6dbe17159ab8c988190b123624e5fc75.ppt

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EC 2035 - CRYPTOGRAPHY & NETWORK SECURITY UNIT - II PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY

Outline • • • Key Distribution Introduction to Public Key Systems Key Management Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Elliptic-curve Architecture Elliptic-curve Cryptography Introduction to Number Theory Confidentiality using Symmetric Encryption Public Key Cryptography and RSA

Model for Network Security

Key Management and Distribution • topics of cryptographic key management / key distribution are complex – cryptographic, protocol, & management issues • symmetric schemes require both parties to share a common secret key • public key schemes require parties to acquire valid public keys • have concerns with doing both

Key Distribution • symmetric schemes require both parties to share a common secret key • issue is how to securely distribute this key • whilst protecting it from others • frequent key changes can be desirable • often secure system failure due to a break in the key distribution scheme

Key Distribution methods • given parties A and B have various key distribution alternatives: Not suitable for large 1. systems A can select key and physically deliver to B 2. third party can select & physically deliver key to A&B Initial 3. if A & B have communicated previously can distribution? use previous key to encrypt a new key 4. if A & B have secure communications with a third party C, C can relay key between A & B

Scale of key distribution problem • A network with N hosts => N(N-1)/2 pairs • Node-level encryption N(N-1)/2 • Application-level encryption – 10 applications/node

Key Hierarchy • typically have a hierarchy of keys • session key – temporary key – used for encryption of data between users – for one logical session then discarded • master key – used to encrypt session keys – shared by user & key distribution center

Key Hierarchy

Key distribution center (KDC) KDC shares a unique key (master key) with each user to distribute secret key (session key) between a pair of users: scale of key distribution problem reduces to N EMK 1 (Secret key) Secret key Key distribution center (KDC) EMK 2 (Secret key) Secret key

Key Distribution Scenario

Key Distribution Scenario nonce: an identifier that differs for each request 1. Verify the original request 2. Avoid replay attack Session key Master key Ka Identifier for A (ex. address) Master key Kb (avoid replay attack)

Hierarchical key control KDC KDC … a … b

Session key lifetime • Short session key lifetime – Key exchanges frequently => more secure • Long session key lifetime – Reduce key exchange time, and network capacity • Two connection protocol (session

Transparent key control scheme • End-to-end encrypt at network (transport) layer, which is transparent to users ? No authentication

Front-end processor (FEP) header data

Decentralized key control • KDC trusted? • Decentralized: assume there is one master key for each pair of end systems Nonce for authentication session key shared master key Master key are used for a short time, cryptanalysis is difficult

Key Distribution Issues • hierarchies of KDC’s required for large networks, but must trust each other • session key lifetimes should be limited for greater security • use of automatic key distribution on behalf of users, but must trust system • use of decentralized key distribution • controlling key usage

Symmetric Key Distribution Using Public Keys • public key cryptosystems are inefficient – so almost never use for direct data encryption – rather use to encrypt secret keys for distribution

Introduction to public-key cryptosystems

Introduction to public-key cryptosystems • Recall: symmetric ciphers – One secret key, shared by sender and receivers (symmetric) – Based on substitution and permutation – Problem: • Key distribution • Digital signature: a kind of signature used in paper document • Diffie and Hellman proposed the publickey cryptosystem to address the above two problems in 1976

Preview of public-key systems • Features of public-key system – Asymmetric: a public key and a private key – Algorithm based on mathematical functions • Fallacies – Public-key is more secure than symmetric encryption – Public-key encryption is a general-purpose technique that will make symm. encrypt. obsolete – Key distribution is trivial is easier for public-key encryption than symmetric encryption

Public-key encryption • One-key for encryption • A different but related key for decryption – It is computational infeasible to determine the decryption key given the crypto. algorithm and the encryption key

Steps in public-key encryption 1. Each user generates a pair of keys for encryption and decryption (In RSA, these two keys can exchange) 2. One key (public key) is announced publicly. The other key is kept private. Q: key distribution problem? (Chap. 10) 3. Bob sends encrypted message to Alice using Alice’s public key. 4. Only Alice can decrypt the message using her private key.

Comparison between symmetric and public-key encryption

Math. formulation of public-key system Y = EKU b(X) What E and D can achieve this? X = DKRb(Y)

Requirement for public-key cryptography • Diffie and Hellman (1976) proposed the system without the algorithm for E and D. They laid out the requirement: – – It is computationally easy to generate a pair of keys It is computationally easy for a sender to encrypt Y = EKU (X) b It is computationally easy for a receiver to decrypt X = DKR (Y) b It is computationally infeasible for an opponent, knowing the public key, to determine the private key – It is computationally infeasible for an opponent, knowing the public key and ciphtertext, to recover the plaintext

The algorithms that satisfy publickey requirement • RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) 1978 – Number theory • Elliptic curve cryptography

Trap-door one-way function • Public-key encryption is a one-way function – Every function value has a unique inverse Y=f(X): easy domain target X=f-1 (Y): infeasible ( > polynomial time) • It is hard to determine the complexity to compute the inverse • Not a traditionally complexity problem, which focuses on the worst-case or average-case complexity

Trap-door one-way function (cont. ) • Open a trap-door using the private key… Y=f(X): easy domain target X=f-1 (Y): infeasible ( > polynomial time) X=f. K-1 (Y): easy if trap-door K is known ( ~ polynomial time)

Public-key system for authentication • Recall: the problem of digital signature • Only Bob has the private key to encrypt !!! (server as digital signature)

Authentication issues (Chap. 13) • Encrypt entire message? – No necessary. Encrypt the authenticator: a small block of bits that is a function of the document – Change of document will change the authenticator • Digital signature is confidential? – No. Any one who has the public-key can decrypt – What to do? => double use of the public-key system

Public-key system for both confidentiality and authentication

Public-key cryptanalysis • Brute-force attack: search the private key – Solution: use large keys – Tradeoffs: complexity of encrypt/decrypt using large keys security using large keys – Public-key system are currently too slow for general-purpose use, only used for key management and signature application • Compute private key given the public key – Not proved to be infeasible

Public-key cryptanalysis (cont. ) • Probable-message attack – Ex. encrypt 56 -bit DES key Public-key encryption Public-key Attack: Try all DES Key C 000… 001 000… 010 000… 011 …. 111… 111 Public-key encryption C 1 C 2 C 3 … Ck = C Solution: append things in the plaintext

Key Management • public-key encryption helps address key distribution problems • have two aspects of this: – distribution of public keys – use of public-key encryption to distribute secret keys

Distribution of Public Keys • can be considered as using one of: – Public announcement – Publicly available directory – Public-key authority – Public-key certificates

Public Announcement • users distribute public keys to recipients or broadcast to community at large – eg. append PGP keys to email messages or post to news groups or email list • major weakness is forgery – anyone can create a key claiming to be someone else and broadcast it – until forgery is discovered can masquerade as claimed user

Publicly Available Directory • can obtain greater security by registering keys with a public directory • directory must be trusted with properties: – contains {name, public-key} entries – participants register securely with directory – participants can replace key at any time – directory is periodically published – directory can be accessed electronically • still vulnerable to tampering or forgery

Public-Key Authority • improve security by tightening control over distribution of keys from directory • has properties of directory • and requires users to know public key for the directory • then users interact with directory to obtain any desired public key securely – does require real-time access to directory when keys are needed

Public-Key Authority

Public-Key Certificates • certificates allow key exchange without real-time access to public-key authority • a certificate binds identity to public key – usually with other info such as period of validity, rights of use etc • with all contents signed by a trusted Public-Key or Certificate Authority (CA) • can be verified by anyone who knows the public-key authorities public-key

Public-Key Certificates

X. 509 Authentication Service • part of CCITT X. 500 directory service standards – distributed servers maintaining user info database • defines framework for authentication services – directory may store public-key certificates – with public key of user signed by certification authority • • also defines authentication protocols uses public-key crypto & digital signatures – algorithms not standardised, but RSA recommended • X. 509 certificates are widely used – have 3 versions

X. 509 Certificate Use

X. 509 Certificates • issued by a Certification Authority (CA), containing: – – – version V (1, 2, or 3) serial number SN (unique within CA) identifying certificate signature algorithm identifier AI issuer X. 500 name CA) period of validity TA (from - to dates) subject X. 500 name A (name of owner) subject public-key info Ap (algorithm, parameters, key) issuer unique identifier (v 2+) subject unique identifier (v 2+) extension fields (v 3) signature (of hash of all fields in certificate) • notation CA<> denotes certificate for A signed by CA

X. 509 Certificates

Obtaining a Certificate • any user with access to CA can get any certificate from it • only the CA can modify a certificate • because cannot be forged, certificates can be placed in a public directory

CA Hierarchy • if both users share a common CA then they are assumed to know its public key • otherwise CA's must form a hierarchy • use certificates linking members of hierarchy to validate other CA's – each CA has certificates for clients (forward) and parent (backward) • each client trusts parents certificates • enable verification of any certificate from one CA by users of all other CAs in hierarchy

CA Hierarchy Use

Certificate Revocation • • certificates have a period of validity may need to revoke before expiry, eg: 1. 2. 3. • CA’s maintain list of revoked certificates – • user's private key is compromised user is no longer certified by this CA CA's certificate is compromised the Certificate Revocation List (CRL) users should check certificates with CA’s CRL

X. 509 Version 3 • has been recognised that additional information is needed in a certificate – email/URL, policy details, usage constraints • rather than explicitly naming new fields defined a general extension method • extensions consist of: – extension identifier – criticality indicator – extension value

Certificate Extensions • key and policy information – convey info about subject & issuer keys, plus indicators of certificate policy • certificate subject and issuer attributes – support alternative names, in alternative formats for certificate subject and/or issuer • certificate path constraints – allow constraints on use of certificates by other CA’s

Public Key Infrastructure

PKIX Management • functions: – registration – initialization – certification – key pair recovery – key pair update – revocation request – cross certification • protocols: CMP, CMC

Public-Key Distribution of Secret Keys • • use previous methods to obtain public-key can use for secrecy or authentication but public-key algorithms are slow so usually want to use private-key encryption to protect message contents • hence need a session key • have several alternatives for negotiating a suitable session

Symmetric Key Distribution Using Public Keys • public key cryptosystems are inefficient – so almost never use for direct data encryption – rather use to encrypt secret keys for distribution

Simple Secret Key Distribution • proposed by Merkle in 1979 – A generates a new temporary public key pair – A sends B the public key and their identity – B generates a session key K sends it to A encrypted using the supplied public key – A decrypts the session key and both use • problem is that an opponent can intercept and impersonate both halves of protocol

Simple Secret Key Distribution • Merkle proposed this very simple scheme – allows secure communications – no keys before/after exist

Man-in-the-Middle Attack • this very simple scheme is vulnerable to an active man-in-the-middle attack

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange • first public-key type scheme proposed • by Diffie & Hellman in 1976 along with the exposition of public key concepts – note: now know that James Ellis (UK CESG) secretly proposed the concept in 1970 • is a practical method for public exchange of a secret key • used in a number of commercial products

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange • a public-key distribution scheme – cannot be used to exchange an arbitrary message – rather it can establish a common key – known only to the two participants • value of key depends on the participants (and their private and public key information) • based on exponentiation in a finite (Galois) field (modulo a prime or a polynomial) - easy • security relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms (similar to factoring) – hard

Public-Key Distribution of Secret Keys • if have securely exchanged public-keys:

Diffie-Hellman Setup • all users agree on global parameters: – large prime integer or polynomial q – α a primitive root mod q • each user (eg. A) generates their key – chooses a secret key (number): x. A < q x. A – compute their public key: y. A = α mod q • each user makes public that key y. A

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange • shared session key for users A & B is KAB: x. A. x. B KAB = α mod q x. B = y. A mod q (which B can compute) x. A = y. B mod q (which A can compute) • KAB is used as session key in private-key encryption scheme between Alice and Bob • if Alice and Bob subsequently communicate, they will have the same key as before, unless they choose new public-keys • attacker needs an x, must solve discrete log

Diffie-Hellman Example • users Alice & Bob who wish to swap keys: • agree on prime q=353 and α=3 • select random secret keys: – A chooses x. A=97, B chooses x. B=233 • compute public keys: 97 – y. A=3 mod 353 = 40 (Alice) 233 – y. B=3 mod 353 = 248 (Bob) • compute shared session key as: x 97 KAB= y. B A mod 353 = 248 = 160 x 233 KAB= y. A B mod 353 = 40 = 160 (Alice) (Bob)

Elliptic Curve Cryptography • majority of public-key crypto (RSA, D-H) use either integer or polynomial arithmetic with very large numbers/polynomials • imposes a significant load in storing and processing keys and messages • an alternative is to use elliptic curves • offers same security with smaller bit sizes

Real Elliptic Curves • an elliptic curve is defined by an equation in two variables x & y, with coefficients • consider a cubic elliptic curve of form – y 2 = x 3 + ax + b – where x, y, a, b are all real numbers – also define zero point O • have addition operation for elliptic curve – geometrically sum of Q+R is reflection of intersection R

Real Elliptic Curve Example

Finite Elliptic Curves • Elliptic curve cryptography uses curves whose variables & coefficients are finite • have two families commonly used: – prime curves Ep(a, b) defined over Zp • use integers modulo a prime • best in software – binary curves E 2 m(a, b) defined over GF(2 n) • use polynomials with binary coefficients • best in hardware

Elliptic Curve Cryptography • ECC addition is analog of modulo multiply • ECC repeated addition is analog of modulo exponentiation • need “hard” problem equiv to discrete log – Q=k. P, where Q, P belong to a prime curve – is “easy” to compute Q given k, P – but “hard” to find k given Q, P – known as the elliptic curve logarithm problem • Certicom example: E 23(9, 17)

ECC Diffie-Hellman • can do key exchange analogous to D-H • users select a suitable curve Ep(a, b) • select base point G=(x 1, y 1) with large order n s. t. n. G=O • A & B select private keys n. A

ECC Encryption/Decryption • several alternatives, will consider simplest • must first encode any message M as a point on the elliptic curve Pm • select suitable curve & point G as in D-H • each user chooses private key n. A

ECC Security • relies on elliptic curve logarithm problem • fastest method is “Pollard rho method” • compared to factoring, can use much smaller key sizes than with RSA etc • for equivalent key lengths computations are roughly equivalent • hence for similar security ECC offers significant computational advantages

Prime Numbers • prime numbers only have divisors of 1 and self – they cannot be written as a product of other numbers – note: 1 is prime, but is generally not of interest • eg. 2, 3, 5, 7 are prime, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 are not • prime numbers are central to number theory • list of prime number less than 200 is: 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61 67 71 73 79 83 89 97 101 103 107 109 113 127 131 137 139 149 151 157 163 167 173 179 181 193 197 199

Prime Factorisation • to factor a number n is to write it as a product of other numbers: n=a × b × c • note that factoring a number is relatively hard compared to multiplying the factors together to generate the number • the prime factorisation of a number n is when its written as a product of primes – eg. 91=7× 13 ; 3600=24× 32× 52

Relatively Prime Numbers & GCD • two numbers a, b are relatively prime if have no common divisors apart from 1 – eg. 8 & 15 are relatively prime since factors of 8 are 1, 2, 4, 8 and of 15 are 1, 3, 5, 15 and 1 is the only common factor • conversely can determine the greatest common divisor by comparing their prime factorizations and using least powers – eg. 300=21× 31× 52 18=21× 32 hence GCD(18, 300)=21× 31× 50=6

Fermat's Theorem • ap-1 mod p = 1 – where p is prime and gcd(a, p)=1 • also known as Fermat’s Little Theorem • useful in public key and primality testing

Euler Totient Function ø(n) • when doing arithmetic modulo n • complete set of residues is: 0. . n-1 • reduced set of residues is those numbers (residues) which are relatively prime to n – eg for n=10, – complete set of residues is {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} – reduced set of residues is {1, 3, 7, 9} • number of elements in reduced set of residues is called the Euler Totient Function ø(n)

Euler Totient Function ø(n) • to compute ø(n) need to count number of elements to be excluded • in general need prime factorization, but – for p (p prime) ø(p) = p-1 – for p. q (p, q prime) ø(p. q) = (p-1)(q-1) • eg. – ø(37) = 36 – ø(21) = (3– 1)×(7– 1) = 2× 6 = 12

Euler's Theorem • a generalisation of Fermat's Theorem • aø(n)mod N = 1 – where gcd(a, N)=1 • eg. – a=3; n=10; ø(10)=4; – hence 34 = 81 = 1 mod 10 – a=2; n=11; ø(11)=10; – hence 210 = 1024 = 1 mod 11

Primality Testing • often need to find large prime numbers • traditionally sieve using trial division – ie. divide by all numbers (primes) in turn less than the square root of the number – only works for small numbers • alternatively can use statistical primality tests based on properties of primes – for which all primes numbers satisfy property – but some composite numbers, called pseudo-primes, also satisfy the property

Miller Rabin Algorithm • a test based on Fermat’s Theorem • algorithm is: TEST (n) is: 1. Find integers k, q, k > 0, q odd, so that (n– 1)=2 kq 2. Select a random integer a, 1

Probabilistic Considerations • if Miller-Rabin returns “composite” the number is definitely not prime • otherwise is a prime or a pseudo-prime • chance it detects a pseudo-prime is < ¼ • hence if repeat test with different random a then chance n is prime after t tests is: – Pr(n prime after t tests) = 1 -4 -t – eg. for t=10 this probability is > 0. 99999

Prime Distribution • prime number theorem states that primes occur roughly every (ln n) integers • since can immediately ignore evens and multiples of 5, in practice only need test 0. 4 ln(n) numbers of size n before locate a prime – note this is only the “average” sometimes primes are close together, at other times are quite far apart

Chinese Remainder Theorem • used to speed up modulo computations • working modulo a product of numbers – eg. mod M = m 1 m 2. . mk • Chinese Remainder theorem lets us work in each moduli mi separately • since computational cost is proportional to size, this is faster than working in the full modulus M

Chinese Remainder Theorem • can implement CRT in several ways • to compute (A mod M) can firstly compute all (ai mod mi) separately and then combine results to get answer using:

Primitive Roots • from Euler’s theorem have aø(n)mod n=1 • consider ammod n=1, GCD(a, n)=1 – must exist for m= ø(n) but may be smaller – once powers reach m, cycle will repeat • if smallest is m= ø(n) then a is called a primitive root • if p is prime, then successive powers of a "generate" the group mod p • these are useful but relatively hard to find

Discrete Logarithms or Indices • the inverse problem to exponentiation is to find the discrete logarithm of a number modulo p • that is to find x where ax = b mod p • written as x=loga b mod p or x=inda, p(b) • if a is a primitive root then always exists, otherwise may not – x = log 3 4 mod 13 (x st 3 x = 4 mod 13) has no answer – x = log 2 3 mod 13 = 4 by trying successive powers • whilst exponentiation is relatively easy, finding discrete logarithms is generally a hard problem

Private-Key Cryptography • traditional private/secret/single key cryptography uses one key • shared by both sender and receiver • if this key is disclosed communications are compromised • also is symmetric, parties are equal • hence does not protect sender from receiver forging a message & claiming is sent by sender

Public-Key Cryptography • probably most significant advance in the 3000 year history of cryptography • uses two keys – a public & a private key • asymmetric since parties are not equal • uses clever application of number theoretic concepts to function • complements rather than replaces private key crypto

Why Public-Key Cryptography? • developed to address two key issues: – key distribution – how to have secure communications in general without having to trust a KDC with your key – digital signatures – how to verify a message comes intact from the claimed sender • public invention due to Whitfield Diffie & Martin Hellman at Stanford Uni in 1976 – known earlier in classified community

Public-Key Cryptography • public-key/two-key/asymmetric cryptography involves the use of two keys: – a public-key, which may be known by anybody, and can be used to encrypt messages, and verify signatures – a related private-key, known only to the recipient, used to decrypt messages, and sign (create) signatures • infeasible to determine private key from public • is asymmetric because – those who encrypt messages or verify signatures cannot decrypt messages or create signatures

Public-Key Cryptography

Symmetric vs Public-Key

Public-Key Cryptosystems

Public-Key Applications • can classify uses into 3 categories: – encryption/decryption (provide secrecy) – digital signatures (provide authentication) – key exchange (of session keys) • some algorithms are suitable for all uses, others are specific to one

Public-Key Requirements • Public-Key algorithms rely on two keys where: – it is computationally infeasible to find decryption key knowing only algorithm & encryption key – it is computationally easy to en/decrypt messages when the relevant (en/decrypt) key is known – either of the two related keys can be used for encryption, with the other used for decryption (for some algorithms) • these are formidable requirements which only a few algorithms have satisfied

Public-Key Requirements • need a trapdoor one-way function • one-way function has – Y = f(X) easy – X = f– 1(Y) infeasible • a trap-door one-way function has – Y = fk(X) easy, if k and X are known – X = fk– 1(Y) easy, if k and Y are known – X = fk– 1(Y) infeasible, if Y known but k not known • a practical public-key scheme depends on a suitable trap-door one-way function

Security of Public Key Schemes • like private key schemes brute force exhaustive search attack is always theoretically possible • but keys used are too large (>512 bits) • security relies on a large enough difference in difficulty between easy (en/decrypt) and hard (cryptanalyse) problems • more generally the hard problem is known, but is made hard enough to be impractical to break • requires the use of very large numbers • hence is slow compared to private key schemes

RSA • • • by Rivest, Shamir & Adleman of MIT in 1977 best known & widely used public-key scheme based on exponentiation in a finite (Galois) field over integers modulo a prime – nb. exponentiation takes O((log n)3) operations (easy) • uses large integers (eg. 1024 bits) • security due to cost of factoring large numbers – nb. factorization takes O(e log n) operations (hard)

RSA En/decryption • to encrypt a message M the sender: – obtains public key of recipient PU={e, n} – computes: C = Me mod n, where 0≤M

RSA Key Setup • • • each user generates a public/private key pair by: selecting two large primes at random: p, q computing their system modulus n=p. q – note ø(n)=(p-1)(q-1) • selecting at random the encryption key e – where 1

Why RSA Works • because of Euler's Theorem: – aø(n)mod n = 1 where gcd(a, n)=1 • in RSA have: – n=p. q – ø(n)=(p-1)(q-1) – carefully chose e & d to be inverses mod ø(n) – hence e. d=1+k. ø(n) for some k • hence : Cd = Me. d = M 1+k. ø(n) = M 1. (Mø(n))k = M 1. (1)k = M 1 = M mod n

RSA Example - Key Setup 1. Ø Ø Select primes: p=17 & q=11 Calculate n = pq =17 x 11=187 Calculate ø(n)=(p– 1)(q-1)=16 x 10=160 Select e: gcd(e, 160)=1; choose e=7 Determine d: de=1 mod 160 and d < 160 Value is d=23 since 23 x 7=161= 10 x 160+1 Ø Publish public key PU={7, 187} Ø Keep secret private key PR={23, 187}

RSA Example - En/Decryption • • • sample RSA encryption/decryption is: given message M = 88 (nb. 88<187) encryption: C = 887 mod 187 = 11 • decryption: M = 1123 mod 187 = 88

Exponentiation • • can use the Square and Multiply Algorithm a fast, efficient algorithm for exponentiation concept is based on repeatedly squaring base and multiplying in the ones that are needed to compute the result • look at binary representation of exponent • only takes O(log 2 n) multiples for number n – eg. 75 = 74. 71 = 3. 7 = 10 mod 11 – eg. 3129 = 3128. 31 = 5. 3 = 4 mod 11

Exponentiation c = 0; f = 1 for i = k downto 0 do c = 2 x c f = (f x f) mod n if bi == 1 then c=c+1 f = (f x a) mod n return f

Efficient Encryption • encryption uses exponentiation to power e • hence if e small, this will be faster – often choose e=65537 (216 -1) – also see choices of e=3 or e=17 • but if e too small (eg e=3) can attack – using Chinese remainder theorem & 3 messages with different modulii • if e fixed must ensure gcd(e, ø(n))=1 – ie reject any p or q not relatively prime to e

Efficient Decryption • decryption uses exponentiation to power d – this is likely large, insecure if not • can use the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) to compute mod p & q separately. then combine to get desired answer – approx 4 times faster than doing directly • only owner of private key who knows values of p & q can use this technique

RSA Key Generation • users of RSA must: – determine two primes at random - p, q – select either e or d and compute the other • primes p, q must not be easily derived from modulus n=p. q – means must be sufficiently large – typically guess and use probabilistic test • exponents e, d are inverses, so use Inverse algorithm to compute the other

RSA Security • possible approaches to attacking RSA are: – brute force key search - infeasible given size of numbers – mathematical attacks - based on difficulty of computing ø(n), by factoring modulus n – timing attacks - on running of decryption – chosen ciphertext attacks - given properties of RSA

Factoring Problem • mathematical approach takes 3 forms: – – – factor n=p. q, hence compute ø(n) and then d determine ø(n) directly and compute d find d directly • currently believe all equivalent to factoring – have seen slow improvements over the years • as of May-05 best is 200 decimal digits (663) bit with LS – biggest improvement comes from improved algorithm • cf QS to GHFS to LS – currently assume 1024 -2048 bit RSA is secure • ensure p, q of similar size and matching other constraints

Progress in Factoring

Progress in Factoring

Timing Attacks • developed by Paul Kocher in mid-1990’s • exploit timing variations in operations – eg. multiplying by small vs large number – or IF's varying which instructions executed • • • infer operand size based on time taken RSA exploits time taken in exponentiation countermeasures – – – use constant exponentiation time add random delays blind values used in calculations

Chosen Ciphertext Attacks • RSA is vulnerable to a Chosen Ciphertext Attack (CCA) • attackers chooses ciphertexts & gets decrypted plaintext back • choose ciphertext to exploit properties of RSA to provide info to help cryptanalysis • can counter with random pad of plaintext • or use Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OASP)

Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OASP)