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EKT 104 ANALOG ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS [LITAR ELEKTRONIK ANALOG] DR NIK ADILAH HANIN BINTI ZAHRI EKT 104 ANALOG ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS [LITAR ELEKTRONIK ANALOG] DR NIK ADILAH HANIN BINTI ZAHRI [email protected] edu. my 1

INTRODUCTION ü Course Outcomes ü Course Delivery ü Course Assessment ü Lecturers ü Book INTRODUCTION ü Course Outcomes ü Course Delivery ü Course Assessment ü Lecturers ü Book References üReview of BJT 2

COURSE OUTCOMES 1. CO 1 : Ability to ANALYZE dc , small-signal analysis and COURSE OUTCOMES 1. CO 1 : Ability to ANALYZE dc , small-signal analysis and frequency performance of basic configurations of amplifier (BJT and FET). 2. CO 2 : Ability to DESIGN basic configurations of BJT and FET amplifiers. 3. CO 3 : Ability to ANALYZE and PERFORM simple design of classes A, B and AB of BJT and FET power amplifiers in term of their frequency response, equivalent circuit, thermal management and gain. 4. CO 4 : Ability to DESCRIBE the principles operation of some special electronic devices such as Triac, UJT, SCR and ANALYZE their application circuits. 3

COURSE DELIVERY Number of Units : 4 Lecture : 3 hours/week x 14 weeks COURSE DELIVERY Number of Units : 4 Lecture : 3 hours/week x 14 weeks = 42 hours Lab/Tutorial: 2 hours per week x 14 weeks = 28 hours 4

COURSE ASSESSMENT • Final Examination • Mid Term Test 1 • Mid Term Test COURSE ASSESSMENT • Final Examination • Mid Term Test 1 • Mid Term Test 2 • Lab Assessment • Lab test 50% 10% 20% 10% 5

LECTURERS • DR NIK ADILAH HANIN BT ZAHRI adilahhanin@unimap. edu. my • DR ONG LECTURERS • DR NIK ADILAH HANIN BT ZAHRI [email protected] edu. my • DR ONG BI LYNN [email protected] edu. my • DR AMIZA AMIR [email protected] com 6

BOOK REFERENCES Textbook: • Donald A. Neamen, ‘MICROELECTRONICS Circuit Analysis & Design’, 3 rd BOOK REFERENCES Textbook: • Donald A. Neamen, ‘MICROELECTRONICS Circuit Analysis & Design’, 3 rd Edition’, Mc. Graw Hill International Edition, 2007 Reference Books: • Boylestad, R. L. , Nashelsky, L. , “Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory”, 8 th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002. • Thomas L. Floyd, ‘Electronic devices: Conventional Current Version’, 7 th ed. ’, Prentice Hall • Gates, E. D. , “Introduction to Electronics”, 5 th Edition, Delmar Cengage Learning. 7

INTRODUCTION TO BJT AMPLIFIER Bipolar Junction Transistor (Review) 8 INTRODUCTION TO BJT AMPLIFIER Bipolar Junction Transistor (Review) 8

FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY • Current? • Voltage? • Resistance? • Power? 9 FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY • Current? • Voltage? • Resistance? • Power? 9

FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY • Current? The flow/movement of electrons from negatively charged atoms to FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY • Current? The flow/movement of electrons from negatively charged atoms to positively charged atoms. • Voltage? The force or difference of potential that causes electrons to move/flow in a circuit • Resistance? The opposition to the flow of the current • Power? Rate of energy dissipated in a circuit 10

CONDUCTORS, INSULATORS & SEMICONDUCTORS • Conductors Materials that contains a large number of free CONDUCTORS, INSULATORS & SEMICONDUCTORS • Conductors Materials that contains a large number of free electrons • Insulators Materials that prevent the flow of electricity • Semiconductors Material that have electrical conductivity between a conductor and insulators. 11

N-TYPE & P-TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS • n-type: § to increase the no. of conduction-band electrons N-TYPE & P-TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS • n-type: § to increase the no. of conduction-band electrons in intrinsic silicon (such as As, P, Sb) § majority carrier: electrons • p-type: • to increase the no. of holes in intrinsic silicon (such as B, In, Ga) • majority carrier: holes 12

WHAT IS PN JUNCTION? still remember this? What’s the different between these two figures? WHAT IS PN JUNCTION? still remember this? What’s the different between these two figures? Which one is forward-biased and reverse-biased? 13

BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR • Three-layer device used to amplify and switch power and voltage BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR • Three-layer device used to amplify and switch power and voltage • Constructed from semiconductors materials such as silicon and germanium • 2 types: NPN & PNP 14

Remember these symbols? Still remember about BJT? Which one is NPN, PNP? What is Remember these symbols? Still remember about BJT? Which one is NPN, PNP? What is C, B, E…? 15

BJT CURRENT The emitter current ( i. E ) is the sum of the BJT CURRENT The emitter current ( i. E ) is the sum of the collector current (i. C) and the base current (i. B) i. B << i. E and i. C 16

BJT • Basic structure and schematic symbol approximate equivalents transistor symbols npn type pnp BJT • Basic structure and schematic symbol approximate equivalents transistor symbols npn type pnp type 17

REFRESH… • Common-emitter current gain, β • Range: 50 < β < 300 • REFRESH… • Common-emitter current gain, β • Range: 50 < β < 300 • Common-base current gain, α • Range: always slightly less than 1 • The current relationship between these 2 parameters are as follows: 18

REFRESH… • BJT as amplifying device • B-E junction is forward-biased • B-C junction REFRESH… • BJT as amplifying device • B-E junction is forward-biased • B-C junction is reverse-biased 19

BIASING OF BJT • Remember…! for normal operation Äemitter-base junction is always forwardbiased AND BIASING OF BJT • Remember…! for normal operation Äemitter-base junction is always forwardbiased AND Äcollector-base junction is always reversebiased 20

CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION 1. Common-base circuit • Input enters emitter-base circuit and output leaves from CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION 1. Common-base circuit • Input enters emitter-base circuit and output leaves from collector-base circuit 2. Common-emitter circuit • Input enters base-emitter circuit and output leaves from collector-emitter circuit 3. Common collector circuit • Input enters base-collector circuit and output leaves from emitter-collector circuit 21

DC ANALYSIS: COMMON-EMITTER CIRCUIT Transistor current -voltage characteristics of the commonemitter circuit 23 DC ANALYSIS: COMMON-EMITTER CIRCUIT Transistor current -voltage characteristics of the commonemitter circuit 23

DC ANALYSIS: COMMON-EMITTER CIRCUIT Common-emitter circuit with an npn transistor Common-emitter dc equivalent circuit, DC ANALYSIS: COMMON-EMITTER CIRCUIT Common-emitter circuit with an npn transistor Common-emitter dc equivalent circuit, with piecewise linear 24 parameters

DC ANALYSIS: COMMON-EMITTER CIRCUIT Usually VBE(on) = 0. 7 V Common-emitter dc equivalent circuit DC ANALYSIS: COMMON-EMITTER CIRCUIT Usually VBE(on) = 0. 7 V Common-emitter dc equivalent circuit Look for calculation examples in Neamen (Chapter 5), Example 5. 3 & 5. 4 25

DC ANALYSIS: LOAD LINE & MODES OF OPERATION Figure A Base on Figure A, DC ANALYSIS: LOAD LINE & MODES OF OPERATION Figure A Base on Figure A, using KVL around B-E loop: Base-emitter junction characteristics and the input load line 26

DC ANALYSIS: COMMON-EMITTER CIRCUIT Base on Figure A, 2 end points of the load DC ANALYSIS: COMMON-EMITTER CIRCUIT Base on Figure A, 2 end points of the load line are found by setting IC = 0 So, VCE = VCC = 10 V When VCE = 0, IC = VCC/RC = 5 m. A IBQ is the value from the previous slide = 15 µA So, ICQ = βIBQ If β = 200, ICQ = 3000 µA = 3 m. A Common- emitter transistor characteristics and the collector-emitter load line So, VCEQ = 4 V 27

BJT AS AN AMPLIFIER • Amplification of a small ac voltage by placing the BJT AS AN AMPLIFIER • Amplification of a small ac voltage by placing the ac signal source in the base circuit • Vin is superimposed on the DC bias voltage VBB by connecting them in series with base resistor RB: • Small changes in the base current circuit causes large changes in collector current circuit 28

BJT AS AN AMPLIFIER (CONT’) (a) A bipolar inverter circuit to be used as BJT AS AN AMPLIFIER (CONT’) (a) A bipolar inverter circuit to be used as a time-varying amplifier (b) The voltage transfer characteristic 29

SELF- READING Textbook: Donald A. Neamen, ‘MICROELECTRONICS Circuit Analysis & Design’, 3 rd Edition’, SELF- READING Textbook: Donald A. Neamen, ‘MICROELECTRONICS Circuit Analysis & Design’, 3 rd Edition’, Mc. Graw Hill International Edition, 2007 Chapter 5: The Bipolar Junction Transistor Page: 287 -296, 303 -309. 30