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Elizabethan England Shakespeare
What happened since Chaucer? • • • Tudors come to power, England is united under one monarchy – End of the War of the Roses (English Civil War) King Henry VIII (1509 -1547) can’t decide on a wife, has six. – Henry’s marital unhappiness causes England to break with Catholic church – Church of England established so Henry can get a divorce – This causes split in country between Catholics and member of the Church of England King Edward IV (1547 -1553) brings peace with France – Died at the age of fifteen Queen Mary I (1553 -1558) re-establishes Catholicism – Persecutes Protestants – Burned 300 dissenters at the stake, earning her the name “Bloody Mary” Queen Elizabeth I (1558 -1603) – Begins England’s Golden Age and the Renaissance • Art, Music, Poetry and Drama flouirsh – Restores Protestant Church England France invade each other – a lot. Also wars with Scotland, Spain, and Ireland
Who is Queen Elizabeth? • Ruled from 1558 -1603 • Became queen at age 25 • Daughter of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII • One of the most successful and loved rulers of England
Who is Queen Elizabeth? • Ruled during the Renaissance Period – Especially loved music, dance, and theater • Nickname: the “Virgin Queen” • Never married – Had many marriage proposals – Never had any children – Used her flirtatious nature to get what she wanted from male rulers of other nations
Who is Queen Elizabeth? • Was Anglican (Church of England) like her father • Completely opposed to Catholicism because she blamed the pope for her being called a “bastard” • TOLERATED Catholics because she knew that if she allowed some religious freedom she would have her subjects’ loyalty
Structure of Tudor Society MONARCH NOBILITY GENTRY YOEMAN MERCHANTS LABORERS
How did people live? Social Class and the Church • • • Life was governed by two important factors- religion and social structure. – social order and position represented a structured world – the bible advocated the ‘natural order’ • generally the population believed this and knew their place or degree. England was a largely rural society – as much as 90% of the population lived in the countryside. – The Gentry owned the majority of land, and were by birthright the ‘natural leaders ‘of the community. • This group counted for just 1% of the population Queen Elizabeth I established The Church of England, officially splitting from the Catholic Church – laws regarding religion were established • Everyone is required to attend church service every Sunday and on holidays • People were fined for not attending church • Illegal to be a Catholic priest
• • How did people live? Dwellings Made of wood Type of house and amount of furniture depended on social class – Typical Tudor houses were timber framed with thatched straw roofs, the gaps were filled with wattle and daub (twigs covered in a mud and dung plaster) or bricks for those who could afford it. • Houses started to be built for comfort, not just protection • More windows • Built around courtyards and gardens • Most of the furniture was made of wood. – Only important people had chairs, the rest had to sit on stools or benches. – Rich people had big wooden four poster beds. – Many poor people would probably just have had a straw mattress to sleep on and a pot to cook their meals in.
How did people live? Food • • • The richer you were, the more variety of food you had, but it depended on what foods were in season. Food was salted or smoked to preserve it, and often spices were added to hide the taste of rotten food. Meat, fish, bread and cheese were popular Vegetables and fruit were not eaten as much because it was thought they were not good for you. Ale and cider were common drinks, even for the children, as the water was dirty. Most households had two meals a day: one at about 11 am - Noon, the other about 6 -7 pm.
How did people live? Clothing • • Wealthy Men wore: – a shirt and doublet (a bit like a jacket), and padded hose, like thick tights. Wealthy Women wore: – long sleeved dresses with skirts to the floor. It was fashionable to make the skirt stick out using a cage or bumoll (padded material tied around the hips). Poor people wore simple, loose-fitting clothes made from woolen cloth. – Most men wore trousers made from wool and a tunic which came down to just above their knee. – Women wore a dress of wool that went down to the ground. They often wore an apron over this and a cloth bonnet on their heads. Clothing was regulated by Sumptuary Laws – Dictated what color and type of clothing, furs, fabrics, and trims were allowed to persons of various ranks or incomes – Created to control extravagant clothing and to make sure people dressed within their social class
How did people live? Education and Work • • Education – Few people went to school, those that did were the sons of the wealthy (not the daughters) – The boys would go to grammar school everyday but Sunday – They would learn Latin, religious studies, Greek, arithmetic and music. – Majority of the population was illiterate and not educated Work – Most children and adults worked each day tending their crops and animals • Most men and boys worked in the fields, and would hunt and keep animals to provide their meat. – Some men had special jobs such as blacksmiths making tools. • Women and girls looked after the home, cooking, washing, making clothes and candles, milking the cows and growing herbs for medicines and cooking. – There was a rise of modern commerce with cloth and weaving leading the way. • A prosperous merchant class emerged, causing many people to move to cities like London and Birmingham
How did people live? Cities • London – largest city in Western Europe – Most important trading city in England – City was dangerous and filthy • Great risk of fire because most buildings made of wood • A large population and the lack of a structured sewage system, meant that all waste was simply dumped into the River Thames • There was a lot of disease • The government didn’t help the poor, so crime was high – After the Protestant Reformation (and creation of Church of England) theaters and other forms of entertainment were banned in the City • Theaters, bear baiting dens, dance halls, and other establishments moved across the River Thames
Elizabethan Theater • During Elizabeth’s reign theater changed • New dramas were called “Elizabethan Dramas” • Designed to entertain the masses • Plays had religious undertones, but were not designed to teach religion or morality • Contained historical allusions that the audience would understand
Elizabethan Theater cont’d • Commoners liked the occasional comedies or the comic relief in serious plays • Called “groundlings” because they paid very little money (a penny) to stand on the ground to watch plays • One ticket would pay for a day at theater—usually three plays in one day • There were no female actors in Tudor times. Boys played women's parts.
William Shakespeare • April 23, 1564 -April 23, 1616 • Born in Stratford-on. Avon, England • Married to Anne Hathaway when he was 18 and she was 26 • Three children: – Susannah – Judith – Hamnet (died in childhood)
Shakespeare cont’d • 1584 -1594—completely missing from any historical records • Believed to have left his home and traveled with a traveling drama troupe performing at carnivals and fairs all over England Scotland • The next records of him show him in London. He never lived at home with his family again.
Shakespearean Theater • 1594—records indicate Shakespeare was in London – Joins “The Lord Chamberlain’s men” – Acted in the Rose Theater • 1598—Shakespeare and his troupe build “The Globe”
The Globe • Nicknamed “The Wooden O” because it was not rectangular but oval in shape – Could hold 2000 -3000 people • Most expensive seats were closest to the stage • Very important guests were often seated ON the stage
What did Shakespeare contribute to society? • He wrote tragedies, comedies, and histories that are still read, studied, and performed today • He wrote 154 sonnets about love and life • He added words and phrases to the English language
Shakespeare’s Writing • Tragedy: A dramatic play that ends in catastrophe, often death for the main character. • Tragic hero: The main character(usually someone noble) in a tragedy who has a tragic flaw, which is a weakness that leads to their downfall. • Comic Relief: Following a serious scene with a lighter, humorous one.