? • Power • Can antenna handle amplifier power available? • RF connectors compatible? • Cabling? G. Barth

Equipment Pairing and Sizing Pairing Considerations Illumination of EUT • 3 d. B beam Equipment Pairing and Sizing Pairing Considerations Illumination of EUT • 3 d. B beam width (test distance) • Will windowing be required? 1. 5 m 1 m 74° 2 m 41° 3 m G. Barth 28°

Equipment Pairing and Sizing Considerations • Field Strength • Test distance? • Modulation? (AM, Equipment Pairing and Sizing Considerations • Field Strength • Test distance? • Modulation? (AM, AM constant peak, Pulse) • Losses • Cables • Chamber effects • Reflections (EUT) • VSWR (antenna) • Margin G. Barth

Equipment Pairing and Sizing Calculating Power Required to Get Field • Frequency dependant G. Equipment Pairing and Sizing Calculating Power Required to Get Field • Frequency dependant G. Barth

Equipment Pairing and Sizing Calculating Power Required to Get Field • Frequency dependant G. Equipment Pairing and Sizing Calculating Power Required to Get Field • Frequency dependant G. Barth

Equipment Pairing and Sizing Calculating Power Required to Get Field • Power calculated from Equipment Pairing and Sizing Calculating Power Required to Get Field • Power calculated from graphs or formulas is P 1 d. B • Add for system losses • Cables • Chamber effects • Reflections (EUT) • VSWR (antenna) • Add Margin G. Barth

Any questions? Thank you for your attention!!! George Barth Product Engineer, Systems ar rf/microwave Any questions? Thank you for your attention!!! George Barth Product Engineer, Systems ar rf/microwave instrumentation 160 School House Road Souderton, PA 18964 -9990 gbarth@ar-worldwide. com G. Barth