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Embracing the Future: Improving the Quality of Engineering Education and Practice in Nigeria – The Role of Technical Education in Nigeria’s Growth Paper Presented at the 25 th COREN Engineering Assembly at the International Event Centre (THE DOME), Akure, Ondo State from 8 th -10 th August, 2016 By Engr. Prof. Simon V. Irtwange, FNSE B. Tech (Akure), M. Eng (Nsukka), Ph. D (Ibadan), MBA, PGDE (BSU Makurdi), Cert, Seed Tech (India), Cert, Postharvest Bio. & Tech (Israel), MNIAE, MNSE, MASABE, MCSBE, MNIM, MNIFST, MTRCN, FCE+, pfd, F. AES, FCAI Professor of Agricultural Processing and Storage, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi - Nigeria [email protected] com; +2348035885567
Summary There is severe lack of engineering capacity in Nigeria having to rely on imported expertise in critical sectors of the economy. Incidentally, there are reported cases of unemployment of engineering personnel in Nigeria. The major cause for this is poor quality of graduates, lacking practical skills and due largely to the disconnect between target markets, engineering education and engineering training. This therefore means that the standard and context of engineering education and training in Nigeria has to be periodically modified and harmonized where necessary to match with changes in science and technology. This paper therefore aims at identifying engineering education challenges in Nigeria and how to deal with the challenges using global best practices and thus improving the quality of engineering education.
Summary The paper discusses the three elements required in building the engineering capacity of a nation: engineering production, engineering research and engineering human resource. It further enumerates the engineering capacity needs for Nigeria, the imperative to position the country in the vanguard of global technological development and advancement and the methods of dealing with the engineering education challenges that hinders the production of engineering personnel who will be able to lead Nigeria into new technologies and innovations. It concludes with the role of technical education in Nigeria’s growth by exposing the challenges and skill gaps in the Nigerian technical education system resulting in influx and preference of expatriate technicians and artisans, enumerating global trends in education, training and development; and emphasizing the need for a coordinated national apprenticeship programme in Nigeria.
Presentation Outline SUMMARY 1. ENGINEERING EDUCATION & TRAINING IN NIGERIA 1. 1 Definition and Differentiating 1. 2 Engineering Capacity Needs for Nigeria 1. 3 Engineering Situational Analysis 1. 4 Matching Education & Training with Engineering Capacity Needs 2. ENGINEERING EDUCATION & TRAINING CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA 3. DEALING WITH THE CHALLENGES: GLOBAL BEST PRACTICES
Presentation Outline 4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 1 Human and Physical Capital 4. 2 Rates of Return 4. 3 Human Resources and Development 4. 4 The Role of Human and Physical Capital in Growth 4. 5 Relationship between Human Capital Development and Economic Growth 4. 6 Global Trends in Education, Training and Development
Presentation Outline 5. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S GROWTH 5. 1 The Need for a Coordinated National Apprenticeship Programme in Nigeria 5. 2 The Influx and Preferences of Expatriate Technicians and Artisans 5. 3 Skills Gap in the Nigerian Technical Education System 5. 4 COREN Commissioned Visit to Technical Colleges in Nigeria 6. CONCLUSIONS
1. ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN NIGERIA 1. 1 Defining and Differentiating Engineering Education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles related to the professional practice of engineering. Qualifications are an integral and important part of education but this has to be related to future and potential employment. Engineering Training offers a direct learning path that is often skills – based and task- or goal-oriented. It frequently implies a short but intensive process undertaken to improve work – capability. Based on this definitions and distinction therefore, it is important for Nigeria to define their target markets and determine whether they should be offering Engineering Education Engineering Training Engineering Education and Training
1. ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN NIGERIA 1. 2 Engineering Capacity Needs For Nigeria needs engineering personnel for: q Infrastructural development to accompany its growth (The Africa Infrastructure Investment Report, 2013 and Afonja et al. , 2005) q Accelerating industrial development q Providing its ever-increasing needs in energy q Taking control of mining its natural resources and refining them before export q Achieving sustainable development as captured by the SDGs, especially in rural areas
1. ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN NIGERIA 1. 3 Engineering Situational Analysis Building the engineering capacity of a nation needs the following three elements to be considered; § Engineering Production, which includes machine building, tool making and metal working sectors § Engineering Research , which includes basic research, oriented research, applied research, technical development, and design work § Engineering Human Resource - The training strategy for the development of engineering human resource to enable industrialization according to the International Labour Organization (ILO), based on the standard skill-mix ratio between engineers, technologists/technicians and skilled craftsmen should be in the range of 1: 5: 25. However, the increasing tendency of upgrading polytechnic educational institutions into degree awarding institutions and the near comatose nature of the technical colleges keeps the keen watcher guessing how the skill-mix ratio can be maintained in the pyramidal structure.
1. ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN NIGERIA 1. 4 Matching Education & Training With Engineering Capacity Needs In Nigeria, courses approved/accredited in Nigerian Universities by COREN as at December, 2015 are the following: 1. Agricultural Engineering 2. Agricultural/Environmental Engineering 3. Automobile Engineering 4. Biomedical Engineering 5. Chemical Engineering 6. Chemical/ Polymer Engineering 7. Civil & Environmental Engineering 8. Civil & Water Resources Engineering 9. Civil Engineering 10. Communication Engineering 11. Computer Engineering 12. Computer/Communication Engineering 13. Electrical/Electronic Engineering 14. Electrical Engineering 15. Electrical/Computer Engineering 16. Electrical/Electronic Engineering 17. Electronics Engineering 18. Electronics/Computer Engineering 19. Food Engineering 20. Industrial Engineering 21. Industrial Production Engineering 22. Marine Engineering 23. Material/Metallurgical Engineering 24. Material Engineering 25. Mechanical Engineering 26. Mechanical/Production Engineering 27. Mechatronics Engineering 28. Mechatronics/System Engineering 29. Mining Engineering 30. Petroleum Engineering 31. Petroleum/Gas Engineering 32. Polymer/Textile Engineering 33. Production Engineering 34. Structural Engineering 35. System Engineering 36. Telecommunication Engineering 37. Water Resources & Environmental Engineering 38. Wood Engineering 39. Wood Products Engineering
2. ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA There is severe lack of engineering capacity in Nigeria having to rely on imported expertise in critical sectors of the economy. Incidentally, there are reported cases of unemployment of engineering personnel. The major cause for this is poor quality of graduates, lacking practical skills.
2. ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA But why is this so? The following are some of the challenges: § Identification of key/critical engineering skills required within national development priorities continues to be difficult. The adoption of the entire range of engineering disciplines in most tertiary institutions of learning rather than the concentration on some disciplines is common and indicative of the difficulty in identifying the required critical skills.
2. ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA The challenge for engineering institutions to demonstrate effectiveness in their educational programmes, and to produce engineering personnel with the knowledge and skills that will enable Nigeria engage proactively in the competitive global industry – the task of educating the emerging generations of engineering personnel in the era of constantly emerging technologies to exploit the abundant resources with increasing global competition § Establishing practical and strategic relationships between industry, tertiary institutions, government and other stakeholders is also a challenge for engineering education. §
3. DEALING WITH THE CHALLENGES: GLOBAL BEST PRACTICES § § § § Curriculum Improving Teaching and Learning Upgrading of Infrastructure and Laboratories Effective Teaching and Learning Methods Engineering Popularity and Entry Qualification Establishing Stronger Linkages with Industry Engineering Accreditation Institutional and Regional Collaborations Producing More Technicians than Engineers National Accreditation of Engineering Qualifications International Accreditation of Engineering Qualifications Towards Regional Accreditation and Initiatives to Improve Engineering Education in Africa Role of Engineering Based Non-Governmental Organizations
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 1 Human and Physical Capital Human capital is a broad concept which identifies human characteristics which can be acquired and which increase income. It is commonly taken to include peoples’ knowledge and skills, acquired partly through education, but can also include their strength and vitality, which are dependent on their health and nutrition. Human capital theory focuses on health and education as inputs to economic production. This is in contrast to the concept of human development which views health and education as intrinsically valuable outcomes to be placed alongside economic production as measures of human welfare. The problem in investing is to match skills with machines. It is not a question of either investing in people or investing in machines, both are necessary.
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 2 Rates of Return Investment policy should be judged by the important criterion referred to as Rates of Return If there is one naira (money) to invest it makes sense to invest it in the activity which generates most income. Rates of return calculations simply tell us where the money goes furthest – men and machines If human and physical capital are complements then increasing human capital raises the rate of return on physical capital. The underlying rate of technical progress in an economy, by which is meant the increase in output due to factors other than measured inputs, may depend on how much educated labour there is in the economy.
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 3 Human Resources and Development Knowledge of the determinants and consequences of population size, distribution, structure, and change in population is a necessary tool to planning and implementing any human resources and development programme. For instance, q the knowledge of the age structure, particularly the number of young children under five years, will enable planners to plan ahead of time for the provision of primary schools facilities for an adequate and effective primary education. q the knowledge of the number of graduates from the universities in the next two or three years time will enable the government to create more jobs. q the knowledge of high level of unemployment in the urban areas will enable the government to redirect population away from the rapidly growing urban areas, by eliminating the in-balance in economic and social opportunities, in both urban and rural areas. Otherwise, the agricultural labor force will dwindle and the nation might not be able to feed its people, which will negate the planned objectives of a self-reliant nation.
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 4 The Role of Human and Physical Capital in Growth The development of human capital has been recognized by economists to be a key prerequisite for a country’s socioeconomic and political transformation. Among the generally agreed causal factors responsible for the impressive performance of the economy of most of the developed and the newly industrializing countries is an impressive commitment to human capital formation. This has been largely achieved through increased knowledge, skills and capabilities acquired through education and training by all the people of these countries. In fact, the differences in the level of socio-economic development across nations is attributed not so much to natural resources and endowments and the stock of physical capital but to the quality and quantity of human resources. Nigeria’s investment in human resources has been on the decline at all levels of governance with unprecedented economic and social consequences
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 5 Relationship between Human Capital Development and Economic Growth Research findings have shown as follows: Burnett et al (1995) found that massive investment in both primary and lower secondary school significantly explained the development ‘miracle’ experienced in East Asia. Ramirez et al (1997) explored two way linkages between economic growth and human development empirically with the help of crosscountry statistics. The study argues that public expenditures on health and education represent especially important links in determining the strength of the relationship between economic growth and human development. The study concludes that though both human development and economic growth should be encouraged together, human development should be given first priority.
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 5 Relationship between Human Capital Development and Economic Growth In Nigeria, several studies have been carried out in an attempt to provide quantitative evidence to the growth-human capital nexus. Odusola (1998) found that human capital, proxied by real capital and recurrent expenditure on education, is positively related to growth. Adamu (2003) undertook an empirical investigation to determine the impact of human capital formation on economic growth in Nigeria between 1970 and 2000. The results indicate that investment in human capital in the form of education and training can lead to economic growth because of its impact on labour productivity. Chete and Adeoye (2003) explored the association between human capital investment and economic growth in Nigeria. The paper observed a mismatch between the manpower needs of the country and the skills turned out by the educational system. Uwatt (2003) provided empirical evidence on the role of human resource development proxied by enrolment in educational institutions on economic growth in Nigeria. The results showed that human capital development does not only contribute positively to economic growth in Nigeria, but its impact is strong and statistically significant. This occurs despite the decline in the quality of education at all levels since the mid 1980 s.
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 6 Global Trends in Education, Training and Development Training is one of the most important functions in any country. You may have brilliant systems and technology in place, but if your employees are incompetent there is little hope. The field of Education, Training and Development (ETD) has developed significantly over the last few years; there has been increasing recognition of the need for skilled people. People play a crucial role in a nation’s ability to provide products and services, as well as ability to increase productivity and economic growth. The role of ETD is therefore essential, especially in Nigeria where our human resources are underdeveloped and the potential of Nigerians has not yet been fully realized. No country can sustain economic development and international competitiveness if its human resources are not developed to contribute significantly to the economy.
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 6 Global Trends in Education, Training and Development There is need for Nigeria to have additional national mechanisms to accelerate skills development, such as the National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS) and the Joint Initiative on Priority Skills Acquisition (JIPSA), in support of the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for Nigeria (ASGIN). JIPSA would aim to increase the development of skills needed for economic growth in Nigeria. Today, it becomes desirable to set up Nigerian Qualifications Authority (NQA) and seriously skew skills development legislation on the side of ETD practitioners, in addition to further supplementing the legislative framework with sound and professional ETD practices.
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 6 Global Trends in Education, Training and Development The international field of ETD is quite established, and current trends and best practices are as follows: Strategic focus: Aligning ETD practices with overall growth and development strategy. ETD governance: Focusing on the proper governance of the ETD function, in line with corporate governance principles. Proactive needs analysis: Running training needs analyses proactively, with a direct link to business goals and future priorities. Blended learning: Using a blend of different methodologies to facilitate learning, with a particular emphasis on electronic learning. Performance improvement: No longer doing training purely for the sake of training; there is a shift towards delivering only training that improves the business. Learning culture: Realizing that training is a waste of time if there is not a learning culture - an environment conducive to learning and growth - in place.
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 6 Global Trends in Education, Training and Development Outcomes-based learning: There is a global shift towards outcomesbased learning, in which the focus is on clear outcomes and applied competencies rather than a great deal of interesting but inapplicable information. Learner support: Training departments are developing focused learner support strategies to support learning and remove obstacles to learning and growth. Mentoring and coaching: Training alone is not enough; supportive mentors and coaches are needed in the workplace to accelerate learning and growth. Training measurement: Measuring the impact of training based on clear tangibles in terms of the financial value of training. Talent management: ETD is being integrated into talent management strategies, in which talented employees are given opportunities to develop their talents further so that their potential can be optimized in the workplace.
4. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH 4. 6 Global Trends in Education, Training and Development There is an initiative by the NSE to establish Nigerian Engineering Education Association (a Division of Nigerian Society of Engineers) that will leverage on the trends and best practices of the international field of ETD for human capital formation in engineering, science and technology for accelerated economic development and growth in Nigeria
5. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S GROWTH 5. 1 The Need for a Coordinated National Apprenticeship Programme in Nigeria In the USA, the decision to undertake to establish workable company apprenticeship programme arose as a result of the manufacturers being alarmed at the large preventable wastes incurred because their workers lacked fundamental trade knowledge. However, a vigorous coordinated national apprenticeship programme came into existence with the passage of the Fitzgerald Act in 1937. A similar system of apprenticeship arose in Nigeria as a family institution, as a means of supplying artisans for the various crafts then in existence and as a means of propagating the heritage of the family. In addition, as the county developed economically, there were more bicycles, auto-cycles, cars and trucks and there was need for them to be serviced and repaired. A new breed of occupations, distinct and different from the traditional ones thus emerged.
5. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S GROWTH 5. 1 The Need for a Coordinated National Apprenticeship Programme in Nigeria This form of apprenticeship is a good means of teaching skill but it is not without its disadvantages, which include lack of programmed training. The masters teach their apprenticeships as work comes, not as planned, and there is lack of end of course test or examination to standardize the level of craftsmanship and differences in standards of craftsmanship from one employer or master to another. Today, we have so many artisans trained under this apprenticeship system in Nigeria. These persons are not certificated and in many cases constitute wastage of resources and danger to life and property. Consequently, formal institutions have been established to train craftsmen in various trades but over the years, there has been a serious neglect of these institutions in Nigeria.
5. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S GROWTH 5. 2 The Influx and Preferences of Expatriate Technicians and Artisans Expatriate bricklayers, carpenters, tillers, plumbers and electricians are currently the darling of the Nigerian construction industry. And they are indeed having a field day repatriating half of the estimated yearly N 900 bn they make to their home countries. According to Industry analysis, there are over one million foreign artisans currently operating in the country, mostly, from smaller West African Countries including Benin Republic, Togo and Ghana, while a sizeable number of Chinese and South Korea is also operating in the local construction industry to the detriment of local artisans in the industry. Ololade (2011) quotes Segun Olutade, Executive Director of Shelter Watch Initiative, a Non Governmental Organization (NGO) that led a protest against the influx of Chinese artisans into the country and their subsequent patronage by Nigerian employers as this has led to serious undermining of local artisans’ interests. More worrisome is the news that the Nigerian building construction industry loses N 450 bn yearly due to the dearth of indigenous artisans even as they are acknowledged to be very crucial to the growth in the sector. This was the finding of a recent research conducted by the Lagos State Vocational Education Board (LASTVEB).
5. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S GROWTH 5. 3 Skills Gap in the Nigerian Technical Education System Shortage of adequate skilled artisanship across the various sectors of the society has for long been identified as a bane to development in the country. For instance, as far back as 1980, the planners of the Fourth National Development Plan (FNDP) observed that shortages of skilled manpower constituted the most serious bottleneck to the capacity of the economy to absorb the increasing volume of investment made possible by oil revenue. However, the Third National Development Plan (TNDP) made specific mention of the building artisans stating that ‘the categories of masons and carpenters constituted the largest deficit in the estimated manpower requirements by major occupational categories’ and that about 245, 000 masons, carpenters and electricians or 56. 6 percent of all manpower requirements were projected as being needed between 1975 and 1980. Today, in spite of the unavailability of any dependable record, shortages of highly skilled and employable artisans is already been experienced in many urban areas where massive unemployment currently exists.
5. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S GROWTH 5. 4 COREN Commissioned Visit to Technical Colleges in Nigeria (2011) Kogi State Niger State 1. Government Technical College, Ankpa 2. Government Technical College, Dekina 3. Government Technical College, Idah 4. Government Technical College, Mopa 5. Government Technical College, Oboroke, Okene 1. Government Technical College, Kuta-Shiroro 2. Government Technical College, Iyagi, Bida 3. Government Technical College, Kontagora 4. Government Technical College, New Bussa 5. Government Technical College, Minna 6. Government Technical College, Suleja
5. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S GROWTH 5. 4 COREN Commissioned Visit to Technical Colleges in Nigeria (2011) Training programmes that are not in reality with changing times. For example, automobile mechanics is still being taught in the old way even when modern cars are computerized. The implication is that these products simply procure a hammer, spanner, screw driver and a dirty second hand dress and set up shops as motor mechanics to be patronized by trained engineers to fix problems with their state-of-the-art cars. The State Government is not investing enough in technical education. Without ETF intervention the system would have totally collapsed. It must be noted that ETF was not primarily intended for intervention at that level and with the refocusing of the fund to tertiary education, what happens?
5. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S GROWTH 5. 4 COREN Commissioned Visit to Technical Colleges in Nigeria (2011) Most teaching staff of the College do not have COREN registration and some do not even know what COREN is all about. They do not also know NBTE unfortunately in practical terms. This is attributable to the MOU signed between COREN and NBTE with both regulatory bodies abdicating their responsibilities at the level of technical college education. There has been no accreditation of programmes by NBTE which event has suffered so many postponements at the instance of the State Government each time a date was fixed by NBTE for the exercise. Low enrolments in the various trades with that of the girl child being abysmally low
5. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S GROWTH 5. 4 COREN Commissioned Visit to Technical Colleges in Nigeria (2011) High attrition rates in terms of graduands of the technical colleges who prefer to go and complete their studies in regular secondary schools. In most cases this is because of the State Government policy by which WAEC fees of regular secondary school pupils are paid but that of NABTEB is not. Poor laboratory and field work facilities Lack of adequate number of computers to train the students in Information and Communication Technology Inadequate office accommodation for staff most of whom stay under shades
5. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S GROWTH 5. 4 COREN Commissioned Visit to Technical Colleges in Nigeria (2011) Lack of drawing offices and equipment for technical drawing courses Neglect of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) issues Lack of adequate number of qualified staff to teach the students as the Federal Colleges of Education (Technical) who are to produce the technical teachers themselves lack the needed practical exposure Lack of funding of the technical colleges to procure consumables needed for daily practical classes. There is embargo on payment of any kind of fees or charges by the State Government, yet Government is not providing the funding required. Lack of boarding facilities Lack of adequate classrooms and associated furnishings
PHOTOSPEAK: GOVERNMENT TECHNICAL COLLEGE, ANKPA College Signboard Welding and Fabrication Department Bench for Practical Woodwork Infrastructural Decay Typical Classroom
ETF Intervention Projects …with Mr. Jerry Onoja, Vice Principal (Academics)
PHOTOSPEAK: GOVERNMENT TECHNICAL COLLEGE, DEKINA The Technical College has been converted to GSS Odu …with the Principal, Mr. S. O. Dege’s family far away from the premises of the College …with the Principal, Mr. S. O. Dege at the Anyigba Police Station as his relation’s vehicle hit an Okada and he came to the rescue
PHOTOSPEAK: GOVERNMENT TECHNICAL COLLEGE, IDAH Entrance to GTC Idah; No signboard Infrastructure Decay
ETF Intervention …with the Principal, Mr. Umaru, N. A (JP) and one other staff of the College
PHOTOSPEAK: GOVERNMENT TECHNICAL COLLEGE, OBOROKE, OKENE Decaying Infrastructure ETF Intervention Abandoned Project
PHOTOSPEAK: GOVERNMENT TECHNICAL COLLEGE, MOPA Existing Infrastructure
Science Laboratories ETF Intervention
Computer Studio Typical Classroom Situation … with Principal Mr. J. O Olorunyomi, Vice Principal (Administration), Mr. Joseph Oluwole Ayodele and Vice Principal (Academics), Mr. J. S. Moses
6. CONCLUSION On the basis of dismal performance of human capital development in Nigeria’s economy and the role technical education has to play in Nigeria’s growth, the following recommendations are made: § The Federal Government must restructure the country’s apprenticeship system and expand vocational training centers for the training of artisans such as masons, auto mechanics, plumbers, carpenters, bricklayers among others. § Implement an educational system in which master tradesmen of the required crafts should be employed to handle practical aspects of the artisanship training at the country’s vocational and skills acquisition centers. This practice promises the advantage of exposing the trainees to practical aspects of their training, and enable them interact with the practicing artisan, who they might come to see and regard as their professional colleague. § Government should re-structure the curricula of higher education, making it more practical oriented. More importantly in technical and engineering courses, adequate practical that could solve day-to-day problems should be emphasized. Due emphasis should be placed on on -the-job training.
6 CONCLUSION Government should partner with the private sector to promote investment in the economy. It is an expanding economy that promotes employment. A trained labour that is unemployed cannot contribute meaningfully to economic growth. Improvement in employment also encourages physical capital formation. § School intake especially into the university system should be of quality type. This will ensure quality graduates that are employable. Also, there is need to improve the funding of school system in Nigeria from Primary School to University. § These suggestions no doubt betray little consideration for the roadside apprentice even as he grows to become a menace to the society. There must therefore be a way of certifying the road side artisans so they can be registrable by appropriate regulatory bodies. §
6. CONCLUSION The initiative by the NSE to establish Nigerian Engineering Education Association (a Division of Nigerian Society of Engineers) that will leverage on the trends and best practices of the international field of ETD for human capital formation in engineering, science and technology for accelerated economic development and growth in Nigeria should be accelerated § There is need for Nigeria to have additional national mechanisms to accelerate skills development, such as the National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS) and the Joint Initiative on Priority Skills Acquisition (JIPSA), in support of the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for Nigeria (ASGIN). JIPSA would aim to increase the development of skills needed for economic growth in Nigeria. § It is desirable to set up Nigerian Qualifications Authority (NQA) and seriously skew skills development legislation on the side of ETD practitioners, in addition to further supplementing the legislative framework with sound and professional ETD practices. §
Thanks for your kind attention