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ELASTIC REBOUND THEORY ELASTIC REBOUND THEORY

EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENON EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENON

Energy Magnitude Relationship Energy release increases by 32 times with increase of 1 magnitude Energy Magnitude Relationship Energy release increases by 32 times with increase of 1 magnitude

Earthquake/Inertia Forces ACCELERATION DECELERATION Earthquake/Inertia Forces ACCELERATION DECELERATION

EL-CENTRO, 1940 EARTHQUAKE EL-CENTRO, 1940 EARTHQUAKE

(Before Earthquake) (After Earthquake) (Before Earthquake) (After Earthquake)

House Elements Resist Horizontal Forces Roof Diaphragm f 1 f 2 f 3 Floor House Elements Resist Horizontal Forces Roof Diaphragm f 1 f 2 f 3 Floor Diaphragm Shear Wall fsum = f 1 + f 2 + f 3 Foundation Cripple Wall

Damage Resulting from Base Shear Damage Resulting from Base Shear

BEFORE AN EARTHQUAKE 1. Store heavy objects near ground or floor. 2. Secure tall BEFORE AN EARTHQUAKE 1. Store heavy objects near ground or floor. 2. Secure tall objects, like bookcases to the wall. 3. Secure gas appliances to prevent broken gas lines and fires. 4. Learn where your exits, evacuation route, and meeting places are. Know the safe spot in each room. 5. Keep emergency items , such as a flashlight, first aid kit and spare clothes, food in your car or office.

DURING AN EARTHQUAKE 1. If indoors, stay in the building. 2. Take shelter under DURING AN EARTHQUAKE 1. If indoors, stay in the building. 2. Take shelter under solid furniture, i. e. tables or desks, until the shaking stops. 3. Keep away from overhead fixtures, windows, cabinets and bookcases or other heavy objects that could fall. Watch for falling plaster or ceiling tiles. 4. If driving- STOP, but stay in the vehicle. Do not stop on bridge, under trees, light posts, electrical power lines or signals. 5. If outside, stay outside. Move to an open area away from buildings, trees, power lines and roadways.

AFTER AN EARTHQUAKE 1. Check for injuries. Give first aid as necessary. 2. Check AFTER AN EARTHQUAKE 1. Check for injuries. Give first aid as necessary. 2. Check for safety hazards: fire, electrical, gas leaks, etc. and take appropriate actions. 3. Do not use telephones and roadways unless necessary so that these are open for emergency uses. 4. Be prepared for aftershocks, plan for cover when they occur. 5. Turn on your radio/TV for an emergency message. Evacuate to shelters as instructed. 6. Remain calm, try to reassure others. Avoid injury from broken glasses etc.

An aerial view of the destruction of houses in Bhachau and Anjar towns during An aerial view of the destruction of houses in Bhachau and Anjar towns during the Gujarat, 2001 earthquak

Devastated village - Jawaharnagar which was relocated at this site after the Anjar earthquake Devastated village - Jawaharnagar which was relocated at this site after the Anjar earthquake of 1856. The same has collapsed as no aseismic design interventions were made during the rehabilitation and reconstruction of this village.

Post Office Building, Killari Damaged but not collapsed Post Office Building, Killari Damaged but not collapsed

Public Building in Sastoor Damaged but not collapsed Public Building in Sastoor Damaged but not collapsed

MEERP Programme Before MEERP After MEERP MEERP Programme Before MEERP After MEERP

1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE: RAILROAD SYSTEM 1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE: RAILROAD SYSTEM

1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE: POUNDING 1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE: POUNDING

Symmetric Plan Less Opening Symmetric Plan Less Opening

Interlocking of Stones Interlocking of Stones

Interlocking by Through Stones (Haider) Interlocking by Through Stones (Haider)

Through Stones in Existing Walls Through Stones in Existing Walls

Seismic Bands (Very Important) Seismic Bands (Very Important)

Construction Practice (Marathwada Region) Construction Practice (Marathwada Region)

Construction Practice (Satara, Kolhapur Region) Construction Practice (Satara, Kolhapur Region)

Strengthening of Existing Houses Strengthening of Existing Houses

Confidence in Earthquake-resistant Measures Confidence in Earthquake-resistant Measures

Confidence Building in Retrofitting Confidence Building in Retrofitting

Collapse of open ground story RC frame residential building in Bhuj. Collapse of open ground story RC frame residential building in Bhuj.

2001 Gujarat Earthquake 2001 Gujarat Earthquake

2001 Gujarat Earthquake 2001 Gujarat Earthquake

Buildings with First-Soft Story Buildings with First-Soft Story

Buildings with Heavy Water Tanks Buildings with Heavy Water Tanks

EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS SDOF system m x EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS SDOF system m x

EQUATION OF MOTION Free Body Diagram m kx Governing Equation EQUATION OF MOTION Free Body Diagram m kx Governing Equation

MDOF System m. N k. N mi m 2 (b) Free body diagram k MDOF System m. N k. N mi m 2 (b) Free body diagram k 2 m 1 k 1 (a) MDOF system Figure 2. 4

Distribution of earthquake forces in multi-story building Distribution of earthquake forces in multi-story building

DUCTILE DETAILING OF R. C. C. STRUCTURRES (IS: 13920 -1993) • To Add Ductility DUCTILE DETAILING OF R. C. C. STRUCTURRES (IS: 13920 -1993) • To Add Ductility and Toughness (Special confining reinforcement) • Should be applied for all R. C. C. Structures Seismic Zone IV and V Seismic Zone III but I >1 Seismic Zone III (Industrial Buildings) Seismic zone III (> 5 Storey) • Flexural Memberes Stress > 0. 1 fck b/D > 0. 3 b > 200 mm D > Clear Span/4

Condition assessment • • • Tapping by hammer Rebound Hammer Indentation method Ultrasonic Pulse Condition assessment • • • Tapping by hammer Rebound Hammer Indentation method Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Transmission Test Covermeter / Pachometer Radiography Chloride Content Testing for Depth of Carbonation Tests on Concrete Cores

New stirrups New reinforcement Old reinforcement Roughened surface Drilled hole in slab Roughened surface New stirrups New reinforcement Old reinforcement Roughened surface Drilled hole in slab Roughened surface Slab Stirrups Beam Jacket Strengthening of column

New stirrups New reinforcement Old reinforcement Anchor bars Drilled hole in slab New reinforcement New stirrups New reinforcement Old reinforcement Anchor bars Drilled hole in slab New reinforcement New stirrups Old reinforcement Strengthening of column

Roughened surface New reinforcement weld Beam Strengthening Roughened surface New reinforcement weld Beam Strengthening

Strengthening of bare frame Strengthening of bare frame

Strengthening of masonry Strengthening of masonry

FRP strengthening FRP strengthening

Non-isolated Base-isolated Non-isolated Base-isolated

Fixed base building Base-isolated building Fixed base building Base-isolated building

SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION m. N x. N m 2 x 2 m 1 x SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION m. N x. N m 2 x 2 m 1 x 1 k. N k 2 k 1 mb Base isolator x &&g

Elastomeric bearings Elastomeric bearings

Sliding bearings Sliding bearings

110 12 30 Steel Plate 36 Rubber 6 1. 5 12 110 12 30 Steel Plate 36 Rubber 6 1. 5 12

Response of five-story building isolated by LRB system Response of five-story building isolated by LRB system

Response of a five-story isolated by FPS system Response of a five-story isolated by FPS system

DAMAGE OF BRIDGES DURING EARTHQUAKES DAMAGE OF BRIDGES DURING EARTHQUAKES

DUCTILE DETAILING OF R. C. C. STRUCTURRES (IS: 13920 -1993) • To Add Ductility DUCTILE DETAILING OF R. C. C. STRUCTURRES (IS: 13920 -1993) • To Add Ductility and Toughness • Should be applied for all R. C. C. Structures Seismic Zone IV and V Seismic Zone III but I >1 Seismic Zone III (Industrial Buildings) Seismic zone III (> 5 Storey) • Flexural Memberes Stress > 0. 1 fck b/D > 0. 3 b > 200 mm D > Clear Span/4

The American River Bridge & installed friction pendulum bearing The American River Bridge & installed friction pendulum bearing

Thjorsa Bridge with Elastomeric seismic isolation bearings (Ice land) Thjorsa Bridge with Elastomeric seismic isolation bearings (Ice land)

Location: 1 k. m. SW of Pelabuhan Building : 4 -Storeyed MR RCC. Isolator Location: 1 k. m. SW of Pelabuhan Building : 4 -Storeyed MR RCC. Isolator : 16 HDR Manufacturer: MRPRA, UK

Location: Rancho Cucamonga California. Isolator : HDR Engineers: Taylor & Gaines; Reid & Tarics. Location: Rancho Cucamonga California. Isolator : HDR Engineers: Taylor & Gaines; Reid & Tarics. Year : 1985

Location: Los Angeles, California. Isolator : LRB Engineers: KPFF Year : 1991 Location: Los Angeles, California. Isolator : LRB Engineers: KPFF Year : 1991

Location: East Los Angeles California. Isolator : HDR Engineers: Fluor-Daniel Year : 1990 Location: East Los Angeles California. Isolator : HDR Engineers: Fluor-Daniel Year : 1990

Location: Sendai, Miyako Provience Isolator : HDR Year : 1990 Location: Sendai, Miyako Provience Isolator : HDR Year : 1990

Tuned mass damper, Huis Ten Bosch tower, Nagasaki Tuned mass damper, Huis Ten Bosch tower, Nagasaki

Damper Connected Buildings m 1, n c 1, n k 1, n m 1, Damper Connected Buildings m 1, n c 1, n k 1, n m 1, n-1 c 1, n-1 k 1, n-1 m 1, i c 1, i k 1, i m 1, 3 c 1, 3 k 1, 3 m 1, 2 c 1, 2 k 1, 2 m 1, 1 c 1, 1 k 1, 1 Building A kd cd m 2, m c 2, m k 2, m m 2, 3 c 2, 3 m 2, 2 k 2, 3 c 2, 2 m 2, 1 k 2, 2 c 2, 1 k 2, 1 Building B