- Количество слайдов: 42
Educazione per la Vita, Innovazione Sociale e Problem Solving Alfonso Molina Direttore Scientifico, Fondazione Mondo Digitale Professor of Technology Strategy, The University of Edinburgh Presentazione per Workshop “Meet No Neet. Il Passaporto per le Competenze del XXI Secolo, ” 12, June 2013, Roma.
Agenda 1. Education for Life 2. Innovazione Sociale 3. Problem Solving - Problem/s Definition or Analysis
Education for Life
Tecnologia Progressi Scientifici e Tecnologici Multipli Multi-piattaforme (hardware / software) Multi-modalità Cognitiva Ambienti Esperienziali Multi-livello Phyrtuality (Physical + Virtual) Big, Open Data e Contenuto
Società Processi di Innovazione Tecnologica e Sociale Aperti Reti Multi-organizzazione e Multi-settore Orientamento alla Conoscenza e alle Metodologie e Pratiche più Efficaci Crowdfunding – Crowdsourcing Apprendimento Attivo Individuale e Sociale (Brain-based)
Italia – Crisi (2013) -26. 000 imprese Disoccupati – >38% (15 -29 anni) (2012) Debito – 126% PIL Evasione fiscale – € 180 miliardi Crisi Economica, Evasione, Corruzione Costo di corruzione – € 60 miliardi Conflitto di interesse NEET – 2 milioni (15 -29 anni) Giovani – Precarietà, Disoccupazione Precari – Neets >3. 3 millioni Egoismo Individuale e Corporativo >24% over 60 (2000) >35% over 60 (2025) Invecchiamento della Popolazione Migrazioni Stranieri in Italia – 5. 4 millione (Gen 2012) Debolezze Istituzionali Debolezze dell’educazione per il 21° secolo Tagli -8 miliardi dal 2008 Ambiente L’Italia centra target -7% emissioni (2008 - 2012) 480 mln di tondi CO 2 (limite 483)
Italia – Crisi è Opportunità Il settore industriale contribuisce 25% del PIL italiano e 30. 7% della forza di lavoro (2010) Crisi è Opportunità Eccellenza nel Disegno € 67 miliardi Forte Crescita del 4. 3% del PIL Settore Sociale 650 mila addetti 4 milioni di volontari Industria Produttiva Solidarietà Intergenerazionale Quasi 500 mila imprese 7. 8% del totale (2013) Imprenditoria Straniera Capacità Scientifica e Tecnologica Patrimonio Storico Il paese con il più grande numero di World Heritage Sites in the world – 47 (UNESCO)
Il Più Potente Strumento nell’Universo
La Persona – Multi-dimensionalità Dinamica Emotion Desolazione Felicità Intelligences Amore Calma Paura Vergogna Onore Compassione Body Rabbia Senza Paura Emotions Odio Crueltà Character Lussuria Temperanza
Innovazione Sociale L’Innovazione sociale comprende nuove strategie, concetti, idee e organizzazioni che soddisfano bisogni sociale di tutte classe – da condizioni di lavoro ed educazione allo sviluppo della comunità e la salute – e questo e rinforza ed espande la società civile (Wikipedia) Social innovation refers to new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet social needs of all kinds — from working conditions and education to community development and health — and that extend and strengthen civil society. (Wikipedia)
Innovazione Sociale – Chi sono i beneficiari? I beneficiari dell’Innovazione Sociale sono o l’intera società, come nel caso dell’educazione pubblica, o i settori più svantaggiati della popolazione, come i poveri, i disabili, i disoccupati, i rifugiati, etc. In altre parole, non è un’innovazione commerciale a beneficio esclusivo degli individui e gruppi più privilegiati nella società. INCLUSIONE è una parola chiave nell’innovazione sociale
Innovazione Sociale – Che Si Innova?
Innovazione Sociale – Che Tipo di Problemi si Affrontano?
Innovazione Sociale Chi Contribuisce? Organizzazione del settore pubblico Organizzazione del settore orientato al profitto Organizzazione del settore sociale Organizzazione del settore comunitario
Nonni su Internet Organizzazione del settore pubblico Province Comuni Regione Aziende sanitarie Strutture assistenziali per anziani Scuole Organizzazione del settore sociale Cooperative di servizi Aziende ICT Anziani esclusi e Studenti Fondazione Mondo Digitale Aziende ICT per la salute Auser Anteas Centri di Anziani Associazioni di volontariato locale Organizzazione del settore comunitario Organizzazione del settore orientato al profitto
Nuovo Spectro di Organizzazioni dal Settore Sociale al Settore Forprofit
Problem Solving Problem/s Definition or Analysis
Some Basic Principles
The “Problem Iceberg” Metaphor The “problem iceberg” metaphor expresses well the idea that the visible part represents only a small part of the entire problem, while most of it remains hidden “under the surface” (i. e. , the underlying problems). Of course, the “problem iceberg” mainly draws attention to the hidden underlying problems; it does not offer a systematic approach to think about these underlying problems. Visible part of the problem - symptoms Underlying part of the problem – root causes
Establishing Priorities – 80/20 Rule or Pareto Principle The 80/20 Rule or Pareto Principle states that broadly roughly 80% of the output or effects come from 20% of the inputs or causes. The first to notice this relationship was the Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto (1848 -1923) who, in the early 1990 s, observed that 20% of the people owned 80% of the wealth in his country. The rule is empirical and tends to apply to many situations, for instance, 20% of customers create 80% of revenues. For problem solvers, the 80/20 Rule leads to prioritize the identification of the 20% of factors having 80% of impact. 80% 20% Input Output 20% 80/20 Rule or Pareto Principle 20% of input (items) are responsible for 80% of output (impact), while the remainder 80% of input is responsible for the remainder 20% of output
Cause-and-Effect Trees follow two general formats. The tree on the left follows the MECE format associated to Mc. Kinsey Consultants. MECE is the acronym for Mutually Exclusive and Collectively Exhaustive, a principle used to organize information into categories that do not overlap and, when added together, cover or exhaust all possible options. Mutually exclusive means that the occurrence of one event effectively precludes the occurrence of another. Collective exhaustion means that all possible options are listed at least once. The MECE tree allows for a very clean structuring of information and thinking, but excludes relationships between several root causes when these exist. The tree on the right permits the visualization of relationships between various causes at any level. MECE Tree Problem
5 WHYs The “ 5 Whys” technique is simple. As it names says problem solvers must ask why until they get to the root cause of problems (e. g. , defects in production processes). The number of 5 questions is not absolute, it can be less or more. The technique comes from Toyota Motor Corp. and it is associated to Taiichi Ohno, architect of the Toyota Production System. It is part of the quality management programmes in the industrial work. Advantage Simplicity, as problem solvers must follow a sequence of Whys Limitation It does not work well with complex, illstructured problems having multiple causes. Answers are only qualitative and based on personal knowledge and experience (perceptions).
5 WHYs Organization and Instruments for 5 Whys analysis. The group must secure the production, recording and structuring of ideas. There are many instruments to support these activities from simple pen and paper to flipcharts, computers, low-cost interactive whiteboards, and templates and software to produce templates, tables and diagrams. 5 WHYs Template Describe Problem (What): 1 ST Why? Describe 1 st level cause: 2 nd Why? Describe 2 nd level cause: 3 rd Why? Describe 3 rd level cause: 4 th Why? Describe 4 th level cause: 5 th Why? Describe 5 th level cause: ROOT CAUSE PROBLEM
RCA Tools – Why Tree The Why Tree follows the logic of the 5 Whys analysis but allows for the analysis of problems with multiple causes. Use of Why Tree (video) Why Tree Example
RCA Tools – Problem Tree The problem tree is a cause-effect visualization approach that places the problem on the tree trunk (centre ), the effects on the tree branches (top), and causes on the tree roots (bottom). If the analysis identifies sub-levels of causes and effects, a tree diagram with boxes is useful. The box-based diagram shown is only an example. The possible forms of tree diagrams are infinite depending on the sub-levels and relations between factors inside causes and effects. Effects Problem Causes
Two Problem Tree Examples The two examples of problem trees show a MECE format. Note that the example on the left (“lack of sufficient clean water) has an inverted shape with “causes” at the top of the diagram Found at http: //web. mit. edu/urbanupgrading/issuestools/problem-tree. html Found at http: //www. odi. org. uk/sites/odi. org. uk/files/odiassets/publications-opinion-files/6461. pdf
Problem Tree Example - Malnutrition Application of the problem tree to the problem of malnutrition (core or focal problem). At the top are the various sublevels of effects of malnutrition; at the bottom the various sublevels of causes. Different groups of problem solvers can produce different trees. Found at http: //motherchildnutrition. org/info/malnutrition-problem-tree. html
From Problem Tree to Solution Tree Once a Problem Tree is completed, it is a simple step to develop a Solution Tree. It suffices to reverse the negative causes and effects in the problem tree into aims that represent the solution to the problem – the result is a solution tree. Below, the powerpoint presentation “Developing Problem and Solution Trees” and the video “Problem Tree and Solution Tree” show a problem tree is constructed and how its is transformed into a solution tree. Developing Problem & Solution Trees Powerpoint - Problem & Solution Trees Video - Problem Tree and Solution Tree
From Problem Tree to Solution Tree - Example The example below show, on the left, a problem tree applied to the focal problem “Outbreak of Cholera, ” while on the right this tree has been transformed into a solution tree with the objective “Prevention of Cholera. ” Note that the content of the cause and effect boxes has been turned into the opposite and the shape of the tree remains the same. Problem Tree Solution Tree Found at http: //www. wsscc. org/node/796
Issue Trees (What and How Trees) The Issue Trees –as well as the MECE (mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive) approachare associated with the Mc. Kinsey’s problem-solving methodology. This methodology tackles problems or challenges by seeking to generate possible solutions (i. e. , solution hypotheses) that are then tested for their effectiveness. The Issue Trees do not search directly for the root causes (“why? ) of a problem. They rather unpack the key components of a problem and build towards a possible solution by identifying the factors involved in the problem (what’s involved? ), assessing the current state of those factors (what’s the current situation? ), identifying actions for a possible solution (how to change or improve? ), checking for the feasibility of the changes (can it be done? ), if it can be done, what is required? Problem solver must feel free to use the types of questions that are most productive for them. All rigidities must be avoided. Advantage High readability of visual representation. The structuring of the information is very clear. Enables the identification of key issues concerning the problem (what); and allows for the build up of possible solutions (“how” hypotheses) Limitation What? Issue trees do not identify root causes directly, although they may arrive to them as they identify potential solutions. For complex problems, it may be difficult to fulfil the “collectively exhaustive” principle. A knowledgeable experienced team can help here.
What Trees – Identifying the Issues in a Problem The What Tree helps gain a deep understanding of the problem by allowing for (1) a clear organization and visualization of all issues or aspects important to the problem (“what’s involved? ”) and (2) an assessment of the current situation. The What Tree below on the left focuses on the problem of profitability, the on the right focuses on the problem of increased product sales. Both trees list key aspects or issues associated to their respective problems. These aspects are also mutually exclusive, that is, they do not overlap or interfere with each other. Problem solvers may be unsure about whether they have really identified all issues. The key point is to have those aspects that enable the construction of an effective solution or answer to the problem. Profit “What Tree” for Profitability (Friga, 2009, p. 92) Increased Product Sales “What Tree” for Increased Sales (Raisel, 1999, p. 12)
What Trees – Assessing Current Situation of Issues in a Problem The What Tree shown below on the left assesses the current situation (“what’s the situation? ”) regarding higher than expected expenditures in street cleaning. The video on the right shows the this construction of the tree. This “what tree” allows for a more precise identification of where the problem may be located. It follows the identification of issues shown in the “what’s involved? ” tree of the previous slide. Problem solvers may also feel that they can construct directly a “what’s the situation? ” tree, specially if they are confident of their knowledge regarding the issues involved in the problem. This tree enables a gradual step forward towards identifying potential solutions to a problem (see How Tree? In next slide). http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=WO 9 Dhn. Mub. UU WTE = Whole Time Equivalent locum = substitute for another person Video on Issue Tree
How Trees – Identifying potential solution/s The How Tree deals with the “how path” towards the potential solution or solutions. It can be called “How To Do It Tree, ” or, simply, “How Tree. ” The tree below on the left is concerned wit “how to reduce expenditures; ” the tree on the right with how to increase monthly money without debt. The second tree includes the first. The next step towards the potential solution/s is to prioritise. So far, all the issues listed in the “How Tree” have equal standing and this makes it too complex to arrive at potential solutions. One way is to apply the “ 80/20 Law, ” stating that 20% of factors or issues are responsible for 80% of a problem. This step leads closer to root causes. The other is to apply the “Can they be implemented? ” question to the proposed mechanisms. Problem Statement How? Less food Buy fewer items Less clothing Less entertainment Less travel How could you reduce your expenditure each month? Lower quality items Pay less for same quantity of items “How Tree” for Expenditure Reduction Mc. Kinsey & Company (2011), p. 19. Items at discount/on sale Share costs of items (e. g. , split rent with roommate, car pool) “How Tree” for Money Increase http: //www. strategyhub. net/2011/03/problem-solving-techniques. html
How Tree – Establishing Priorities through “Can It Be Done” Question The “Can they be implemented? ” or “Can It be Done? ” question is a general question that can be decomposed into several sub-question concerning, for instance, the capacity of the organization (e. g. , skills, technology, etc. ) to implement a change, or, the existing regulations in the environment where the organization operates, or, the impact of the changes on the quality and cost of a product/process/service. In short, the suggested mechanisms must be examined to see if they are really possible and really lead to the desired results. Depending on the answers to the “Can It Be Done? ” question, further questions and answers may be required. For instance, if the answers to “can it be done with the technology of the organization is “No, ” then the new question will be “What is Required? ” Problem Statement How? Increase revenue How? Increase price without becoming uncompetitive? without increasing costs of production Increase quantity without market saturation How to increase profits Reduce variable costs Reduce costs “How to Increase Profit” Tree Reduce cost / unit Reduce quantity Reduce fixed costs Can It Be Done? Buildings, machinery by reducing labour costs by increasing productivity by reducing people without negative impact by improving energy or materials consumption Can It Be Done? with the skills set of the organization with the technology of the organization through access to new energy forms & materials with the technology of the organization
Cause-and-Effect Trees – Instruments Tools for Cause-and-Effect Tree Diagrams. The group must secure the free production, recording and grouping of ideas, leading to the generation of the tree diagram containing the root causes of the problem. There are many instruments to support these activities from simple pen and paper to whiteboards, flipcharts, stickers, computers, low-cost interactive whiteboards, and software such as excel, CMap or other specialised diagram software such as Smart. Draw and several i. Pad apps for diagrams (e. g. , Xdiagram, Shapes) Decision Tree (manual)