- Количество слайдов: 42
I. 3 Main Features of the Earth 1. Lithosphere • a. Solid layer of the Earth’s crust. b. Land Layer 2. Hydrosphere a. Water Layer b. Oceans, lakes, rivers 3. Atmosphere a. Gas layer b. Mixture of gases that surround the Earth Atmosphere c. held around the planet by gravity Lithosphere Hydrosphere
Questions 1. List three layers of the earth a. b. c. 2. a. Lithosphere = _____ layer b. Hydrosphere = _____ layer c. Atmosphere = _____layer
Questions 1. List three layers of the earth a. lithosphere b. hydrosphere c. atmosphere 2. a. Lithosphere = __land_ layer b. Hydrosphere = __water__ layer c. Atmosphere = ___gas___layer
II. Layers of the Atmosphere Divided into layers according the temperature and altitude. 1. Troposphere a. Next to the Earth’s surface b. Most dense layer c. Layer we live in d. All clouds, gases, water vapor, pollution and life forms are in this layer. e. Layer that has Earth’s weather f. As altitude increases in the troposphere the temperature decreases. •
Layers of the Atmosphere
Layers of the Atmosphere Cont. 2. Stratosphere a. Layer above the troposphere b. Air is very thin, and little moisture c. Lower stratosphere is very cold d. Layer with the Ozone (which absorbs the solar energy/ protects the Earth by absorbing the UV light). e. In the stratosphere, the temperature rises with the altitude because of the ozone absorbing the solar energy.
Layers of the Atmosphere Cont. 3. Mesosphere a. Above the stratosphere b. One of the Coldest layer of the atmosphere / up to -90°C c. Recent discovery of large wind storms in this layer. d. Middle layer e. Protects the Earth from being hit by meteors (they burn up in this layer) “shooting stars”
Layers of the Atmosphere Cont. 4. Ionosphere a. The layer between the mesosphere and thermosphere b. Charged ions in this layer are what radio waves bounce off of then back to the earth’s surface c. The Aurora borealis (northern lights) and the Aurora australis (southern lights) are in this layer.
Layers of the Atmosphere Cont. 5. Thermosphere a. The uppermost layer b. Temperatures increase because the gases are absorbing the solar energy. c. Contains only a few particles that travel fast. The temperature is high due to the speed of the particles but the particles rarely touch so there is little “heat”. (Not much energy is transferred. ) 6. Exosphere
Questions 1. Layers of the atmosphere are divided into layers according to ______. 2. Layer of the atmosphere we live in? 3. Layer of atmosphere with the ozone? 4. ____ protects us from the UV rays. 5. Coldest layer, protects us from meteors? 6. _______layer where ions bounce off charged particles. 7. Top layer of the atmosphere ______.
Questions 1. Layers of the atmosphere are divided into layers according to temperature. 2. Layer of the atmosphere we live in? troposhere 3. Layer of atmosphere with the ozone? stratosphere 4. Ozone protects us from the UV rays. 5. Coldest layer, protects us from meteors? mesosphere 6. Ionosphere layer where ions bounce off charged particles. 7. Top layer of the atmospherethermosphere.
Composition of the Atmosphere
III. Characteristics of the Atmosphere A. Composition of the Atmosphere 1. 78% is Nitrogen a. most abundant gas in atmosphere b. nitrogen enters the atmosphere through the nitrogen cycle c. living things use nitrogen to grow and repair cells. d. Nitrogen directly from the atmosphere cannot be used in that form; instead, nitrogen fixing bacteria change nitrogen into nitrates which the plants use to make proteins; then those plants are eaten by animals.
Composition of the Atmo. Cont. 2. 21% of the Atmosphere is Oxygen a. second most abundant gas b. produced by plants c. oxygen enters the atmosphere by the CO 2 / O 2 cycle d. plants and animals use oxygen from the air to break down food for energy (cellular respiration) e. fuels use oxygen to burn f. Ozone is a form of oxygen; it is the layer that protects us from the uv rays of the sun. •
Composition of the Atmo. 3. 1% Trace gases a. argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gases b. carbon dioxide is used by plants to produce food for the plant during photosynthesis c. carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through the CO 2 / O 2 cycle d. water vapor is not visible e. water vapor enters the atmosphere through the water cycle - • • Chamber used for measurement of trace gases (CO 2, N 2 O, CH 4)
Water Cycle – the continuous movement of water 1. Evaporation – when liquid water is heated and changed into a gas (water vapor) 2. Condensation – when water vapor cools and changes back into liquids (when clouds are formed) 3. Precipitation – water falls from the clouds to the earth surface a. Rain b. sleet c. snow d. hail 4. Runoff – water flows on land collecting in rivers, streams and oceans 5. Percolation/ Infiltration: seeps into ground 6. Transpiration – plants release water vapor into the air through their leaves. 7. Flow – continuous movement
Condensation Precipitation Transpiration Runoff Evaporation Infiltration / Ground water
Characteristics of Atmo. Cont. 4. Solid Particles in the Atmosphere a. dust b. volcanic ash c. sea salt d. dirt e. Smoke f. pollen Volcanic ash Sea salt Smoke/smog
Questions 1. What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere? 2. How does water enter into the atmosphere? 3. What gas in the atmosphere is produced by plants? 4. List the steps in the water cycle a. b. c, d. e. f. g.
Questions 1. What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere? nitrogen 2. How does water enter into the atmosphere? Water cycle 3. What gas in the atmosphere is produced by plants? oxygen 4. List the 5 steps in the water cycle a. runoff b. transpiration c. precipitation d. evaporation e. condensation
Characteristics of the Atmosphere B. Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature 1. Air pressure: the measure of the force that the air molecules push on the surface of the Earth. a. air pressure changes throughout the atmosphere what makes your ears pop/ the popping occurs when the pressure inside your ears and the pressure outside become equal) b. air pressure decreases as you get higher in altitude As elevation increases, atmospheric pressure decreases.
Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature 2. Air Temperature a. Air temperature changes as your increase altitude b. Temperature gets warmer and colder mainly as a result of solar energy being absorbed as it moves downward through the atmosphere. c. Some parts of the atmosphere have gases that absorb the warmer rays. d. Other parts do not capture sun’s energy so are cooler.
Air Pressure in the Atmosphere
Questions 1. The measure of the force that air puts on the surface of the earth is ______. 2. As elevation increases, air pressure _______. 3. As elevation increases, air temperature ______. 4. Air temperature increase or decreases as a result of _________.
Questions 1. The measure of the force that air puts on the surface of the earth is air pressure. 2. As elevation increases, air pressure decreases. 3. As elevation increases, air temperature decreases. 4. Air temperature increase or decreases as a result of solar energy being absorbed.
IV. Heating of the Atmosphere A. Energy in the Atmosphere: Transferred 3 ways 1. Radiation: the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves. a. the Earth receives energy from the sun by radiation b. The radiation absorbed by the land, water and atmosphere is changed into thermal energy. -ex. Your body absorbs energy from the sun, causing your skin’s molecules to move faster. You feel this as an increase in temperature. (This is the same way the energy is absorbed by the Earth. ) •
Energy in the Atmosphere cont. 2. Conduction: the transfer of thermal energy from one material to another by direct contact. a. Thermal energy always moves from warm to cold. b. When air molecules come into direct contact with the surface of the Earth, thermal energy is transferred to the atmosphere.
Energy in the Atmosphere cont. 3. Convection: the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or a gas. a. Most thermal energy in the atmosphere moves by convection. b. As air molecules move they carry their heat with them. (ex. You can dry your boots by placing them near a heater. ) c. As air is heated, it becomes less dense and rises. d. Cool air is dense and sinks. e. This continual rising and sinking of air creates circular movement called convection currents.
Questions 1. List three ways Energy is transferred in the atmosphere. a. b. c. 2. Direct contact = 3. Movement of a liquid or gas = 4. Transfer through electromagnetic waves=
Questions 1. List three ways Energy is transferred in the atmosphere. a. conduction b. convection c. radiation 2. Direct contact = conduction 3. Movement of a liquid or gas = convection 4. Transfer of electromagnetic waves= radiation
V. Thermal Energy (heat energy) in the Atmosphere A. 50% is absorbed by the Earth’s Surface B. 20% is absorbed by ozone, clouds, and atmospheric gases C. 25% is scattered and reflected by clouds and air D. 5% is reflected by the Earth’
VI. The Greenhouse Effect A. The Greenhouse Effect is the Earth’s heating process. B. The gases in the atmosphere trap thermal energy. C. Gases like carbon dioxide and water vapor stop the sun’s energy from escaping into space by absorbing the solar energy and then radiating it back to the Earth.
Greenhouse Effect cont. D. Global Warming: a rise in the average global temperatures. a. Green house gases (those that do trap thermal energy) b. Concern: increase in carbon dioxide causing an increase in the green house affect which has led to increased global warming.
Greenhouse Effect cont. E. The Radiation Balance a. The balance between the incoming energy and the outgoing energy is the radiation balance. b. if greenhouse gases increase, the radiation balance may be affected. c. Major changes to plant and animal communities could result in a shift in the balance.
Greenhouse Effect cont. F. Keeping the Earth Livable • a. Treaty between many nations to reduce activities that increase the greenhouse gases. b. Planting of millions of trees has been done in hopes of combating increased carbon dioxide levels.
Questions 1. Thermal Energy is _____ energy. 2. The heating process of the earth is called? 3. A rise in the overall global temperatures is _________? 4. Explain the difference between greenhouse effect and global warming.
Questions 1. Thermal Energy is heat energy. 2. The heating process of the earth is called? Green house effect 3. A rise in the overall global temperatures is global warming? 4. Explain the difference between greenhouse effect and global warming. The green house effect is the process of the earth’s heating due to trapping gases like carbon dioxide causing he sun’s energy to be trapped. Global warming is the rise in overll global temperatures due this trapping of gases.