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eleventh edition organizational behavior eleventh edition organizational behavior

Chapter 3 Values, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H Chapter 3 Values, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E D I T I O N WWW. PRENHALL. COM/ROBBINS Power. Point Presentation by Charlie Cook

OBJECTIVES LEARNING After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Contrast terminal OBJECTIVES LEARNING After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Contrast terminal and instrumental values. 2. List the dominant values in today’s workforce. 3. Identify the five value dimensions of national culture. 4. Contrast the three components of an attitude. 5. Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior. 6. Identify the role consistency plays in attitudes. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2

7. State the relationship between job satisfaction and behavior. 8. Identify four employee responses 7. State the relationship between job satisfaction and behavior. 8. Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction. LEARNING O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d) After studying this chapter, you should be able to: © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3

Values Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is Values Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end -state of existence. Value System A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4

Importance of Values Ø Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals Importance of Values Ø Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures. Ø Influence our perception of the world around us. Ø Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong. ” Ø Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 5

Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. Instrumental Values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6

Values in the Rokeach Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New Values in the Rokeach Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). E X H I B I T 3– 1 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 7

Values in the Rokeach Survey (cont’d) Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values Values in the Rokeach Survey (cont’d) Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). E X H I B I T 3– 1 (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8

Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists Source: Based on W. C. Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications, ” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds. ) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123– 44. E X H I B I T 3– 2 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 9

Dominant Work Values in Today’s Workforce E X H I B I T 3– Dominant Work Values in Today’s Workforce E X H I B I T 3– 3 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 10

Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders Ethical Climate in Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders Ethical Climate in the Organization © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11

Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Power Distance The extent to which a society accepts Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Power Distance The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. low distance: relatively equal distribution high distance: extremely unequal distribution © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Individualism Collectivism The degree to which people prefer to act as Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Individualism Collectivism The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups. A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Achievement The extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness, Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Achievement The extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness, materialism and competition. Nurturing The extent to which societal values emphasize relationships and concern for others. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 15

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence. Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfilling social obligations. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16

The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures • Assertiveness • Future Orientation • Gender differentiation The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures • Assertiveness • Future Orientation • Gender differentiation • Uncertainty avoidance • Power distance • Individual/collectivism • In-group collectivism • Performance orientation • Humane orientation Source: M. Javidan and R. J. House, “Cultural Acumen for the Global Manager: Lessons from Project GLOBE, ” Organizational Dynamics, Spring 2001, pp. 289– 305. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 3– 4 17

Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. © 2005 Prentice Hall Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. 18

Types of Attitudes Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an Types of Attitudes Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth. Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 19

The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Desire to reduce dissonance • Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of individual influence over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 20

Measuring the A-B Relationship Ø Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors Measuring the A-B Relationship Ø Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. Moderating Variables • Importance of the attitude • Specificity of the attitude • Accessibility of the attitude • Social pressures on the individual • Direct experience with the attitude © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 21

Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 22

An Application: Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel An Application: Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 23

Sample Attitude Survey © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Sample Attitude Survey © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 24

Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Ø Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Ø Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: – Participating in diversity training that provides for selfevaluation and group discussions. – Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds. – Exploring print and visual media that recount and portray diversity issues. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 25

Job Satisfaction Ø Measuring Job Satisfaction – Single global rating – Summation score Ø Job Satisfaction Ø Measuring Job Satisfaction – Single global rating – Summation score Ø How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? – Job satisfaction declined to 50. 4% in 2002 – Decline attributed to: • Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighter deadlines • Less control over work © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 26

The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Ø Satisfaction and Productivity – Satisfied The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Ø Satisfaction and Productivity – Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive. – Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. Ø Satisfaction and Absenteeism – Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Ø Satisfaction and Turnover – Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. – Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 27

How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Exit Voice Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Active How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Exit Voice Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions. Loyalty Neglect Passively waiting for conditions to improve. Allowing conditions to worsen. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 28

Responses to Job Dissatisfaction Source: C. Rusbult and D. Lowery, “When Bureaucrats Get the Responses to Job Dissatisfaction Source: C. Rusbult and D. Lowery, “When Bureaucrats Get the Blues, ” Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 15, no. 1, 1985: 83. Reprinted with permission. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 3– 5 29

Job Satisfaction and OCB Ø Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) – Satisfied employees Job Satisfaction and OCB Ø Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) – Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 30

Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Ø Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: – They Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Ø Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: – They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive. – They are less likely to turnover which helps build longterm customer relationships. – They are experienced. Ø Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 31