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Eighth Annual Reference Research Forum, American Library Association Annual Conference, Atlanta, June 16, 2002 Eighth Annual Reference Research Forum, American Library Association Annual Conference, Atlanta, June 16, 2002 Search and Rescue Repair Strategies of Remote Users Searching the Online Catalog Nancy B. Turner, Electronic Resources Librarian, Syracuse University Susan E. Beck, Head of Reference & Research Services, New Mexico State University

Research Questions °Do users in remote locations repair searches? °What types of repair strategies Research Questions °Do users in remote locations repair searches? °What types of repair strategies do they employ? °How can this information inform our work as reference librarians?

Transaction Logs °Traditional OPAC Logs °Web Server Logs °Appropriate Uses °Drawbacks Transaction Logs °Traditional OPAC Logs °Web Server Logs °Appropriate Uses °Drawbacks

User Population °Carnegie I—Research Extensive/ Hispanic Serving ° 15, 000 enrollment °Doctoral degrees in User Population °Carnegie I—Research Extensive/ Hispanic Serving ° 15, 000 enrollment °Doctoral degrees in 5 colleges: Agriculture, Arts & Sciences, Business, Education, Engineering

Physical Environment °Two library buildings: Branson & Zuhl °Two periodicals areas °Two reference desk Physical Environment °Two library buildings: Branson & Zuhl °Two periodicals areas °Two reference desk areas °Two stack areas

Endeavor catalog Endeavor catalog

Search Screen Search Screen

Methodology: Data collection ° Apache server log extraction n n 7 two hour intervals Methodology: Data collection ° Apache server log extraction n n 7 two hour intervals over 3 month period Various times: am, pm, weekends ° Created Library IP address map ° Charted search locations by IP address: n n Campus (NMSU domain) Off campus (non-NMSU domain) Staff Zuhl & Branson public service areas

Methodology: Data treatment I °Text files imported to spreadsheet °Imported three columns only n Methodology: Data treatment I °Text files imported to spreadsheet °Imported three columns only n IP address, Date/Time, Search Query °Mapped IP’s to library locations °Selected only unmediated, remote locations to review °Divided spreadsheet into 3 worksheets n All, Unmediated, Staff

Methodology: Data Treatment II Search_Code = TALL replaced with Search=Title Search_Code = JALL replaced Methodology: Data Treatment II Search_Code = TALL replaced with Search=Title Search_Code = JALL replaced with Search=Journal Title Search_Code = FT*& replaced with Search=Keyword Search_Code=NAME replaced with Search=Author Search_Code=SUBJECT replaced with Search=Subject Search_Code=CALL replaced with Search=Call Number %2 B = replaced with + %3 A = replaced with : %27 = replaced with ‘ %3 F = replaced with ? %2 C= replaced with , %22 = replaced with “

Cgi search syntax translation 1. GETSearch_Arg=tankers+full+of+trouble&Search_ Code=TALL&PID=19913&SEQ=20020314130448&CNT= 25&HIST=1&SEARCH_FROM_TITLES_PAGE 2. GETSearch_Arg=tankers full of trouble &Search=TITLE Cgi search syntax translation 1. GETSearch_Arg=tankers+full+of+trouble&Search_ Code=TALL&PID=19913&SEQ=20020314130448&CNT= 25&HIST=1&SEARCH_FROM_TITLES_PAGE 2. GETSearch_Arg=tankers full of trouble &Search=TITLE &PID=19913&SEQ= 20020314130448&CNT=25&HIST=1&SEARCH_FROM_ TITLES_PAGE User searching for the title, “Tankers full of trouble” from the Titles display listing page

Search query translation Search query translation

Methodololgy: Data Treatment III °Selected “searches” based on syntax GETSearch_Arg= °Coded searches by search Methodololgy: Data Treatment III °Selected “searches” based on syntax GETSearch_Arg= °Coded searches by search type JT, T, S, A, CN, B, K, C °Tallied searches by type & area

March 14 Tallies March 14 Tallies

Excerpt from search log GETSearch_Arg=new mexico litter controll&Search=Keyword GETv 1=1&ti=1, 1&Search_Arg=new mexico litter controll&Search=Keyword Excerpt from search log GETSearch_Arg=new mexico litter controll&Search=Keyword GETv 1=1&ti=1, 1&Search_Arg=new mexico litter controll&Search=Keyword GETti=21, 0&Search_Arg=new mexico litter controll&Search=Keyword GETPAGE=sb. Search GETSearch_Arg=new mexico litter&Search=Keyword GETti=11, 0&Search_Arg=new mexico litter&Search=Keyword GETti=21, 0&Search_Arg=new mexico litter&Search=Keyword GETti=31, 0&Search_Arg=new mexico litter&Search=Keyword GETSearch_Arg=texas litter laws&Search=Keyword GETSearch_Arg= litter laws&Search=Keyword

Data Analysis °After coding all discrete searches, we then re-coded those searches based on Data Analysis °After coding all discrete searches, we then re-coded those searches based on repair types.

Search Repair Levels °Word Repairs occur at word level °Concept Repairs involve the concept(s) Search Repair Levels °Word Repairs occur at word level °Concept Repairs involve the concept(s) searched. A concept is typically multi-word or a phrase. It can be multi-concept °Search Repairs show knowledge of search types or knowledge of formatting within search types

Word Level Repairs Spelling (WS) multi-meter multimeter 18 th eighteenth Plural/Singular (WP) duns dun Word Level Repairs Spelling (WS) multi-meter multimeter 18 th eighteenth Plural/Singular (WP) duns dun groups group Capitalization (WC) Doll doll

Word Level Example °GETSearch_Arg=bertrand russel& Search=Keyword °GETSearch_Arg=bertrand russell& Search=Keyword °GET Search_Arg=raceism in unimployment &Search=Keyword Word Level Example °GETSearch_Arg=bertrand russel& Search=Keyword °GETSearch_Arg=bertrand russell& Search=Keyword °GET Search_Arg=raceism in unimployment &Search=Keyword & °GET Search_Arg=racism in imployment &Search=Keyword

Concept Level Repairs Punctuation: Add/drop city of ladies “city of ladies” christine pisan punctuation Concept Level Repairs Punctuation: Add/drop city of ladies “city of ladies” christine pisan punctuation (CP) pisan, christine Broaden: Drop concept/word (CB) How to use a digital multimeters Pregnancy—week by week Pregnancy Change to another concept (CC) English Men & Manners in the Eighteenth Century 18 th Century British Women Decline and Fall of Rome Edward Gibbon Narrow: Add concept/word (CN) “puerto rico” “English” pizan city of ladies Rephrase (CR) English Society in the 18 th Century Daily Life in Eighteenth Century England Ireland travel Ireland guidebook

Concept Level Example ° GETSearch_Arg=Patton&Search=Keyword ° GETSearch_Arg=General Georgo Patton &Search =Keyword (CN) ° GETSearch_Arg=Leadership&Search=Subject Concept Level Example ° GETSearch_Arg=Patton&Search=Keyword ° GETSearch_Arg=General Georgo Patton &Search =Keyword (CN) ° GETSearch_Arg=Leadership&Search=Subject (CC) ° GETSearch_Arg=Military Leadership& Search =Subject (CN, ST ° GETSearch_Arg=General Patton leadership& Search=Subject (CN) ° GETSearch_Arg=George Patton leadership& Search=Subject (CR) ° GETSearch_Arg=Leadership style of George Patton& Search=Subject (CR, CN)

Search Level Repairs Invert words/names (SI) Edward Gibbon, Edward Add/drop article (SA) A Doll Search Level Repairs Invert words/names (SI) Edward Gibbon, Edward Add/drop article (SA) A Doll House Switch search type (ST) A Doll House (Subject) A Doll House (Title) Limit search (SL) Home care home care (limited to specific library location or format or language, etc. ) tf 140 s 73 (Keyword) tf 140 s 73 (Call Number)

Search Level Example I ° GET Search_Arg=child abuse laws&Search=Keyword ° GET Search_Arg=child abuse laws& Search Level Example I ° GET Search_Arg=child abuse laws&Search=Keyword ° GET Search_Arg=child abuse laws& Search=Subject ° GET Search_Arg=Troy Boone&Search=Author ° GET Search_Arg=Boone, Troy&Search=Author ° GET Search_Arg=A Doll House&Search=Title ° GET Search_Arg=Doll House&Search=Title

Search Level Example II ° GET Search_Arg=Babylonian Mathematics and the Plimpton 322&Search= Keyword ° Search Level Example II ° GET Search_Arg=Babylonian Mathematics and the Plimpton 322&Search= Keyword ° GET Search_Arg=Babylonian Mathematics and the Plimpton 322&Search= Subject ° GET Search_Arg=Babylonian Mathematics and the Plimpton 322&Search= Title … 2 minutes pass… ° ° GET Search_Arg=History of Babylonian Mathematics&Search=Title GET Search_Arg=History of Babylonian Mathematics&Search=Journal Title GET Search_Arg=History of Babylonian Mathematics&Search=Subject GET Search_Arg=History of Babylonian Mathematics& Search= Keyword

Preliminary findings: Search types °Although no specific search type emerges as an obvious favorite Preliminary findings: Search types °Although no specific search type emerges as an obvious favorite Keyword Subject Title 28% 19% 16% Jrnl Title 15% Author 10% Boolean 9% Call # 3% ° 44% of all searches are for known items (title, journal title, author & call number)

Preliminary findings: Word level repairs Preliminary findings: Word level repairs

Preliminary findings: Concept level repairs Preliminary findings: Concept level repairs

Preliminary findings: Search level repairs Preliminary findings: Search level repairs

Preliminary findings: Overall repairs Preliminary findings: Overall repairs

Preliminary findings °Over 50% catalog uses are non-staff n n Unassisted user searches. ……………. Preliminary findings °Over 50% catalog uses are non-staff n n Unassisted user searches. ……………. 56% Staff/Mediated user searches………. . 44% °Higher incidence of concept level repairs than word and search level °Preferred repair strategy is to switch search types °High incidence of retyping exact search

Further study °Extend data collection time periods °Increase # of data collection sessions °Include Further study °Extend data collection time periods °Increase # of data collection sessions °Include different user population °Extend analysis to include n n n Length of time spent repairing search Search types leading to more repairs Number of repairs made per search

Questions? For more information, contact: Nancy B. Turner at nbturner@library. syr. edu Susan E. Questions? For more information, contact: Nancy B. Turner at [email protected] syr. edu Susan E. Beck at [email protected] nmsu. edu