- Количество слайдов: 40
Early Humans thru Phoenicia WHI. 2 -3
Early Humans • Homosapiens - Hunter-gatherers – survival depended on – Emerged in East Africa between 100, 000 and the availability of wild 400, 000 years ago. plants and animals – Migrated from – Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas
Early Humans • Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) – Hunter gatherer societies during this era overcame limits set by their physical environment. – Nomads – moved in search of food, water, and shelter – Invented first tools, including simple weapons (made out of stone) – Learned how to use and make fire
Early Humans • Paleolithic Era – Lived in clans – Developed oral language – Created cave art – about prehistoric life and events
Early Humans • Neolithic Era (New Stone Age) – Beginning of settled agriculture and permanent settlements – Developed agriculture (domesticated plants) – Domesticated (tamed) animals – Used advanced tools (metal) – Made pottery – Developed weaving skills
Early Humans • Archaeology – used to find and interpret evidence of early humans and their lives – Archaeologists – study past cultures by locating and analyzing human remains, settlements, fossils, and artifacts – Archaeologists apply scientific tests such as carbon dating to analyze fossils and artifacts
Early Humans • Stonehenge – archaeological site in England begun during the Neolithic Age and completed during the Bronze Age. • Lucy – skeleton found in Ethiopia; from her, learned that hominids had learned to walk upright
Emergence of Civilization • Civilization – complex culture with 3 characteristics: 1. Extra food 2. Large town/city with form of government 3. Different jobs for all
Emergence of Civilization • Surplus food • Used irrigation to provide water to fields during the dry season • Improved farming = more food = increase in population • Cities – Large – helped to build palaces, temples – Government – rules to guide people’s behavior (enforced rules) • Division of labor – Artisans – skilled workers (ex. Made tools) – Merchants, traders
Emergence of Civilization • Other characteristics – Calendar – concept of time – Communication – some written, but mostly oral – Pictograms – writing using pictures (Egypt, Sumer)
Do you know where early civilizations were located?
Cradles of Civilization • River Valley Civilizations (3500 – 500 B. C. /B. C. E. ) 1. Mesopotamia – Tigris/Euphrates River Valley (in Southwest Asia) 2. Egypt – Nile River Valley and Nile Delta (in Africa) 3. India – Indus River Valley (in Asia) 4. China – Huang He Valley (in Asia) - All of these river valleys offered rich soils and irrigation waters for agriculture. They tended to be in locations easily protected from invasion by nomadic peoples.
Cradles of Civilization • Other Early Civilizations (2000 – 500 B. C. /B. C. E) 1. Hebrews – along the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley (in Asia, Fertile Crescent) 2. Phoenicians – along the Mediterranean Sea (in Asia, Fertile Crescent) 3. Nubia – upper (Southern) Nile River (in Africa)
Cradles of Civilization • Social patterns – Hereditary rulers – kings, pharaohs (dynasty – family of rulers) – Rigid class system – slavery was accepted • Political patterns – First states – city-states, kingdoms, empires – Centralized government – based on religious authority – Written law codes – Ten Commandments, Code of Hammurabi
Cradles of Civilization • Economic patterns – Metal tools and weapons (bronze and iron) – Increasing agricultural surplus (extra food) – better tools, plows, irrigation) – Increasing trade along rivers and by sea (Phoenicians) – World’s first cities – Slavery – development and practice in the ancient world among most cultures, taking various forms
Cradles of Civilization • Religious traditions – Polytheism – worshipping more than one god (practiced by most early civilizations) – Monotheism – worshipping one god (practiced by the Hebrews)
Egypt • The important river to the Egyptians was the Nile River which is the longest river in the world. • The northern portion of the Nile River branches in a delta (triangular shape) and flows into the Mediterranean Sea. • Heavy rains = summer floods which leave behind fertile soil. • Nile River used for transportation and trade.
Egypt • Achievements – Hieroglyphics – pictographic form of writing • Rosetta Stone – contains Egypt’s written history (hieroglyphics written on stone which was translated) – Papyrus – plant used to make paper – Pyramids – tombs for pharaohs – Calendar – Number system based on ten – Researched the human body
Egypt • Education – boys could go to school and learn to be scribes (could read and write) • Society based on farming • Trade – controlled by the government – Traded extra food. – Caravans – groups of people travelling for safety over long distances
Egypt • Religion – polytheistic – Amon/Amon Ra – creator, associated with the sun – Osiris – judged people after death, associated with the Nile – Isis – Osiris’ wife, goddess of the royal throne • Afterlife – everyone had life after death – Mummifications – organs removed
Egypt • Egypt had a dynasty (family of rulers). • Egyptian leaders were called pharaohs. Pharaohs had absolute, unlimited power in Egypt. • Old Kingdom – When the Great Sphinx and pyramids were built. – Two social classes: lower (peasants and farmers) and upper (pharaoh, royal family, priests, scribes, government officials)
Egypt • Middle Kingdom – Foreigners started coming to Egypt from Asia. (ex. Hyksos) – brought chariots and the compound bow – Golden Age of Egypt • New Kingdom – – Began empire – government where one person or group of people rule – Hatshepsut – first female pharaoh
Egypt • Egypt’s decline – Ramses II (Ramses the Great) tried to hold the empire together. – Several empires attacked Egypt – Rule ended in Egypt around 300 B. C. /B. C. E.
Locations of Egypt and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia (Land between the Rivers) • The land where the Mesopotamians lived was called Sumer. • Sumer was located in southwest Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. • It was part of the Fertile Crescent – land between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea
Mesopotamia • Achievements – Cuneiform – pictographic writing – Arch – curved structure for an opening (ex. Roof in shape of a dome) – Ziggurats – Sumerian temples (baked brick placed in layers) – First to develop the wheel
Mesopotamia • Government – kings in charge of citystates that didn’t unite • The Sumerians farmed and grew enough to become artisans and traders. They would trade any extra food that they had. • Only upper class boys attended schools. • Religion – polytheism – Buried food and tools with the dead (for afterlife)
Babylonians • Centered around Babylon • Their ruler was Hammurabi – conquered most of the Tigris/Euphrates River Valley -Outstanding political leader and lawmaker -Came up with the law code, the Code of Hammurabi – “an eye for an eye”, very harsh laws (Punishment varied/depended on social status)
Can you find Babylon?
Hebrews • Founder of Judaism (Jewish religion) – Abraham • The Jews left their land of Canaan to escape drought (no rain) and famine (no food). • The Jews became enslaved in Egypt. • Moses – led the Jews out of slavery (called the exodus) • Ten Commandments – laws of the Hebrews • God gave the Ten Commandments to Moses and the Jews formed a covenant (solemn agreement) with God.
Jews • Diaspora – scattering of the Jews • Founding of Israel – At first, they were nomads made into tribes. – First king to unite kingdom – Saul – David – king after Saul – Solomon – Israel reached its height of wealth and power under him
Jews • Judaism – religion of the Jews – Monotheistic - believe in God (Yahweh) – Holy book = Torah – contains the written records and beliefs of the Jews – Ten Commandments, laws – state moral and religious conduct – Began in Jerusalem (holy city)
Persia • Conquered Babylonians • Cyrus the Great – expanded Persia • Darius I and Xerxes I (father and son) – invaded Greece but failed to conquer • Mightiest empire to date
Persia • Government – Kings – had a concern for justice (tolerant of conquered peoples – let them keep their culture) – Roads – connected cities in the empire • Ex. Royal Road – 1250 miles 1. 2. Used by army and postal riders Linked empire together – Developed an imperial bureaucracy – government organized into different levels and tasks – Satraps – Persian governors
Persia • Religion – Zoroastrianism – Introduced by the philosopher, Zoroaster, who believed people should receive training for their future life and must choose between good and evil. – Basic beliefs: • Struggle between the two opposing forces of nature (good and evil) • Idea of final judgment
Persia • Decline – Kings lost leadership abilities – Conquered by the Greeks
Persia and Phoenicia
Phoenicians • Phoenicia made up of loose city-states • Little farmable land – Phoenicians traded in the Mediterranean Sea • Phoenicians were great sailors and traders • Phoenician culture similar to Egyptians and Babylonians • Created the Phoenician alphabet