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Economic developments in the Baltic countries: handling of economic crisis, its domestic and international Economic developments in the Baltic countries: handling of economic crisis, its domestic and international effects Prof. Dr. Ramūnas Vilpišauskas Director of the Institute of International Relations and Political Science , Vilnius University Presentation for the Norwegian ambassadors meeting, October 28, 2011

The outline: • The main arguments; • Key economic indicators and trends; • The The outline: • The main arguments; • Key economic indicators and trends; • The political economy of crisis management; • They main issues on the current agenda; • Baltic States’ rankings in the regional context; • Agenda of the Nordic-Baltic cooperation. Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

The main arguments (I): • Lithuania and other Baltic countries have been among the The main arguments (I): • Lithuania and other Baltic countries have been among the most advanced reformers in Central and Eastern Europe since 1990 s; • The Baltic States have been the fastest growing region in Europe for the past decade – an outcome of transition reforms and European integration, with this trend interrupted in 2008 -2009 and restored recently; • During the last decade the Baltic sea region became increasingly integrated economically with trade and investment flows (labor moving to Nordic and capital moving to the Baltic countries) with EU membership contributing significantly to this trend; Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

The main arguments (II): • The financial crisis exposed high interdependencies among Nordic and The main arguments (II): • The financial crisis exposed high interdependencies among Nordic and Baltic States’ economies and showed flexibilities of the Baltic economies; • While the Nordic countries have been consistently leading in Europe (and the world) in terms of competitiveness and other economic and social indicators, the Baltic states have shown their dynamism and comparative advantages (especially in the context of the current euro zone problems); • EU membership and Baltic Sea neighborhood and level of integration provides opportunities for the Baltic States to learn from the Nordic countries and to come out from the crisis by becoming more competitive, fiscally sound and growing economies. Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Almost a decade of dynamism of the “Baltic tigers” resulting in fast convergence to Almost a decade of dynamism of the “Baltic tigers” resulting in fast convergence to the EU average Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Strong convergence since 2000 till 2008: Relative GDP per capita in PPS in 1997 Strong convergence since 2000 till 2008: Relative GDP per capita in PPS in 1997 -2010 1997 2000 2004 2008 2009 2010 EU-27 100 100 100 EU-15 115 113 111 110 Estonia 42 45 57 68 64 64 Latvia 35 37 46 56 52 52 Lithuania 39 39 50 61 55 58 Denmark 133 132 126 120 121 125 Finland 110 117 116 117 113 116 Sweden 124 128 126 122 118 123 Source: Eurostat Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Convergence interrupted in 2008 by the global crisis and domestic factors with resulting swings Convergence interrupted in 2008 by the global crisis and domestic factors with resulting swings in the key indicators Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Quarterly growth rates on GDP in 2010 -2011: (based on seasonally adjusted data) % Quarterly growth rates on GDP in 2010 -2011: (based on seasonally adjusted data) % change c/w previous quarter 2010 % change c/w the quarter of last year 2011 2010 2011 Q 3 Q 4 Q 1 Q 2 EU-27 0. 5 0. 2 0. 7 0. 2 2. 3 2. 1 2. 4 1. 7 EU-17 0. 4 0. 3 0. 8 0. 2 2. 0 2. 4 1. 6 Estonia 1. 2 2. 5 2. 4 1. 8 5. 0 6. 7 8. 5 8. 4 Latvia 1. 8 1. 1 0. 5 2. 2 2. 6 3. 5 3. 4 5. 7 Lithuania 0. 3 1. 8 3. 5 0. 4 1. 6 4. 6 6. 8 6. 2 Denmark 1. 1 -0. 3 0. 1 1. 0 3. 2 2. 6 1. 9 Finland 0. 3 1. 6 0. 3 0. 6 3. 5 5. 4 4. 8 2. 7 Sweden 1. 9 1. 6 0. 8 1. 0 6. 6 7. 6 6. 4 5. 3 Source: Eurostat Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. vu. lt Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. vu. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. vu. lt Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. vu. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. vu. lt Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. vu. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. Source: European Commission Autumn 2010 Economic Forecasts Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

The political economy of crisis management: • The Baltic States responded to economic crisis The political economy of crisis management: • The Baltic States responded to economic crisis in similar ways through internal adjustment of prices and wages, though influenced by domestic politics (elections in Lithuania in 2008 delayed the adjustment measures and made them more difficult due to pre-election spending promises); • The outcomes of the adjustment were dependent on previous policies with Estonia being in the best fiscal situation allowing it to join the euro zone in 2011; • While in Estonia government managed to maintain public trust during the crisis (“loyalty”), in Latvia and Lithuania crisis resulting in more people “exiting” (emigrating or withdrawing into shadow economy), while there has been very little response in the form of “voice” (demonstration and public protests). Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

The political economy of post-crisis period: • All three Baltic States came from the The political economy of post-crisis period: • All three Baltic States came from the crisis with the economic recovery in 2011 exceeding significantly EU average; • The Baltic States have not only surprised outsiders by rapid adjustment of prices and wages, but also by post-crisis election results in Estonia and Latvia bringing the same coalitions to power; • The political uncertainty remains in Lithuania with parliamentary elections approaching in Autumn 2012, and in Latvia with a shaky new coalition in power; • Economic situation is relatively good (especially compared to Southern Europe), but uncertainty remains due to possibility of European economic decline and worsening domestic sentiments. Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

The Baltics will need structural reforms to sustain improving business environment and come closer The Baltics will need structural reforms to sustain improving business environment and come closer to their Nordic neighbors Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

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Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

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The political economy of structural reforms: Easier said then done • The Lithuanian Government The political economy of structural reforms: Easier said then done • The Lithuanian Government has started it’s work with a slogan of “change” and the stress on crisis as an opportunity for structural reforms; • However, the crisis did not lead to planned structural reforms in Lithuania (yet), with the only exception being high education where the presence of reformers with a prepared reform program and external support (WB/IMF advice, EU resources) resulted in reform of financing and management; • Measures have also been taken to advance the implementation of energy projects aimed at integrating Baltics into the Nordic market and provide more sources of supply; • The Government initiated the Sunset process for administrative reform and Sunrise for business environment, set up the Progress Council on the long-term reforms (Lithuania 2030); • Will recovering economy and approaching parliamentary elections in 2012 reduce the appetite for further reforms (social security, health care)? Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Business risks and opportunities in Lithuania: • The main domestic risk is related to Business risks and opportunities in Lithuania: • The main domestic risk is related to the approaching parliamentary elections and resulting uncertainty of business environment; • External risk are mostly linked to the uncertainty regarding economic growth in the main exports markets and developments in the euro zone; • If both of these risks maintain high uncertainty, the pressure for emigration will continue reducing potential for growth and dealing with social –demographic issues; • The current Lithuanian Government has made improving business environment and investment climate it’s priority, however, it has been slow on delivery side; • The key objective of the Government is to create conditions for Lithuania to become a leading services center in the Baltic-Nordic region; • The Government has focused on attracting companies such as Barclays and Western Union to establish their subsidiaries in Lithuania, other major recent investments include Thermo. Fisher Scientific and others; • The sectoral focus is on knowledge industries with EU structural funds directed into such fields, though there is an understanding of creating good business conditions for all companies (especially deregulation of SME’s activities). Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

Rediscovery of the Nordic – Baltic cooperation? • Nordic companies are among the key Rediscovery of the Nordic – Baltic cooperation? • Nordic companies are among the key investors in Lithuania and other Baltic states (especially in banking, telecommunications); • Overcoming infrastructural isolation in the EU market through Nordic – Baltic integration: • Baltic energy market interconnection (BEMIP); • Upgrading transport infrastructure; • Return to economic convergence, especially after completing “leftovers” agenda (Schengen, euro zone) and the Single market (services), EU Baltic Sea region strategy; • Attempts of policy transfer from Nordic to Baltic States (for example, reform of managing state assets); • Possibilities for socialization and convergence of values. Find us @ www. tspmi. lt facebook. com/TSPMI

BEMIP: electricity BEMIP: electricity

BEMIP: natural gas 28 BEMIP: natural gas 28

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