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Ecology and Animal Behavior Lecture 11 MACC BIO 101 Bill Palmer
Ecology MACC BIOLOGY 101 Bill Palmer
Ecology What it means. eco - oikos; house logy - logos ; the study of “the study of the house”
Ecology The study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, their relationships, and the flows of energy and materials. There abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. Abiotic – nonliving elements (rain, slope, wind) Biotic – living elements(Plants and Animals)
Ecology Study of the relationships of organisms to their environment Why animals live where they do Why animals eat specific foods Why animals interact with each other in certain ways How human activities effect animal populations
Current Research in Ecology
Are boat accidents having an impact on the future of manatee population sustainability?
Are boat accidents having an impact on the future of manatee population sustainability? Sure! Just look at the pictures.
How can we measure biodiversity? How can we preserve biodiversity?
Which has the greatest biodiversity? Missouri Corn Field Puerto Rican Rain Forest
Can tropical forests absorb the extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that is causing climate change?
Can Biodiversity contribute to the overall health of humans by supplying new pharmaceuticals? TAXOL from Taxus (yew) is best ovarian cancer drug
The field of Ecology is derived from: 1. Natural history 2. Physiology 3. Evolution
Scales of Ecological Organization
Scales of Ecological Organization Organism: Survival and reproduction unit of natural selection
Scales of Ecological Organization Population: Population dynamics unit of evolution demography sex ratios
Scales of Ecological Organization Community: Interactions among populations species diversity, trophic dynamics competition, succession
Scales of Ecological Organization Ecosystem: Energy flux and nutrient cycling, primary productivity material fluxes
Scales of Ecological Organization Biosphere: Global processes includes biotic and physical systems oceans, atmosphere, geology
How do ecologists study natural patterns? APPLY THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD! 1. Observation and description 2. Development of hypotheses 3. Test hypotheses, often with experiments
Ways to test hypotheses 1. MANIPULATIONS small scale microcosms large scale 2. NATURAL MANIPULATIONS 3. MODELS
Manipulation of natural systems: small scale
Manipulation of Natural Systems: Microcosms
Manipulation of Natural Systems: Large scale
Computer Generated Models Mg C ha -1 yr-1 Global Potential Net Primary Productivity
Five Common Ecological Topics I. III. Population growth Diversity Interactions among communities • • Predator/prey relationships Mimicry/camouflage Symbiotic relationships Food Webs IV. Sexual selection V. Succession
I. Population Growth rates Type III R and K selected species K: species whose populations sizes are limited by resources (carrying capacity) R: species whose population sizes are limited by reproductive rate
I II III
II. Diversity Species diversity Geographic diversity Genetic diversity
III. Community Concepts Habitat The physical surroundings in which a species can normally be found Niche Organism’s occupation How and where does the organism make a living? What does it do to obtain resources? How does it deal with competition?
Interactions among communities Predator/prey relationships Mimicry/camouflage Symbiotic relationships Food webs
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism One organism gains One organism harmed Parasitoid One organism gains One organism killed Mutualism One organism gains Commensalism One organism gains One organism is unaffected
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism
Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism
Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitoid
Predator/Prey (producers/consumers) Producers (photosynthesize) Plants Algae Consumers Herbivore (eat only plants) Carnivore (eat only meat) Omnivore (eat meat and plants) p. 719
Predator/Prey (Three types of consumers) Herbivores-Eat producers Carnivores-Eat herbivores Omnivores-eat producers and herbivores
Decomposers Consume detritus (dead, decaying material)
Food Webs/Trophic Pyramid Web diagram of the feeding relationships between plants and animals more realistically than a food chain or trophic pyramids. Trophic level = feeding level TROPHIC PYRAMID
10% Rule Energy is lost as you move up the food web (J=Joules-measure of energy)
IV. Sexual Relationships Definitions In Eukaryotes: sex is production of gametes (sperm and egg) by meiosis, and then fertilization Female: the form of the organism that carries the most provisioning for the offspring (i. e. , the egg). All other "sexes" are by definition males. Fitness: the contribution of a genotype to the gene pool of subsequent generations as compared to that of other genotypes
Asexual reproduction Walking Fern-a Missouri species
Advantages of sexual reproduction Populations can evolve more rapidly to meet changed circumstances or develop new defenses against disease. Diversity
Disadvantage of sexual reproduction 1. Producing males Cost of producing males -- halves the productive part of the population. Cost resulting from discarding half the genes -- no guarantee that male genes are better (cost of meiosis)
Sexual selection Much energy/time is wasted to attract female.
V. Succession A series of replacement of community members at a given location until a relatively stable final state is reached Primary • Starting state is one of little or no life • Pioneer species (lichen, bacteria, mosses) Secondary • Soil contains nutrients • Brush, shrubs, grasses Climax community • Stable community at the end of succession • Deciduous trees
V. Primary Succession-Volcano
V. Secondary Succession. Prescribed Burn
Wrap-up 1. What is ecology? 2. What is abiotic? Biotic? Examples? 3. The field of Ecology is derived from? 4. What are the scales of ecological organization? 5. What are the 3 ways to test a hypothesis in ecology? Examples? 6. What are common ecological topics? 7. What is population growth? Types? Examples? 8. What are K and R selected species? Examples?
Wrap-up 9. What are the 3 types of diversity? Examples? 10. What are the 4 types of interactions among communities? Examples? 11. What is mimicry and camouflage? Why do it? examples? 12. What are predator/prey relationships? Examples? What are food webs? Trophic levels? 10% rule? 13. What are the 4 types of symbiotic relationships? Examples? 14. What is succession? Primary? Secondary? Examples?