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Ecclesiology: the study of the Church Since the Church is the Bride of Christ, Ecclesiology: the study of the Church Since the Church is the Bride of Christ, there is nothing on earth dearer to the heart of God Survey of Ecclesiology 1

Definition § § The German designation kirche, is derived from the Greek word kuriakon, Definition § § The German designation kirche, is derived from the Greek word kuriakon, the neuter adjective of kurios (“Lord” ), meaning “belonging to the Lord church also translates the Greek word ekklesia, which is derived from ek, meaning “out of, ” and kaleo, which means “to call, ” hence, the church is “a called-out-group. ” Ekklesia appears 114 times in the New Testament, 3 times in the gospels, and 111 times in the epistles. In the gospels it appears only in Matthew 16: 18 and 18: 17 in a prophetic sense It is used non-technically to describe any meeting or assembly (Acts 7: 38; of 19: 32), as well as the term 2 Survey Ecclesiology

Aspects of the Church Local (visible) church – Group of believers identified as a Aspects of the Church Local (visible) church – Group of believers identified as a local assembly – Without a building, they met in homes (Romans 16: 5 “Also greet the ( church in their house” Philemon 2) – Came together for worship (1 Corinthians 14: 25 The secrets of his heart ( are disclosed, and in this way he will fall down with his face to the ground and worship God, declaring, "God is really among you. "), – fellowship (Acts 2: 45– 46; 4: 31 Acts 2: 46 Every day they continued to 4: 31 meet together in the temple courts. They broke bread in their homes and ate together with glad and sincere hearts, ), – instruction (Acts 2: 42 They were devoting themselves to the apostles' ( teaching Acts 11: 26; 1 Cor. 4: 17), – for ministry (Acts 13: 2; 15: 3; 20: 28). – The result was that people were continually being saved (Acts 2: 47 ( praising God and having the good will of all the people. And the Lord was 3 Survey of Ecclesiology adding to their number every day those who were being saved. )

Aspects of the Church Universal (invisible) Church – He promised to build it (Matt Aspects of the Church Universal (invisible) Church – He promised to build it (Matt 16: 18 And I tell you that you are Peter, and on ( this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. ) – All those born of the Spirit and, by the Spirit, placed into the Body of Christ (1 ( Cor 12: 13 For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body. Whether Jews or Greeks or slaves or free, we were all made to drink of the one Spirit. 1 Pet 1: 3, 22 -25) – The Body for whom Christ died (Eph 5: 24; Acts 20: 28 “Watch out for yourselves and for all the flock of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church blood of his own Son” of God that he obtained with the – He is the Head and gives it direction (Ephesians 1: 22 -23 “And God put all ( things under Christ's feet, and he gave him to the church as head over all things. : 23 Now the church is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. ” – Colossians 1: 18 “He is the head of the body, the church” Survey of Ecclesiology 4

Formation of the Church Future in Matt 16: 18, I will build my church, Formation of the Church Future in Matt 16: 18, I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. Manner of formation (1 Cor 12: 13, “For in one Spirit we “ were all baptized into one body): work of Spirit baptizing believers into Christ. Eph 1: 22 -23 identifies Church with Body of Christ” Still future in Acts 1: 5 “For John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now. “ Began in Acts 2: 1 -4 Confirmed in Acts 11: 15, “as at the beginning” Church began at Pentecost Survey of Ecclesiology 5

The Purpose of the Church – What are we supposed to do? – “The The Purpose of the Church – What are we supposed to do? – “The Great Commission” (Matthew 28: 19, 20) – Reiterated in Mark 16: 15; Luke 24: 45 -47 and Acts 1: 8 – Spoken by Christ, the Head of the church (Matthew 28: 18) The Command – “Go and make disciples” – means that we must take the initiative. – “Make disciples” means “make followers, learners. ” The Means – “Baptizing, Teaching” – “Baptizing” – Public identification with Christ – “Teaching to obey” – Learning the scripture for the purpose of applying it Survey of Ecclesiology 6

Figures of the Church Body: illustrates unity and universality. Christ is the Head (Eph Figures of the Church Body: illustrates unity and universality. Christ is the Head (Eph 1: 22 -3) Who gives diversity of gifts (members) (1 Cor 12: 13) and gifted leadership to mature her (Eph 4: 11 -16). Bride (Eph 5: 23) Illustrates the great affect of Christ and the exalted position of the Church. Building: the wall of separation abolished between Jew and Gentile (Eph 2: 11 -18); Foundation laid by apostles (2: 20); Each piece is fitted together (2: 21); Grows as under construction (1 Pet 2: 5) Priesthood: 2 Pet 2: 5, 9; Rev 1: 9 As priests we can intercede with boldness (Heb 4: 14 -16) and be dedicated to service Flock: Relationship of trust and fellowship (Jn 10: 26 -27; Acts 20: 28; 1 Pet 5: 3). The flock is ever growing, Jn 10: 16. Branches: Christ is the root, believers are the branches in Jn 15: 1 -16, which shows vital union with Christ Survey of Ecclesiology 7

Image as Body of Christ is the HEAD of the Body (Col 1: 18; Image as Body of Christ is the HEAD of the Body (Col 1: 18; Eph 1: 10) = Authority to direct and control (Col 2: 9 -10) = Nourishment of motivation and security (Col 2: 19) INTERCONNECTION of believers: building up, serving and mutual sharing FELLOWSHIP of believers in commitment and love (benefiting others) UNIFIED Body– Corinth was a divided church (1 Cor 11: 17 -19) UNIVERSAL Body—All believers everywhere are united (Col 3: 11) EXTENSION of Christ’s ministry– through Great Commission (Mt 28: 18), even greater scale (Jn 14: 12) Survey of Ecclesiology 8

Distinction in the church Distinct from Israel: The Church is neither the continuation of, Distinction in the church Distinct from Israel: The Church is neither the continuation of, nor synonymous with Israel (Acts 3: 12; 4: 8, 10; 5: 21, 35; 21: 19). See also 1 Cor 10: 32. Distinct from the Kingdom: – Universal Kingdom: Christ rules the universe (Psa 103: 19; 139: 7 -10) – Kingdom on earth (Matt 6: 10– the prayer of believers) – Kingdom of heaven (occurs 32 times in Matthew) refers to the heaven-reign of God throughout ages – All are distinct from any parallel with the Church Survey of Ecclesiology 9

Functions of the local church Worship § Proskuneo, which means “to bow down” or Functions of the local church Worship § Proskuneo, which means “to bow down” or “prostrate” § Latreuo has a basic meaning of “priestly service” of sacrifice (Rom 12: 1) § Sebomai means “to reverence or fear God” (1 Tim. 2: 10; 5: 4; 2 Pet. 1: 3; 3: 11) Instruction: for maturity (2 Tim. 3: 16– 17); antidote to false doctrine (1 Tim. 1: 3); produces love (1 Tim. 1: 5); spiritual nourishment (1 Tim. 4: 6); godliness (1 Tim. 4: 6– 16); submission (1 Tim. 5: 17; 6: 2); and a proper focus on life (1 Tim. 6: 17). in order to reproduce himself (2 Tim. 2: 2; cf. 1 Tim. 4: 14, 16; 6: 20). Fellowship– koinonia: “sharing, participate”. Acts 2: 42, sharing of goods(Ro 15: 26); prayer (Acts 4: 24 -31) Ministry: evangelism and mutual service (“one another”) Organization: Leadership responsible were elders and deacons 10 Survey Ordinances: Baptism and of Ecclesiology. Supper Lord’s

A local church purpose statement STATEMENT: To Glorify God by Reaching people with the A local church purpose statement STATEMENT: To Glorify God by Reaching people with the gospel, Building them in their relationship with God and Involving them in God’s plan – To “Glorify God” is the overall purpose. The Bible says " Whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God. " (1 Corinthians 10: 31 NIV). – Building (Acts 11: 22 -26; Ephesians 4: 11 -16) “Building” refers to the spiritual process of God bringing the growth and change that we need in our lives. How can a church help to encourage that work of God? – Involvement (Acts 11: 27 -30; Ephesians 4: 11, 12) Sometimes people in churches assume that ministry is the job of paid professionals – the pastors and staff. It’s not. God has called every believer to be involved in ministry. He has given every person certain “spiritual gifts” – supernatural abilities to serve/help others in some way. Instead of leaders doing most of the ministry, their real role is to equip people for ministry of Ecclesiology Survey 11

Leaders of the local church: Elders – Pastors Terms used: – Presbyters, presbuteros, 69 Leaders of the local church: Elders – Pastors Terms used: – Presbyters, presbuteros, 69 times in NT, “mature”– dignity of office – Overseer, episkopos, 6 times in NT, “watch over”– function of office Qualifications: 15 qualities (1 Tim 3: 1 -7; Tit 1: 5 -9) – Character, Family, Relationships, Ministry capable, Maturity Duties. The duties of the elder involve shepherding the flock (Acts 20: 28), teaching (1 Tim. 3: 2), ruling or general leadership (1 Tim. 5: 17), and guarding against error (Tit. 1: 9). Number. A plurality of elders is mentioned frequently (Acts 14: 23; Phil. 1: 1; Tit. 1: 5), though one is leader or spokesman (Acts 15). Survey of Ecclesiology 12

Deacons Term used: diaconos, “minister” or “servant” Office: Highly suggested in Acts 6: 1 Deacons Term used: diaconos, “minister” or “servant” Office: Highly suggested in Acts 6: 1 -6 where 7 were appointed to facilitate the ministry of apostles or church leaders by relieving them of material obligations. Qualifications: 8 characteristics, mostly similar to elders. Deaconesses? : Rom 16: 1 appears to be a descriptive term, rather than a specific office. In the context of 1 Tim 3: 11, the term is “women, ” gunaikas, 8 of 11 times in NT is clearly “wives”. Women’s ministry and requirements given in 1 Tim 5: 9 -16. Survey of Ecclesiology 13

Government of the local church Episcopal: led by episkopos, “bishop” (Methodists, Anglican, Lutheran, Catholic). Government of the local church Episcopal: led by episkopos, “bishop” (Methodists, Anglican, Lutheran, Catholic). Arose in 2 nd cent, based on image of James and Timothy/Titus Presbyterian: led by presbuteros, “elder”, (Presbyterian and Reform) elected representatives of congregation with one teaching elder (1 Tim 5: 17) and Acts 11: 30; 15: 2, 4; 20: 17 Congregational: led by consensus opinion based on two principles: autonomy and democracy (Baptist, Bible, Congregational, Independent). Based on Priesthood of all believers, congregations elected deacons (Acts 6: 1 -6) and elders (Acts 14: 23); church decided on discipline (1 Cor 5: 12; 2 Cor 2: 6 -7); sent out missionaries (Acts 11: 22), etc. 14 Survey of Ecclesiology

Evaluation of church government Episcopalian is based on apostolic continuity, which has no biblical Evaluation of church government Episcopalian is based on apostolic continuity, which has no biblical basis (Mt 16: 18 -19) rather was unique to them (Luke 9: 1) Presbyterian has support in appearance of multiple elders, but no external authority Congregational finds its support in the many congregational decisions called for. Survey of Ecclesiology 15

Two “Ordinances” of the church Terms: – Sacrament, “sacred sign”, implies a mysterious quality. Two “Ordinances” of the church Terms: – Sacrament, “sacred sign”, implies a mysterious quality. – Ordinance “is a physical ritual prescribed by Christ to illustrate a spiritual reality Catholics have held to seven sacraments: – Baptism (sprinkling), the Eucharist (Lord’s Supper), confirmation, penance, extreme unction, holy orders, and marriage. – Only six are possible because either Orders (priesthood) or Marriage, but not both. Lord’s Supper: Do you part-take of Christ or remember His sacrifice? Baptism: What does it symbolize and does it effect anything? 16 Survey of Ecclesiology

Why only two ordinances? Only these two are specifically prescribed by Christ and clearly Why only two ordinances? Only these two are specifically prescribed by Christ and clearly practiced by the early church. Only these two symbolize the saving work of Christ. Survey of Ecclesiology 17

What do they have to do with a person’s salvation? Practicing these “symbols” in What do they have to do with a person’s salvation? Practicing these “symbols” in no way saves or even helps a person have eternal salvation – Ephesians 2: 8 For by grace you are saved through faith, and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God; 9 it is not from works, so that no one can boast. These ordinances are meaningful only to a person who has already personally trusted Christ for salvation. Survey of Ecclesiology 18

First Ordinance: Lord’s Supper This ordinance is a command – (“Do this” – 1 First Ordinance: Lord’s Supper This ordinance is a command – (“Do this” – 1 Corinthians 11: 24, 25) – to be practiced regularly (“as often as” – 1 Corinthians 11: 25, 26) – throughout this church age (“proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes” – 1 Corinthians 11: 26). The Meaning: The Lord’s Supper is a memorial to Christ’s saving work on the cross. – The bread represents Christ’s substitutionary death in our place (“for you” – Luke 22: 19; 1 Corinthians 11: 24). – The cup represents Christ’s fulfilling of the old covenant sacrifice system (“the new covenant in my blood” – Luke 22: 20; 1 Corinthians 11: 25). Survey of Ecclesiology 19

4 -views of the Lord’s Supper Transubstantiation, “change of substance” (RCC) Consubstantiation, “with substance” 4 -views of the Lord’s Supper Transubstantiation, “change of substance” (RCC) Consubstantiation, “with substance” on consumption (Lutheran) Reformed view: emphasize the “spiritual presence of Christ” in the elements imparting a form of grace to recipient. Memorial view: Elements are figurative only, objects to provoke an image of Christ’s real sacrifice. The focus is memory (1 Cor 11: 25 -26); proclaiming His death (11: 26) Survey of Ecclesiology 20

The Method: The early Church’s form – - The love feast (a shared meal The Method: The early Church’s form – - The love feast (a shared meal – 1 Corinthians 11: 20 -22) – - The elements (a shared loaf and cup – 1 Corinthians 11: 23 -25). – - Done weekly as the church gathered (“breaking of bread” – Acts 20: 7, 11). The basic function is required – The Lord’s Supper should be practiced regularly by churches using similar symbols with the identical significance Christ gave them. Survey of Ecclesiology 21

Second Ordinance : Baptism Definition: The use of water to symbolize outwardly the inner Second Ordinance : Baptism Definition: The use of water to symbolize outwardly the inner spiritual change that took place when we trusted Christ as Savior Views of baptism: 1. 2. 3. Means of saving grace – “Baptismal regeneration” Sign and seal of covenant – Covenant theology Symbol of our salvation – Memorial Mode of baptism 1. Pouring or affusion: an allowed method in 2 nd Cent 2. Sprinkling or aspersion from analogy of OT ritual cleansing in Temple (Num 8: 5 -7) 3. Immersion from baptizo, “to dip, immerse” which best visualizes Romans 6: 4 Therefore we have been buried with him through baptism into death, in order that just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too may live a new life. 4. Infant baptism is suppose to replace circumcision in new covenant Survey of Ecclesiology 22

Purposes of the church Evangelism: a going to others with good news (Mt 28: Purposes of the church Evangelism: a going to others with good news (Mt 28: 19), practiced by all (Acts 8: 4), resulting in many believers (Acts 2: 41; 4: 4; 5: 14; 8: 12) Fellowship: commitment to believers in church (Ro 12: 5, 10, 16; 13: 8) in unity (Acts 2: 46; 4: 31) Teaching: essential to edification and maturity (Acts 11: 26; 15: 35; 2 Ti 2: 2; He 5: 12) Worship: To love God with all, heart, soul, mind (Mt 22: 37); church prayed (Ac 12: 5); read Scripture (Ac 4: 24); Singing (Eph 5: 19) Service to others: 41 commands are to be done to “one another”; spiritual gifts give purpose (1 Co 12 -14) Survey of Ecclesiology 23

Church Discipline Principle of Discipline Defined – Evangelism ministers to those outside the church Church Discipline Principle of Discipline Defined – Evangelism ministers to those outside the church in bondage to sin – Edification is designed to build up the believers – Discipline is part of the edification process which ministers to believers who are dominated by some area of sin so they can experience liberation from its power through fellowship with Christ Definition: “The confrontive and corrective measures taken by an individual, church leaders, or the congregation regarding a matter of sin in the life of a believer” Survey of Ecclesiology 24

Pattern and Basis for Discipline 1. 2. 3. 4. The Lord Himself disciplines His Pattern and Basis for Discipline 1. 2. 3. 4. The Lord Himself disciplines His children (Heb ( 12: 6 "For the Lord disciplines the one he loves and chastises every son he accepts. ") Based on the Holy Character of God (Heb 12: 11 ( Now all discipline seems painful at the time, not joyful. But later it produces the fruit of peace and righteousness for those trained by it. ) Based on the divine command of Scripture (1 ( Timothy 5: 20 Those guilty of sin must be rebuked before all, as a warning to the rest. ) The Testimony of the church in the world (1 Peter ( 4: 17 For it is time for judgment to begin, starting with the house of God. And if it starts with us, what will be the fate of those who are disobedient to the gospel of God? ) Survey of Ecclesiology 25

Purposes of Church Discipline 1. 2. 3. 4. To restore, heal or build up Purposes of Church Discipline 1. 2. 3. 4. To restore, heal or build up sinning believers Matt 18: 15 "If your brother sins, go and show him his fault when the two of you are alone. If he listens to you, you have regained your brother. ” To produce a healthy faith 1 Timothy 1: 20 Among these are Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom I handed over to Satan to be taught not to To set an example for the rest of the Body and promote godly fear 1 Tim 5: 20 Those guilty of sin must be rebuked before all, as a warning to the rest. To silent false teachers blaspheme. Titus 1: 13 Such testimony is true. For this reason rebuke them sharply that they may be healthy in the faith Survey of Ecclesiology 26

Four Loses for Failure to Discipline: 1. 2. 3. 4. Loss of Purity: 1 Four Loses for Failure to Discipline: 1. 2. 3. 4. Loss of Purity: 1 Corinthians 5: 6 … Don't you know that a little yeast affects the whole batch of dough? : 7 Clean out the old yeast so that you may be a new batch of dough--… Loss of Power: Joshua 7: sin of Achan Loss of Progress: Revelation 2: 5 Therefore, remember from what high state you have fallen and repent! Do the deeds you did at the first; if not, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place --that is, if you do not repent. Loss of Purpose: 1 Peter 1: 14 Like obedient children, do not comply with the evil urges you used to follow in your ignorance, : 15 but, like the Holy One who called you, become holy yourselves in all of your conduct, Survey of Ecclesiology 27

Practice of Church Discipline: The Manner 1. 2. 3. 4. Must be done by Practice of Church Discipline: The Manner 1. 2. 3. 4. Must be done by those who are “spiritual” (Gal 6: 1 ( … if a person is discovered in some sin, you who are spiritual restore such a person in a spirit of gentleness. ) Must be done in a spirit of humility, gentleness and patience (Gal 6: 1… restore such a person in a spirit of gentleness. Pay close attention to yourselves, so that you are not tempted too. ) Must be done without bias, or spirit of partiality (1 Timothy 5: 21 Before God and Christ Jesus and the elect angels, I solemnly charge you to carry out these commands without prejudice or favoritism of any kind. Must admonish, warn and appeal in love to those who walk “disorderly” 1 Thess 5: 14 “And we urge you, brothers and sisters, admonish the undisciplined, …” 2 Tim 4: 2, “…reprove, rebuke, exhort with complete patience and instruction. ” Ecclesiology 28 Survey of

Practice of Church Discipline: The Manner 5. 6. 7. Must rebuke publicly and withhold Practice of Church Discipline: The Manner 5. 6. 7. Must rebuke publicly and withhold from fellowship if no response: 2 Thess 3: 6 But we command you, to keep away from any brother who lives an undisciplined life and not according to the tradition you received from us. Must excommunicate if no response to church discipline Matt 18: 17 If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church. If he refuses to listen to the church, treat him like a Gentile or a tax collector. Must be ready to forgive, comfort and reafirm the repentant 2 Cor 2: 6 This punishment on such an individual by the majority is enough for him, : 7 so that now instead you should rather forgive and comfort him. This will keep him from being overwhelmed by excessive grief to the point of despair. Survey of Ecclesiology 29

Reasons for Church Discipline General Causes – Disorderly conduct, conduct out of line with Reasons for Church Discipline General Causes – Disorderly conduct, conduct out of line with commands of Scriptures which negatively impact the testimony of Scriptures (2 Thess 3: 6 -15) Specific Causes – Difficulties between members (Matt 18: 15 -17) – Divisive people causing divisions in the church (Rom 16: 17 -18) – Immoral conduct: 1 Cor 5: 1, 11; 2 Thes 3: 10 -15 include incest, immorality, covetousness, idolatry, abusive speech, drunkenness, swindling or idle busybodies who refuse to work but spread dissension – False teaching that concern the fundamental of the faith – not lesser differences of interpretation (1 Tim 1: 20; 2 Tim 2: 17 -18) Survey of Ecclesiology 30

Procedures for Church Discipline 1. Seek Private Correction and/or Reconciliation with offender (Mat 18: Procedures for Church Discipline 1. Seek Private Correction and/or Reconciliation with offender (Mat 18: 15) Express genuine appreciation for the person Listen to the other person’s side and seek the facts If the person fails to respond, warn them that you will have to get others as witnesses 2. Take witnesses to strengthen the effect of discipline, preferably spiritual leaders so it can be firmly proven and established (Mat 18: 16 -17; 1 Tim 5: 19). If no results, then warn that further action will be taken providing occasion for serous rebuke (2 Tim 4: 2) 3. Seek reconciliation and restoration through the whole body (Matt 18: 17; 2 Thess 3: 14 -15; 1 Tim 5: 20) The body is to exercise group disapproval by way of social ostracism If ineffective, the church is to exercise excommunication: removal from the church membership, loss of voting privileges, and ostracized (1 Cor 5: 4) There is heavenly action that coincides with this church action! (Mat 18: 18 -19) Survey of Ecclesiology 31

Procedures for Restoration Forgiveness – Accepting the person and forgetting the past (2 Cor Procedures for Restoration Forgiveness – Accepting the person and forgetting the past (2 Cor 2: 7 a) – How do we know when genuine? Luke 3: 8, when they “…bring forth fruits in keeping with repentance” Acts 26: 20, “…that they should repent and turn to God, performing deeds appropriate to repentance. ” Freely acknowledge his sin (1 Jn 1: 9; Prov 28: 13 a) Cease activity for which he was disciplined, or seek help if problem was a life dominating pattern (Prov 28: 13 a; Gal 6: 1; Jam 5: 19 -20) Make restitution or ask forgiveness from those hurt (Phil 1819; Mat 5: 23 -24) Demonstrate a genuine change of heart, godly sorrow for actions because of harm to glory of God and hurt to others (2 Cor 7: 8 -11) Begin to manifest the fruit of the Spirit (Gal 5: 22) Survey of Ecclesiology 32

Procedures for Restoration Comfort – Reaching out to them, assuring them of your support, Procedures for Restoration Comfort – Reaching out to them, assuring them of your support, encouraging, exhorting and challenging them to move on (2 Cor 2: 7 b) Love – Means including them, drawing them close, doing whatever will help their recovery (2 Cor 2: 8) – Encouraging them to get involved in ministry to others (Luke 22: 31 -32) – For leadership, there should be a time of testing to demonstrate their qualifications (1 Tim 3: 10) Survey of Ecclesiology 33