- Количество слайдов: 79
Edward Burman Wuishan, 1 April 2005
欧盟对中小企业的界定 * Apprentices or students engaged in vocational training with apprenticeship or vocational training contracts are not included in the headcount.
中小企业是欧洲经济的发动机 Günter Verheugen, Member of the European Commission Responsible for Enterprise and Industry 2千3百万家中小企业 占全部企业数 99 % 提供了7千5百万个 作岗位 贡献了大量的卓越的企业家群体和创新成就
中国的中小企业 促进中小企业法 1 st January 2003 Small Enterprises: 50 -100 Medium-Sized Enterprises: 101 -500 占据国内企业总数 99. 04 % 业产值比重75% 提供了75%的城市劳动力就业机会 Source: State Economic & Trade Commission (http: //www. setc. gov. cn/)
中小企业的分类 (7 -3 -2003) 业部门: Medium-sized enterprises in this category should employ 300 or more people, with annual revenue and total assets exceeding RMB 30 million and 40 million respectively. 建筑业: Medium-sized enterprises in this sector should employ 600 or more people, with annual revenue and total assets more than RMB 30 million and 40 million respectively. 批发与零售: Medium-sized enterprises in this sector should employ 100 or more people, with annual revenue exceeding RMB 30 million. 交通运输: Medium-sized enterprises in this sector should employ 500 or more people, with annual revenue exceeding RMB 30 million. 饭店餐饮: Medium-sized enterprises in this sector should employ 400 or more people, with annual revenue exceeding RMB 30 million. Source: State Economic & Trade Commission (http: //www. setc. gov. cn/)
Porter’s five forces 波特的竞争5要素 供应商 买家 竞争对手 潜在新同行 候补者
新的要素 Suppliers Buyers Competitors Potential new entrants Substitutes
为什么选择意大利? 与中国的历史渊源: Giovanni da Pian del Carpini (1245) to Prato (2005) 纺织业、时装业、制鞋业、食品业---享誉全球 典型的中小企业经济特征
Chinese companies in Prato Source: http: //www. comune. prato. it/immigra/cinesi/imprese/statoatt/gif/tsata 1. gif
案例分析: Wang Liping 1980 -1989: 服装业的一普通员 1989: 投资 $35, 000 从事服装用织线，专供当地 华人服装 厂 2005: 开始销售服装用织线和缝纫机配件 营业额 2003: $720, 000 利润 2003: $41, 000 (+ 50% on 2002)
Why Italy? Long historical links with China: Giovanni da Pian del carpini to Prato World leader in textiles, fashion, shoes and food An SME economy
Why Italy? Long historical links with China: Giovanni da Pian del carpini to Prato World leader in textiles, fashion, shoes and food An SME economy
An SME economy 意大利中小型公司为主的经济特征 Source: Small Businesses, Job Creation and Growth, OECD, 1997
What matters most for Italians? 意大利人的价值观 朋友 85. 5% 钱 53. 5% 健康 80. 4% 家庭 92. 7% 休闲 61. 8% 作 72. 8% Source: ISTAT, 2001 Armani; Barilla; Benetton; Cerruti; Ferrari; Gucci; Pirelli; Stefanel; Versace; Zegna.
Groups of small and medium enterprises 中小型公司组成集团 50% 意大利制造业（超过50名员 ）企业组成集团 等量于其他国家的中型企业 Source: Monferrà, S. ‘I Gruppi di PMI’, Economia e Management, March 2000.
集团 Biella: 羊毛 Vigevano: 制鞋 Carpi: 毛织品 Prato: 纺织业 Faenza: 陶瓷业 区域 B V C PF
A Fashion “pole” 时装业的行业圈子 TV & Radio Sportswear Finance Magazines Newspapers Haute couture
Cultural factors 文化因素 Economic factors 经济因素 时装业体系
Economic factors 经济因素 丝绸: Cistercians Florence Renaissance (13 th century) (14 th century) 羊毛: Cistercians Florence Renaissance (13 th century) (14 th century)
Historical fashion firms 历史上的时装公司 1881 - The Cerruti company founded in Biella; 1910 - Trussardi leather glove company founded; 1918 - Adele Fendi establishes a fur business in Rome; 1920 - Elsa Schiaparelli achieves instant success as a designer; 1923 - Salvatore Ferragamo opens a shoe store in Hollywood (1936 in Florence); 1948 - Ottavio Missoni meets wife and business partner Rosita; 1950 - Emilio Pucci opens his couture house; 1950 - Roberto Capucci opens a small atelier in Rome.
Pitti: birth of modern Italian fashion 比蒂: 现代意大利时装业的发源地 July 1952: 9 fashion houses and 16 producers of sports and boutique clothing showed in the White Room; Florence: artistic heritage: Giotto, Michelangelo, Leonardo, Botticelli fashion: Gucci, Emilio Pucci, Ferragamo, Dolce & Gabbana
The fashion industry in Italy today 意大利时装业的今天 企业数: 80, 000 雇员数: 920, 000; 营业额: € 81 billion
Fashion as an integrated system 作为一套完整体系的时装业 设计师 8, 178 公司 展会 80, 000 41 公关中介 杂志 5, 911 77
Key Success Factors 成功的关键 Creativity and Italian designers 创造性和意大利设计师 Flexible enterprises 灵活的产业结构 High quality standards of the textile industry 高质量的面料行业
把成长作为目标 1. Have growth as objective
把成长作为目标 Have growth as objective 2. Business idea as driver of growth 商业理念-成长 的驱动因素 Innovative product
把成长作为目标 Have growth as objective Business idea as driver of growth 商业理念-成长 的驱动因素 Innovative product New production method
跨国界的Tortellini 1961: Giovanni Rana started to work with his brothers and sisters in the family’s bakery, which made bread, pasta and cakes. Tortellini were produced to order: the filling was prepared on Thursday; tortellini were produced on Friday and Saturday; delivery was on Sunday. 1968: Giovanni Rana invented the first machine for making tortellini, raising production capacity from 50/60 kg a week to 10 kg an hour. 2005: Pastificio Rana is the leader in the European fresh pasta market.
把成长作为目标 Have growth as objective Business idea as driver of growth 商业理念-成长 的驱动因素 Innovative product New production method New means of distribution
Benetton行销体系 1965: Benetton established as family partnership; Business model: production after orders colour added after manufacture network of manufacturers and entrepreneurs 1978: reorganized as a limited liability company; 1990 s: 100 million garments sold worldwide; 7, 000 franchisees; 2005: 70% of production outsourced; only ‘critical’ phases of the production process are kept in-house: design, cut, dying, quality control & logistics; Benetton “builds” every collection starting from the targeted operating margin (average 20%) and moving backward to material used, product specifications, proposed price, etc. Big Charlie:
Big Charlie: 集约化物流中心 120 x 40 m, 30, 000 pieces a day Raw materials 450 outsourcers Logistics 13 factories Centre 84 agents (Big Charlie) 2000 freelance designers 7000 boutiques C U S T O M E R S 7 joint ventures Source: Fréry, Frédéric, Benetton ou l' entreprise virtuelle, 1999
保持家族制管理运营 Key operating data 2003 Ownership structure 2003 Revenues: € 1, 858 million Casualware: 84. 9% Units produced: 108 m Employees : 20% 11% 69% 6, 949 Source: Benetton Group Annual Report 2004
把成长作为目标 Have growth as objective Business idea as driver of growth 商业理念-成长 的驱动因素 3. Exploit business idea to the full 全面挖掘商业理念背后的内容 International Growth
Gucci古驰 1923: Founded in Florence by Guccio Gucci; Stores: Rome (1938) Milan (1951) New York (1953) London (1955) Paris (1963) Tokyo (1972) Hong Kong (1974)
把成长作为目标 Have growth as objective Business idea as driver of growth 商业理念-成长 的驱动因素 3. Exploit business idea to the full 全面挖掘商业理念背后的内容 International Growth Brand extension
vodka酒 Lt. Gen. Mikhail Kalashnikov, AK-47的发明人after being shot by German soldiers during World War II, 希望在他 的枪上留下好名字 Promoters of Kalashnikov vodka, which is 82% proof, say it is “made from grain harvested in Russia and water drawn from Lake Ladoga north of St. Petersburg” and is best drunk with friends. Source: Reuters, 22 September 2005
把成长作为目标 Have growth as objective Business idea as driver of growth 商业理念-成长 的驱动因素 3. Exploit business idea to the full 全面挖掘商业理念背后的内容 International Growth Brand extension Acquisitions
Focus relentlessly on our customers Drugstore. com Pets. com Alexia. com > A 9. com Amazon. com Visa
把成长作为目标 Have growth as objective 4. Focus on growth and delegate management 管理成长及授权管理 Business idea as driver of growth 商业理念-成长 的驱动因素 Exploit business idea to the full 全面挖掘商业理念背后的内容
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
Luxottica 品牌 家族品牌: Rayban Vogue Killer Loop Revo Arnette 设计师品牌: Anne Klein Brooks Brothers Bulgari Chanel Jill Sander Miu Moschino Prada Sergio Tacchini Versace Versus
Quarterly Sales 1994 -2003 $US millions Source: Luxottica Annual Report, 2004
1977 手推车 马达泵 吸尘器 清洁机 马达 清洁器 高压泵
发展历程 1977: Founded; Internal and external growth by take-overs; Largest producer of professional high pressure piston pumps in the world + professional cleaning equipment and professional and consumer high pressure washer sector; Turnover 2003: € 501 million; Employees: 2, 300; 2005: Interpump Group, 19 companies & 30 factories.
成绩 2003 Source: Interpump Group Annual Report, 2004
What is brand? 什么是品牌? 产品或服务产生的无形和有形的收益 全部的客户体验 The assets needed to communicate the experience: name; design; advertising; the product or service; distribution channel; reputation.
Star marketing 明星营销战略 Salvatore Ferragamo: Gloria Swanson, Marilyn Monroe, Joan Collins, Lana Turner, Marlene Dietrich, Katherine Hepburn, Greta Garbo, Rita Hayworth, Madonna. Nino Cerruti: Jean-Paul Belmondo, Orson Welles, Gerard Depardieu, Michael Douglas, Sharon Stone, Jack Nicholson, Harrison Ford, Clint Eastwood, Sean Penn, Tom Cruise; Valentino: Elizabeth Taylor, Jacqueline Kennedy, Farah Diba, Princess Margaret.
经济价值的进步和提升 商品 产品 服务 体验
“Experiencification” “By this I mean that offerings are now increasingly designed to be linked also to the mental and symbolic processes of customers including the meaning and purpose of their value-creating activities. ” – Richard Normann, Reframing Business: When the Map Changes the Landscape, London: John Wiley, 2001.
体验价值取代了功能性价值 Characteristics (which enhance base values) Modem RAM Benefits (performance elements requested by customers) Air Miles Portability 体验价值: Sensory Emotional Cognitive Behavioural Relational
Gucci古驰 1. The Family Company 家族企业 1923: Founded in Florence by Guccio Gucci; Stores: Rome (1938) Milan (1951) 1945 -1982: Second generation: Aldo and Rodolfo Gucci drive growth and internationalization; Stores: New York (1953) London (1955) Paris (1963) Tokyo (1972) Hong Kong (1974) 1982 -1987: Third generation: dispute and mismanagement.
Gucci 古驰 2. A Private Equity Fund Controlled Company 一家私人基金控制的公司 1987 -89 Investcorp: acquisition of all shares held by Aldo Gucci and his children; 1989 -1993 Investcorp and Maurizio Gucci: 50/50 Joint Venture; 1992 Near bankruptcy: Gucci Group loses more than US$ 40 million; 1993 September Investcorp: acquisition of Maurizio Gucci’s 50% holding; 1995 October Investcorp: flotation of 49% on New York and Amsterdam stock exchanges.
Gucci古驰 3. A Public and Multi-Brand Company 一家拥有多品牌的上市公司 1996: Sale of remaining 51% to public; 1997: Acquisition of Gucci Timepieces; 1999: Strategic Alliance with PPR; 1999 -2001: Multi-brand strategy & acquisitions: Yves Saint Laurent and YSL Beauté (100%) Sergio Rossi (70%) Boucheron (100%) Franchisee in Singapore, Australia and Malaysia (65%) Ladies’ ready-to-wear licensee Alexander Mc. Queen (51%) Bédat & Co. (85%) Bottega Veneta (78. 5%) Di Modolo (100%) Balenciaga (91%); Stella Mc. Cartney (50%).
Gucci speaks a single voice worldwide…… The Gucci Business Model 古驰商业模式 …. . from collections and advertising to store format and Gucci website……. . across all markets, channels and products under the supervision of a single Creative Director
市场进入和发展的壁垒 Formal Barriers Informal barriers
壁垒 1 关税 技术标准 产地证明 配额
壁垒 2 消费者负面意见 当地政府、经销商、同行业的负面态度 当地行业协会的负面态度
对策 Understand what the existing barriers and what are the likely barriers that might be raised in Europe and in particular in the most important European markets: 德国 法国 英国 意大利 Formulate country-specific strategies to contain these actual and potential barriers.
战略要点 1. Consumer preferences and market trends 2. Market segmentation 3. Positioning and competitive analysis 4. Distribution and retail plan 5. Entry strategy and organization 6. Financial plan
1. 消费者偏好与市场趋势 Fashion and garment products have high symbolic content; Correct balance of: style – design - status lifestyle price – quality technology of materials - practicality Fashion factor the key element in determining purchasing dynamics and influences, with different effects, several segments: menswear, womenswear, childrenswear; Operating in the fashion sector requires great creativity combined with flexibility and quick responses.
1. 1 Consumer preferences and market trends Consumers’ preferences are influenced by general fashion trends geographical features Europe is not a single market: linguistic and cultural differences different lifestyles different purchasing behaviours different distributive models (retail patterns) Analyse 4 -5 European markets in terms of: dimension expenditure capability consumption models and consumer behaviours (focus groups)
2. 市场细分 程序 The way in which the market is segmented is a very important strategic decision: each segment requires different competitive approaches critical factors of success vary according to segments In the garment market several combinations of variables have to be considered; One approach is to segment the market and then position the main brands according to these variables: price range main wearing occasion
2. 1 European segmentation map Business/ special occasion High price Medium/high price City sportswear Technical sportswear Designer brands Industrial brands Sportswear brands Medium price Medium/low price Activewear Jeans brands Activewear brands
3. 定位与竞争分析 Define the competitive arena, then Identify the main competitors in each country Analyse, for each competitor, the price positioning product characteristics distribution policies Analyse entry and launching policies of new entries American competitors European competitors Asian competitors
4. 经销与零售计划 European countries have different distributive models more assembled with large department stores (eg. UK) more fragmented with a lot of small- and medium-size independent shops (eg. Germany and Italy) mixture of department stores and small shops (eg. France and Spain) Distribution choices and approaches might be: to open monobrand shops, owned or in franchising to enter multibrand shops • large department stores (House of Frazer; Galerie Lafayette) • large department stores specialized in sportswear • small or medium stores
5. 进入战略与组织结构 Distribution approach Own Distribution Company Acquisition Distributor Brand Distributor Show room Distributor Agent Company
5. 1 Entry Strategy and Organization Costs and benefits of the two options should be taken into consideration Distribution Company (or Third Party Distributor) Outright Acquisition Less initial investment More gradual entry Faster entry • Define the local company structure • Define the local coordination and control structure • Define the local sales structure • Define company profile and characteristics (positioning, size, capabilities) • Define the local coordination and control structure • Define the structure local sales
6. 财务规划 The European entry strategy should be evaluated with a financial plan that will consolidate: The distribution plan The organisational costs of: the local branch the local coordination and control structure the local sales structure The result will be the definition of the financial plan and of the financial needs for entering the european market.
进入战略小结 Fashion Design Fashion/ Design Research 1. Target trends & value (man, woman, young) Fashion/ Design Research 2. Geographical area 3. Time 4. Chemical elements Design of the European collection: smart & chic Entry Strategy Communication Positioning Strategy 1. Target trends & value 2. Competitive analysis Market Analysis 1. Target trends & value 2. Competitive analysis Commercial Policy 1. Geographical area 2. Product range 3. Price policy Communicate Brand 1. Launch in Europe 2. Placing Distribution Plan Policy 1. Retail choice (franchise/contract/own) 2. Build up distribution Choice of Tools 1. Business card 2. Sponsorship 3. Events