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Elizabethan Age 1558 – 1603 “Golden Age of English History” Elizabethan Age 1558 – 1603 “Golden Age of English History”

Elizabethan Age Facts • 1558 -1603 • Queen Elizabeth I under rule • Relatively Elizabethan Age Facts • 1558 -1603 • Queen Elizabeth I under rule • Relatively peaceful era – Catholic Church and Protestants had become civil with one another – Battles between the monarchy & parliament had come to an end before this era • Birth of the English Renaissance – Cultural & artistic movement in literature – Produced many writers such as Shakespeare

Common Beliefs • Believed the earth was the center of the universe and fixed Common Beliefs • Believed the earth was the center of the universe and fixed firmly in place • Believed the planets provided influence which affected humans • Astrologers believed they could predict future events based on the pattern of the stars – Also believed they could plan the course of one’s life based on the placement of the stars on one’s birthday

Marriage Customs • Arranged marriages – Arranged by the fathers of the bride and Marriage Customs • Arranged marriages – Arranged by the fathers of the bride and groom in order for both sides of the family benefit – Arranged for wealth & reputation – The choice of bride weighed heavily on the dowry the bride & bride’s family would give for the groom • A dowry was an amount of money, goods, and property the bride would bring to the wedding ceremony – Women had very little choice in who her husband would be – Brides & grooms many times met for the 1 st time on their wedding day

Marriage Customs • The Age of Consent – With parental permission • Legal for Marriage Customs • The Age of Consent – With parental permission • Legal for boys to marry at 14 • Legal for girls to marry at 12 – Without permission, legal age was 21 • Wedding Arrangements – With the local church – Always religious ceremony – Conducted by a minister

Marriage Customs • Wedding Announcement – 1 st Stage = Crying the Banns • Marriage Customs • Wedding Announcement – 1 st Stage = Crying the Banns • Announcement of a couple’s intent to marry • Still practiced today • Had to be announced in the church 3 times on 3 consecutive Sundays or Holy days • Marriage not announced beforehand were considered to be conducted in secrecy & illegal • Marriage & Wedding Bonds – Fast track legal marriage – Occurred when a couple married in haste

Marriage Customs • Marriage & Wedding Bonds (cont’d) – Acted as a contract, security, Marriage Customs • Marriage & Wedding Bonds (cont’d) – Acted as a contract, security, and proof to a bishop that the issue of a marriage license was lawful – Accompanied by a sworn statement – Required only one reading of the Banns

William Shakespeare William Shakespeare

Life of William Shakespeare • Known as “The Bard of Avon” • World’s most Life of William Shakespeare • Known as “The Bard of Avon” • World’s most performed & admired playwright • World’s greatest & most famous poet & playwright • Born approximately on April 23, 1564 in Stratfordupon-Avon, England

Shakespeare’s Birth Place Shakespeare’s Birth Place

Stratford-upon-Avon, England Stratford-upon-Avon, England

Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Father: John Shakespeare – Whittawer: maker, worker and Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Father: John Shakespeare – Whittawer: maker, worker and seller of leather goods such as purses, belts & gloves – Also was a dealer of agricultural commodities such as wool, grain, malt and other farm produce – Active in Stratford-upon-Avon government until financial difficulties began – Illiterate – Died 1601 (60 years old)

Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Mother: Mary Arden – Married John Shakespeare in Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Mother: Mary Arden – Married John Shakespeare in 1557 – Had eight children • William was the 3 rd child and first son – Her role in the family was to bring up the Shakespeare family – Died September 9 th, 1608 of unknown causes (68 years old)

Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • 7 Brothers & Sisters – Joan & Margaret Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • 7 Brothers & Sisters – Joan & Margaret : Died in infancy – Gilbert, Joan, Anna : Died at 8 years old (Plague) – Richard & Edmund : surviving siblings

Shakespeare’s Family Tree Shakespeare’s Family Tree

Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Education – Attended the “Free School” Elementary School Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Education – Attended the “Free School” Elementary School • Motivation = Parents’ Illiteracy • No proof of enrollment • Learned how to read & write – Learned how to read from a “hornbook” » Hornbook = a single sheet of paper mounted on a board and protected by a thin transparent layer of horn » Normally had alphabet and Lord’s Prayer printed on it

Example of Hornbook Example of Hornbook

Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Education (cont’d) – At age 7, Shakespeare began Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Education (cont’d) – At age 7, Shakespeare began Grammar School • Studied Latin, Latin Grammar, ancient writers, and mythology • Learned to write and recite Latin – At age 13 or 14, Shakespeare was withdrawn from school by his father so that he could help father run his business – Also received education from his mandatory attendance at church, where he was influenced by the Bible, The Book of Common Prayer, & Foxe’s Acts & Monuments

Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Married Anne Hathaway – November 28, 1582 – Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Married Anne Hathaway – November 28, 1582 – William was 18; Anne was 26 – Anne 3 months pregnant when they married – Marriage done in haste

Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Children – 1 st child: Susanna • Born Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Children – 1 st child: Susanna • Born 6 months after William & Anne married • May 26, 1583 – 1585: • Twins born: Hamnet & Judith – Hamnet died @ age 11 for unknown causes

Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • The “Lost” Years – 1586 to 1592 – Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • The “Lost” Years – 1586 to 1592 – Shakespeare moved to London • Believed that Shakespeare moved to London to avoid prosecution for poaching deer • Leaves wife and children in Stratford – Became involved in theatre • Strange’s Men • Lord Chamberlain’s Men – Began writing poetry and plays – No record of Shakespeare’s activities until 1592 when Shakespeare is criticized by a rival playwright

Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Career – Gained fame about age 21 – Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Career – Gained fame about age 21 – 1594: Charter member of Lord Chamberlain’s Men (later became known as King’s Men in 1603 when King James I took reign) – Was an actor for about 20 years, which is where he earned most of his money (1585 -1605) – Wrote 37 plays • Wrote for kings • Was paid approximately $40 to write a play – Wrote 154 sonnets & 2 book length narrative poems

Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Shakespeare’s Friends – Ben Johnson • English Renaissance Life of William Shakespeare (cont’d) • Shakespeare’s Friends – Ben Johnson • English Renaissance dramatist, poet, and actor – Christopher (Kit) Marlowe • English dramatist, poet and translator of Elizabethan Era • Foremost Elizabethan tragedist before Shakespeare – Richard Burbage • Star of William’s theatre company, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men

Ben Johnson Ben Johnson

Christopher Marlowe Christopher Marlowe

Richard Burbage Richard Burbage

Shakespeare’s Inspiration • Most of his characters were REAL people-many based on historical figures Shakespeare’s Inspiration • Most of his characters were REAL people-many based on historical figures • Got ideas from other plays and poems in lieu of his own personal experiences or current events from local material • Romeo & Juliet was based on the long narrative poem The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet written by Arthur Brookein 1562 • 1599 Julius Caesar was written; it was inspired by Plutarch’s Lives of noble Grecians and Romans

Shakespeare’s Works • Shakespeare’s early works can be divided into 4 groups: 1. The Shakespeare’s Works • Shakespeare’s early works can be divided into 4 groups: 1. The Classical Plays (comedies & tragedies) 2. The History Plays 3. The Narrative Poems and Sonnets 4. Experiments in comedy

Shakespeare’s Works (cont’d) • 4 Major Works – Romeo & Juliet – Julius Caesar Shakespeare’s Works (cont’d) • 4 Major Works – Romeo & Juliet – Julius Caesar – Hamlet – Macbeth

Shakespeare’s Plays • Popular & pleased his audiences • Published 7 years after his Shakespeare’s Plays • Popular & pleased his audiences • Published 7 years after his death • 1623 – First Folio published – Collection of the supposed “true original copies” of Shakespeare’s plays

Shakespeare’s Genius • Had an understanding of the people • Skilled with words • Shakespeare’s Genius • Had an understanding of the people • Skilled with words • The English language and theater has never been the same since Shakespeare

Shakespeare’s Retirement • In 1610, William retired to his New Place – William bought Shakespeare’s Retirement • In 1610, William retired to his New Place – William bought home in 1597 – 2 nd largest house in Stratford – Only house to be made of brick at the time

Shakespeare’s Death • Died April 23, 1616 – 52 years old – Died of Shakespeare’s Death • Died April 23, 1616 – 52 years old – Died of unknown causes – In will, left wife “second best” bed • Wife inherited 1/3 of his income of the estate and to remain in house • Principal bequests were to his daughter, Judith • Daughter, Susanna, received 2 houses, all other lands & menial residue

Shakespeare left the following words on his tombstone: Good friend for Jesus sake forebeare, Shakespeare left the following words on his tombstone: Good friend for Jesus sake forebeare, to digg the dust encloased heare, Bleste be ye man yt spares thes stones, And curst be he yt moves my bones. •

Why Shakespeare? • Used more words than any other writer – 21, 000 words Why Shakespeare? • Used more words than any other writer – 21, 000 words – Words he created: • Critic, assassinate, bump, gloomy, suspicious, hurry – Phrases he created • • “It was Greek to me” “A sorry sight” “In a pickle” “To be or not to be” “All that glitters is not gold” “elbow room” “The long and short of it”

Why Shakespeare? • Appeals to all kinds of people in all times, nations, ages, Why Shakespeare? • Appeals to all kinds of people in all times, nations, ages, and levels • Serious, funny, angry, ironical… – Described as quiet, polite, good-natured man, & loyal friend • Does not make moral judgments • Captures in words and actions all the great problems that have tormented human beings throughout the ages. We take comfort in the fact that the hero has flaws and is not perfect.

The Globe Theatre The Globe Theatre

Facts about the Globe Theatre • Built in 1599 • Where most of Shakespeare’s Facts about the Globe Theatre • Built in 1599 • Where most of Shakespeare’s plays were performed • Built from the wood of “The Theatre” • London’s most magnificent theatre ever seen • Located across the Thames River • Shakespeare was co-owner of “The Globe Theatre” • Motto: “All the world’s a stage” • Also known as the “Wooden O”

Location of “The Globe Theatre” Location of “The Globe Theatre”

Facts about the Globe Theatre (cont’d) • • June 1613 – Theatre burned to Facts about the Globe Theatre (cont’d) • • June 1613 – Theatre burned to the ground Rebuilt in 1613 1642 – Closed by the Puritans 1996 – Reconstructed as “The New Globe Theatre”

Then & Now 1599 1996 Then & Now 1599 1996

Layout of “The Globe Theatre” • Could hold approximately 3, 000 people • To Layout of “The Globe Theatre” • Could hold approximately 3, 000 people • To advertise a play, a colored flag was flown indicating the type of play that would be performed • Large, circular or octagonal design, 3 stories high • At the base of the stage, was the “pit” for the groundlings to stand watch the play – Cost to stand: one penny • Around the base was 3 levels of seating – First 2 levels = Two penny Rooms – Third Level = Penny Gallery

Layout of “The Globe Theatre” Layout of “The Globe Theatre”

Facts about Performances • Minimum scenery, natural lightning, words in play gave time & Facts about Performances • Minimum scenery, natural lightning, words in play gave time & day of play • NO female actresses • Minimum furniture props • Pig bladders filled with blood were used in death/stabbing scenes • No curtains

Actors • Had to be able to fence, tumble, dance, sing, and play two Actors • Had to be able to fence, tumble, dance, sing, and play two roles in one play • Had to have strong voices with good elocution (no microphones) • Lord Chamberlain’s Men – Acting company of “The Globe Theatre” – Company consisted of 10 -12 adults, 6 boy apprentices & 2 -3 stage hands

Costumes • Authentic to the actor’s times • Received by buying costumes cheaply from Costumes • Authentic to the actor’s times • Received by buying costumes cheaply from servants who inherited them • Color of Costumes was symbolic: • • • Dark Blue: Servant or Apprentice Scarlet: ruler Yellow: jealousy Orange: pride Azure blue: honor Rose: gallantry

Women • Theatre was not appropriate for women • Only the extremely wealthy women Women • Theatre was not appropriate for women • Only the extremely wealthy women were allowed in theatre but had to be escorted by a Lord • In the “Pit, ” the Ladies of the Evening often solicited business from the groundlings before performance

Changes of “The Globe Theatre” • • • Moved once across the Thames River Changes of “The Globe Theatre” • • • Moved once across the Thames River Burned down Closed once because of the plague Shut down by Puritans Reconstructed in 1996