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Ecology and Animal Behavior Lecture 11 MACC BIO 101 Bill Palmer Ecology and Animal Behavior Lecture 11 MACC BIO 101 Bill Palmer

Ecology MACC BIOLOGY 101 Bill Palmer Ecology MACC BIOLOGY 101 Bill Palmer

Ecology What it means. eco - oikos; house logy - logos ; the study Ecology What it means. eco - oikos; house logy - logos ; the study of “the study of the house”

Ecology The study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, their relationships, and the Ecology The study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, their relationships, and the flows of energy and materials. There abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. Abiotic – nonliving elements (rain, slope, wind) Biotic – living elements(Plants and Animals)

Ecology Study of the relationships of organisms to their environment Why animals live where Ecology Study of the relationships of organisms to their environment Why animals live where they do Why animals eat specific foods Why animals interact with each other in certain ways How human activities effect animal populations

Current Research in Ecology Current Research in Ecology

Are boat accidents having an impact on the future of manatee population sustainability? Are boat accidents having an impact on the future of manatee population sustainability?

Are boat accidents having an impact on the future of manatee population sustainability? Sure! Are boat accidents having an impact on the future of manatee population sustainability? Sure! Just look at the pictures.

How can we measure biodiversity? How can we preserve biodiversity? How can we measure biodiversity? How can we preserve biodiversity?

Which has the greatest biodiversity? Missouri Corn Field Puerto Rican Rain Forest Which has the greatest biodiversity? Missouri Corn Field Puerto Rican Rain Forest

Can tropical forests absorb the extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that is causing Can tropical forests absorb the extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that is causing climate change?

Can Biodiversity contribute to the overall health of humans by supplying new pharmaceuticals? TAXOL Can Biodiversity contribute to the overall health of humans by supplying new pharmaceuticals? TAXOL from Taxus (yew) is best ovarian cancer drug

The field of Ecology is derived from: 1. Natural history 2. Physiology 3. Evolution The field of Ecology is derived from: 1. Natural history 2. Physiology 3. Evolution

Scales of Ecological Organization Scales of Ecological Organization

Scales of Ecological Organization Organism: Survival and reproduction unit of natural selection Scales of Ecological Organization Organism: Survival and reproduction unit of natural selection

Scales of Ecological Organization Population: Population dynamics unit of evolution demography sex ratios Scales of Ecological Organization Population: Population dynamics unit of evolution demography sex ratios

Scales of Ecological Organization Community: Interactions among populations species diversity, trophic dynamics competition, succession Scales of Ecological Organization Community: Interactions among populations species diversity, trophic dynamics competition, succession

Scales of Ecological Organization Ecosystem: Energy flux and nutrient cycling, primary productivity material fluxes Scales of Ecological Organization Ecosystem: Energy flux and nutrient cycling, primary productivity material fluxes

Scales of Ecological Organization Biosphere: Global processes includes biotic and physical systems oceans, atmosphere, Scales of Ecological Organization Biosphere: Global processes includes biotic and physical systems oceans, atmosphere, geology

How do ecologists study natural patterns? APPLY THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD! 1. Observation and description How do ecologists study natural patterns? APPLY THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD! 1. Observation and description 2. Development of hypotheses 3. Test hypotheses, often with experiments

Ways to test hypotheses 1. MANIPULATIONS small scale microcosms large scale 2. NATURAL MANIPULATIONS Ways to test hypotheses 1. MANIPULATIONS small scale microcosms large scale 2. NATURAL MANIPULATIONS 3. MODELS

Manipulation of natural systems: small scale Manipulation of natural systems: small scale

Manipulation of Natural Systems: Microcosms Manipulation of Natural Systems: Microcosms

Manipulation of Natural Systems: Large scale Manipulation of Natural Systems: Large scale

Computer Generated Models Mg C ha -1 yr-1 Global Potential Net Primary Productivity Computer Generated Models Mg C ha -1 yr-1 Global Potential Net Primary Productivity

Five Common Ecological Topics I. III. Population growth Diversity Interactions among communities • • Five Common Ecological Topics I. III. Population growth Diversity Interactions among communities • • Predator/prey relationships Mimicry/camouflage Symbiotic relationships Food Webs IV. Sexual selection V. Succession

I. Population Growth rates Type III R and K selected species K: species whose I. Population Growth rates Type III R and K selected species K: species whose populations sizes are limited by resources (carrying capacity) R: species whose population sizes are limited by reproductive rate

I II III I II III

II. Diversity Species diversity Geographic diversity Genetic diversity II. Diversity Species diversity Geographic diversity Genetic diversity

III. Community Concepts Habitat The physical surroundings in which a species can normally be III. Community Concepts Habitat The physical surroundings in which a species can normally be found Niche Organism’s occupation How and where does the organism make a living? What does it do to obtain resources? How does it deal with competition?

Interactions among communities Predator/prey relationships Mimicry/camouflage Symbiotic relationships Food webs Interactions among communities Predator/prey relationships Mimicry/camouflage Symbiotic relationships Food webs

Mimicry Mimicry

Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism One organism gains One organism harmed Parasitoid One organism gains One Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism One organism gains One organism harmed Parasitoid One organism gains One organism killed Mutualism One organism gains Commensalism One organism gains One organism is unaffected

Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism

Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism

Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism

Symbiotic Relationships Parasitoid Symbiotic Relationships Parasitoid

Predator/Prey (producers/consumers) Producers (photosynthesize) Plants Algae Consumers Herbivore (eat only plants) Carnivore (eat only Predator/Prey (producers/consumers) Producers (photosynthesize) Plants Algae Consumers Herbivore (eat only plants) Carnivore (eat only meat) Omnivore (eat meat and plants) p. 719

Predator/Prey (producers) Predator/Prey (producers)

Predator/Prey (Three types of consumers) Herbivores-Eat producers Carnivores-Eat herbivores Omnivores-eat producers and herbivores Predator/Prey (Three types of consumers) Herbivores-Eat producers Carnivores-Eat herbivores Omnivores-eat producers and herbivores

Predator/Prey (Herbivores) Predator/Prey (Herbivores)

Predator/Prey (Carnivores) Predator/Prey (Carnivores)

Predator/Prey (Omnivores) Predator/Prey (Omnivores)

Decomposers Consume detritus (dead, decaying material) Decomposers Consume detritus (dead, decaying material)

Food Webs/Trophic Pyramid Web diagram of the feeding relationships between plants and animals more Food Webs/Trophic Pyramid Web diagram of the feeding relationships between plants and animals more realistically than a food chain or trophic pyramids. Trophic level = feeding level TROPHIC PYRAMID

Food Web Food Web

10% Rule Energy is lost as you move up the food web (J=Joules-measure of 10% Rule Energy is lost as you move up the food web (J=Joules-measure of energy)

IV. Sexual Relationships Definitions In Eukaryotes: sex is production of gametes (sperm and egg) IV. Sexual Relationships Definitions In Eukaryotes: sex is production of gametes (sperm and egg) by meiosis, and then fertilization Female: the form of the organism that carries the most provisioning for the offspring (i. e. , the egg). All other "sexes" are by definition males. Fitness: the contribution of a genotype to the gene pool of subsequent generations as compared to that of other genotypes

Asexual reproduction Walking Fern-a Missouri species Asexual reproduction Walking Fern-a Missouri species

Advantages of sexual reproduction Populations can evolve more rapidly to meet changed circumstances or Advantages of sexual reproduction Populations can evolve more rapidly to meet changed circumstances or develop new defenses against disease. Diversity

Disadvantage of sexual reproduction 1. Producing males Cost of producing males -- halves the Disadvantage of sexual reproduction 1. Producing males Cost of producing males -- halves the productive part of the population. Cost resulting from discarding half the genes -- no guarantee that male genes are better (cost of meiosis)

Sexual selection Much energy/time is wasted to attract female. Sexual selection Much energy/time is wasted to attract female.

V. Succession A series of replacement of community members at a given location until V. Succession A series of replacement of community members at a given location until a relatively stable final state is reached Primary • Starting state is one of little or no life • Pioneer species (lichen, bacteria, mosses) Secondary • Soil contains nutrients • Brush, shrubs, grasses Climax community • Stable community at the end of succession • Deciduous trees

V. Primary Succession-Volcano V. Primary Succession-Volcano

V. Secondary Succession. Prescribed Burn V. Secondary Succession. Prescribed Burn

1980 1999 1980 1999

SUCCESSION SUCCESSION

Wrap-up 1. What is ecology? 2. What is abiotic? Biotic? Examples? 3. The field Wrap-up 1. What is ecology? 2. What is abiotic? Biotic? Examples? 3. The field of Ecology is derived from? 4. What are the scales of ecological organization? 5. What are the 3 ways to test a hypothesis in ecology? Examples? 6. What are common ecological topics? 7. What is population growth? Types? Examples? 8. What are K and R selected species? Examples?

Wrap-up 9. What are the 3 types of diversity? Examples? 10. What are the Wrap-up 9. What are the 3 types of diversity? Examples? 10. What are the 4 types of interactions among communities? Examples? 11. What is mimicry and camouflage? Why do it? examples? 12. What are predator/prey relationships? Examples? What are food webs? Trophic levels? 10% rule? 13. What are the 4 types of symbiotic relationships? Examples? 14. What is succession? Primary? Secondary? Examples?