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Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Educational Toolkit Teaching Material Basic Course Module 2 Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Educational Toolkit Teaching Material Basic Course Module 2 Knowing the built heritage Topic The integration of art, material and structure in built heritage 2. 3 Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz - Technion Israel Institute of Technology

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009 -2012 This material is Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009 -2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of Euro. Med Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries. This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009 -2011” and making reference to these terms. Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009 -2011 is forbidden. Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union Photographs: Courtesy of Anna Lobovikov-Katz Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz - Technion Israel Institute of Technology

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Abstract Buildings and other objects of the built Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Abstract Buildings and other objects of the built heritage possess different values (see Module 1) and combine art, technology and material. Often structural elements whose primary role is to provide the building’s stability, are artistically shaped. In such cases structural elements have a dual function: technological/structural and artistic/ architectural. The current presentation is an overview of this subject. It explains and illustrates through examples, this “dual” aestheticaltechnological role of structural elements, and the vice versa structural role of some architectural elements. It is targeted at developing a basic understanding of the integrity and mutual influence of art, material and structure in the built heritage. Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz - Technion Israel Institute of Technology

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Content of Topic 2. 3 The integration of Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Content of Topic 2. 3 The integration of art, material and structure in built heritage 2. 3. 1. General introduction 2. 3. 2. Case studies: columns, arches, vaults, cupolas, etc. Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz - Technion Israel Institute of Technology

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 1. General introduction According to the Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 1. General introduction According to the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius, architecture should be characterized by stability, use, and beauty. Cultural Heritage: What is it? The building’s stability is guaranteed by proper planning of its structure, proper choice and use of materials and technologies. At the same time, certain proportions of structural elements could be perceived by the human eye as beautiful. Structural elements and details can be shaped on purpose as works of arts, e. g. sculptures. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 1. General introduction People feel comfortable Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 1. General introduction People feel comfortable with certain proportion ratios and certain colors. This “comfortable” feeling changes from culture to culture, due to traditions and different ideas about what is considered beautiful. If the structure of the building has “good proportions” it can be a masterpiece in itself, without relation to any “added” artistic, e. g. sculptural elements. If you enter such building, famous for its harmony of proportions – you just feel it – no lecture or special course needed For centuries architects searched for ideal proportions, trying to develop universal formulas of beauty and ensure the beauty of buildings through certain calculations and geometry. Cultural Heritage: What is it? Albertina, Vienna Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 1. General introduction This is an Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 1. General introduction This is an example of the golden ratio which was used from ancient times. We are much more dependent on aesthetic traditions of the past than one might think. Even in modern life we “touch” golden proportion each time when we take a sheet of paper for the computer printer, - the paper is cut precisely according to the golden ratio, or, as it is called “divine proportion”. Illustration: Courtesy Avraham Katz Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented. In this example in Ljubljiana, Slovenia, structural elements are covered with plaster moldings, in accordance with traditional local building techniques and the architectural design of the period when it was built. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented. They might be protruding parts of the stones built into the stone wall. They might be of a simple design, like these corbels supporting a functional element in the fortifications of the city walls of Jerusalem. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented. They might be protruding parts of the stones built into the stone wall. They might be of a simple design, like these corbels supporting a functional element in the fortifications of the city walls of Jerusalem. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented. They might be protruding parts of the stones built into the stone wall. They might be of a simple design, like these consoles supporting fortifications elements of the Castle of Saumur, Val de Loire, France, built about 600 years ago. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented. These protruding parts of the stones built into the stone wall. They might have different shapes, like in this mediaeval design in France. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements Corbels and cantilevers (elements protruding from the buildings) supporting balconies, galleries and other protruding parts, were often shaped as sculptural elements, and may be richly ornamented. This single, seemingly always “small” element may have a tremendous influence on the image of the whole part of the city – traditionally Mediterranean protruding windows, supported by corbels, in La Valetta, Malta. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Columns’ capitals The Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Columns’ capitals The tops of columns traditionally have ‘capitals’ – a decorated part which is an intermediate element between the column and the load of the upper parts of the building. In different epochs they were shaped differently and there a great number of remarkable capitals through the history of built heritage. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Columns’ capitals The Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Columns’ capitals The tops of columns traditionally have ‘capitals’ – a decorated part which is an intermediate element between the column and the load of the upper parts of the building. In different epochs they were shaped differently and there a great number of remarkable capitals through the history of built heritage. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Columns and pilasters Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Columns and pilasters (half- or partcolumns attached to the façade) were sometimes an integral part of the architecture of the entire building. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements/ columns/ Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Supporting elements/ columns/ pilasters In Villa Imperiale in Stra, Veneto, Italy, four figures of the central part of the façade combine the features of “sculptured” columns, or pilasters, while two corresponding details on the far left, and two on the far right from the entrance, are reduced to some version of corbels. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Column=sculpture There abundant examples of shaping a structural Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Column=sculpture There abundant examples of shaping a structural element as a sculpture – or, vice versa giving a sculpture a structural role of an element supporting a certain part of a building, the sculpture=column, has been known since ancient times. 2. 3. 2. Case studies Cultural Heritage: One of the most famous examples in the history of architecture, is probably the sculptures-columns – cariatides - of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage “Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage “Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Building, Vienna, built in 1870. 2. 3. 2. Case studies Column=sculpture This capital (upper part) of a column is shaped as a head of a woman. Actually, the whole column is a sculpture. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage “Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage “Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Building, Vienna, built in 1870. 2. 3. 2. Case studies Column=sculpture In a wider setting – the structure of the concert hall is based on columns and walls supporting beams and a flat ceiling Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage “Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage “Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Building, Vienna, built in 1870. 2. 3. 2. Case studies Painting In this building paintings cover structural surfaces – e. g. ceiling, walls, gallery. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage “Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage “Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Building, Vienna, built in 1870. 2. 3. 2. Case studies Proportions Materials Decoration Perfect acoustics A unique combination of form, proportions, materials and decorative elements – including relative size and location of each part and element, resulted in excellent acoustics of this concert hall – one of the best in Europe. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage “Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage “Musikferein” - Society of the Friends of Music Building, Vienna, built in 1870. 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults’ decoration Another type of structural system - vaults, are exposed here and are part of the design of this interior (inner) space. Two artisticaesthetical factors here: decoration (painted surfaces of vaults) and the proportions of the vaults and ratio of their height and width to the other parts of this entrance space to the building. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults’ structure Vaults Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults’ structure Vaults might be very complex. Physics (statics) of vaults may result in a structure of outstanding architectural/ aesthetical value. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults’ structure Vaults Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults’ structure Vaults might be very complex. Physics (statics) of vaults may result in a structure of outstanding architectural/ aesthetical value. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults’ structure Vaults Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults’ structure Vaults might be very complex. Physics (statics) of vaults may result in a structure of outstanding architectural/ aesthetical value. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage San Marco Basilica and Palazzo Ducale, Venice 2. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage San Marco Basilica and Palazzo Ducale, Venice 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults’ structure Vaults might be very complex. Physics (statics) of vaults may result in a structure of outstanding architectural/ aesthetical value, and of an important impact on the interior spaces of buildings and on the image of the city. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Basilica Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy 2. 3. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Basilica Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults and arches Bare vaults and arches without any decoration, might be of a significant architectural value, due to balanced proportions. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna 2. 3. 2. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults and arches Bare vaults and arches without any decoration, might be of a significant architectural value, due to balanced proportions. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Shoenbrunn, Vienna 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Shoenbrunn, Vienna 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults and arches This simple garden structure has no decorative architectural elements – its structure is its architectural aesthetics. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Venice 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults and Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Venice 2. 3. 2. Case studies Vaults and arches And yet sometimes it is impossible to divide between the décor and the structure – the décor is the structure itself. The deliberate use of different materials create the color contrast in this building. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Venice 2. 3. 2. Case studies Domes The Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Venice 2. 3. 2. Case studies Domes The use of Domes in building construction enables coverage of large areas to achieve impressive heights and bring in the light from above. Due to these features, domes often play an important role in the architectural image of a city, and spaces covered by domes are focal points in the interior of these buildings. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage San Pietro Cathedral, Rome 2. 3. 2. Case Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage San Pietro Cathedral, Rome 2. 3. 2. Case studies Domes The use of Domes in building construction enables coverage of large areas to achieve impressive heights and bring in the light from above. Due to these features, domes often play an important role in the architectural image of a city, and spaces covered by domes are focal points in the interior of these buildings. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Arches, vaults, domes Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 2. 3. 2. Case studies Arches, vaults, domes Arches, vaults and domes are often combined into one whole structure, like in this example, the Galleria Umberto in Naples (Napoli), Italy (initiated 1880 -s) – one of the largest and most famous arcades in Italy. Its unique architectural aesthetics is steeped in the industrial use of metal and glass in building construction which spread widely at the end of the 19 th century. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Hotel De Ville, Grand Place, Brussels 2. 3. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Hotel De Ville, Grand Place, Brussels 2. 3. 2. Case studies Décor and structure This façade is actually one large sculpture. Most of its sculptural décor does not bear structural function. However, its structural elements were provided a “sculptural finish” as well. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Structural integrity 2. 3. 2. Case studies Structural Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Structural integrity 2. 3. 2. Case studies Structural integrity can be seen not only in the selected elements of the buildings. Structural systems influence the whole image of the building, e. g. early mediaeval vaults required solid thick walls which, in turn, resulted in small windows, while already in the Gothic period the development of the vaults allowed spatial vaults system bearing on columns rather than on walls, which was expressed in both interior and exterior (façades) of the buildings, etc. In this building in Venice, the architecture of the façade explains the load distribution of the whole structure – upper stories are “light” visually, while the lower part looks “heavy” because it has to bear all the weight of the upper stories. Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. – Topic 2. 3: The integration of art, material and structure in built Heritage Slide

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Thank you for attention © Anna Lobovikov-Katz Dr. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Thank you for attention © Anna Lobovikov-Katz Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. Slide