- Количество слайдов: 58
Educating young people for work and for life YCI Human Trafficking Awareness Training Mumbai-May 2015
Human Trafficking – the challenge The issue, the victim, and what the hospitality industry can do to help
Reintegration of survivors of human trafficking Adaptation of selection criteria for YCI participants 4 countries: Mexico, Vietnam, India and Ethiopia 32 survivors have successfully completed YCI to date with 85% finding employment within six months (since 2012) One-to-one mentoring support (during and post training) Creating awareness & building capacity amongst local partners and hotel managers
Training developed with the support of: US Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (The TIP Office) International Organisation of Migration (IOM) Hagar International Infantia Stop the Traffick Worldwide Documentaries Carlson Hotels and Resorts The Protection Project, John Hopkins University
Training Objectives Module 1 – An Overview Objective: Participants will be able to define human trafficking and describe its underlying causes Module 2 - Human Trafficking and the Hospitality Industry Objective: Participants will be able to identify and respond appropriately to potential human trafficking cases Module 3 - The victims: experience, rescue and recovery Objective: Participants will be able to better understand the needs of trafficking victims Module 4 - Supporting the re-integration of survivors Objective: Participants will be able to describe how the YCI program will benefit victims.
Human Trafficking – the challenge Module 1 An Overview
What do you know about human trafficking?
Video: “Not My Life” documentary by Robert Bilheimer and narrated by Ashley Judd
Human Trafficking is used as an umbrella term for activities involved when one person obtains or holds another person in compelled service. Trafficking occurs both within and between countries. It is a criminal offence and a violation of human rights. Trafficking happens for a broad range of purposes such as sexual exploitation, labour trafficking or forced labour. The movement of a person is not required in the definition of trafficking.
Global Overview It is the fastest growing international crime Human trafficking is the second largest source of illegal income worldwide There are even reports that some trafficking groups are switching their cargo from drugs to human beings, in a search of high profits at lower risk
21 million trafficking victims in the world * * according to International Labour Organisation (2012)
Justice Served? In 2013, human trafficking cases worldwide resulted in 9, 460 prosecutions, with 1, 199 of those cases relating to labour trafficking. There were 5, 776 (470 in labour trafficking) convictions. The total number of identified victims was approximately 44, 758 (10, 603) – a number that pales in comparison to the global estimate of over 20 million people in modern slavery today. Source: U. S. Department of State 2014 Trafficking in Persons Report
Trafficking vs. Smuggling Element Type of crime Trafficking Smuggling Crime against person Crime against State Why do To protect a persons To protect sovereignty we fight it? human rights of the state Nature of Exploitative Commercial crime Rationale Border crossing Consent* Exploitation of the victim for profit Non-Defining Movement of persons for profit Defining element Not given Necessary *Irrelevant in the case of children
Major Forms of Human Trafficking Sex Trafficking Child Soldiers Debt Bondage/ bonded labour Forced Labour Involuntary (Domestic) Servitude
Risk factors – Country of origin A lack of political, social and economical stability A lack of reasonable and realistic prospects Domestic violence and disintegration of the family structure Gender and ethnic discrimination Lack of access to education and information Importance of the local context
Risk factors – Country of destination Increasing demand for cheap and exploitable labourers in domestic, construction, agricultural and industrial sectors A rise in the demand for commercial sex
Risk factors – Universal Economic exclusion of marginalised people Ever more obstacles to legal migration Disintegration of social protection networks A lack of effective anti-trafficking legislation or lack of effective enforcement A lack of public awareness The high profit potential The sophisticated organisation of criminal networks Widespread corruption
Vulnerable Groups Indigenous people Young people and children Migrant workers Workers in informal employment Individuals engaged in prostitution
Who are the traffickers Men or women Family, friends Former victims Diplomats Individuals who promise marriage or jobs Boyfriends Criminal groups Labour recruitment agents Travel agencies Internet chatrooms
The A-M-P Model Action Means* (Force, Fraud, Coercion) Purpose • • Recruits Harbours Transports Receives • • • Causing or threatening serious harm Physical restraint Debt bondage Abuse of legal process Withholding documents • Commercial Sex Acts • Labour or Services • Armed conflict *Means is not required in the case of minors
International vs. Internal (Domestic) trafficking International Internal (Domestic) Border crossed No border crossed or movement necessary
U. S. State Department's Trafficking in Persons Report: Tier Placements Tier 1 Fully comply with TVPA minimum standards Tier 2 Do not fully comply with TVPA standards, but are making significant efforts Tier 2 WL Tier 2 + (# of victims is significant or increasing; no evidence of increasing efforts; or making significant efforts based on future commitments) Tier 3 Do not comply w/ minimum standards & not making significant effort
Country Specifics: India, Tier 2 Source, destination and transit country India’s largest trafficking problem is forced labour: 20 to 65 million citizens; high amount of debt bondage 90% of India’s trafficking problem is internal Majority of trafficking victims are recruited by agents known to them in their home villages with promises of work Many challenges remain, mainly relating to government corruption and denial Both government- and NGO-run shelters face shortages of financial resources and trained personnel
Human Trafficking – the challenge Module 2 Human trafficking and the hospitality industry
What forms of human trafficking do you think might happen at a hotel?
Manifestations of human trafficking in the hospitality industry Tier 1 Forced Prostitution Forced Labour Prostitution of Children Human trafficking can happen at any point within a hotel’s supply chain Hotels can reduce the likelihood of trafficking within its operations by: Establishing policies & procedures for responding to possible cases of human trafficking. Training hotel staff to help them identify human trafficking cases. Supply chain monitoring
The potential impact on your business Tier 1 Legal Brand Moral Financial
Video: Possible trafficking scenarios Carlson have kindly provided a short video of possible trafficking scenarios that could take place in a hotel
Discussion: Examples of how to spot signs of trafficking Sex Tourism Forced Labour
Sex Tourism Potential victim stays at a distance from the perpetrator, and may even appear “scared” in their presence Child (often local) is accompanied by an adult other than parent (often male) who seems controlling Shows signs of psychological or physical abuse; acts unusually fearful or submissive Forced Labour Workers who are not in possession of their documents Workers without a formal labour contract Workers who work excessively long hours
Most hotel chains have already existing guidelines on how to deal with instances of trafficking
Who to contact for further information: Rescue Foundation Address: -Plot No. 39, Fatimadevi Road, Behind Our Lady of Remedy School, Poisur, Kandivali (W), Mumbai - 400067, Maharashtra, India. Telephone: - +91 -22 -28060707 / 28625240 Fax: - +91 -22 -28663322 / 28084161 Mobile: - +91 -98202 10705 [email protected] net http: //www. rescuefoundation. net [email protected] com Kshamata 16/204, Gulmohar, Vasant Vihar , Thane (W) - 400610, India Phone - 022 2171 1375 [email protected] org www. kshamata. org
Initiatives to fight trafficking in the industry UN. GIFT ECPAT The Code Polaris Project Business Travellers Against Human Trafficking Stop the Traffik Global Travel Alert
Case studies and discussion
Human Trafficking – the challenge Module 3 The victims: experience, rescue and recovery
What do you think happens to the victim?
Methods of Control Confiscation of Legal Documents Threats of deportation or other harm to the victim or the victim’s family Verbal and psychological abuse Debt manipulation Exploitation of unfamiliarity with the local language and laws
Examples of methods of control Isolation Deception Torture Fear Debt bondage Intimidation Imprisonment Rape Beating Violence and threats of violence Physical exhaustion Starvation
Extreme situations – Extreme reactions The ordinary human response to danger includes both physical and psychological reactions Danger focuses a person’s attention on the immediate situation Traumatic reactions occur when resistance is deemed impossible The human self-defence system becomes overwhelmed and disorganised
Coping strategies When primary control is lost Secondary control Learned ‘loyalty’ (Stockholm syndrome)
Reactions during and after the trafficking experience Psychological reactions Psychosomatic reactions Physical reactions Case study: Elena’s story
Overview of a typical rescue process Tip off or trafficking victims identified Survivors: deported, reunited with family, or placed in a shelter Raid by law enforcement Trial / Overall Criminal Justice proceeding Victims rescued and traffickers arrested Victims brought to safe house or refuge
Steps to recovering from human trafficking To establish safety and restore control over their bodies and immediate environment Remembrance and mourning of the trauma Reconnection with ordinary life Often the process is not linear and the recovery progress more variable
What service for victims could include Long-term shelters (as provided by Asha Sadan, St. Catherine’s Homes, Swadhar Homes and Advait Health services Psychological counselling Legal assistance Education and vocational training Life skills training and employment opportunities Identity documentation Birth certificates Financial assistance Repatriation and reintegration services
Common steps to reintegration Arranging for health and psychosocial care Possible reintegration into family life Catch up on missed education Providing life skills training to restore self confidence Finding economic opportunities to increase former victims' independence
Stigmatisation For being trafficked Especially for sexual purposes Mental illness Experience of trial A regional phenomenon
Human Trafficking – the challenge Module 4 Supporting the re-integration of survivors and the role of YCI
What can YCI do?
Characteristics of a good relationship Honesty Open and clear communication Trust Security Tolerance Love and care
Support for the participants Understanding and patience Guidance (mentoring and coaching) Discretion and sensibility Respect Discipline Access to ongoing psychological support
Benefits of skills training Life and work skills Vocational training Job preparation Life coaching • Lesser risk of being re-trafficked • Increased self-confidence and self-esteem • Increased independence
Discussion: Putting it all into action Classroom sessions Practical training Mentoring and coaching Extra activities Psychological support
Discussion: Warning signs Withdrawal Depression Signs of physical harm
Positive impacts of YCI 1. Sense of belonging 8. Prospects for the future 2. Confidence and respect 7. Independence 3. Stronger sense of self worth 6. Social reintegration 4. Rights and responsibiliti es 5. Work skills and experience
This publication was made possible with support from the United States Department of State, under the terms of Grant No. S-SGTIP-10 -GR-0078. The opinions or points of view expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the United States Department of State.