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E-Government and E-Services – Norway 2013 for IBE 250 February 2013 E-Government and E-Services – Norway 2013 for IBE 250 February 2013

What is e-government? E-government is the use of ICT to interact with citizens and What is e-government? E-government is the use of ICT to interact with citizens and other sectors. • E-government uses IT and EC to provide: – Convenient access to government information and services – Delivery and support of public services – Efficient and effective method of conducting business transactions • Digital online access to information • Online transaction services for citizens

A view of e-Government in Norway (2003) • Community Administrations are taking a more A view of e-Government in Norway (2003) • Community Administrations are taking a more holistic approach for adopting e-Services into their communities. • Communities use of e-services are only one level of egovernment. Often these e-services must be introduced and integrated at community, county (fylke), state, national and international levels.

Categories of e-government • • G 2 C (Government to Citizen) G 2 B Categories of e-government • • G 2 C (Government to Citizen) G 2 B (Government to Business) G 2 G (Government to Government) G 2 E (Government to Employee) Categories of e-democracy • C 2 C (Citizen to Citizen)

What is e-democracy? • E-democratic perspectives on citizens stress the deliberative qualities of the What is e-democracy? • E-democratic perspectives on citizens stress the deliberative qualities of the human being. It means that the citizens are assumed to reflect on social conditions and express their opinions in ongoing debates. This is an important difference to the perspective of e-government which considers the citizens as customers and clients with different needs and desires. The purpose of e-government is to meet peoples demand concerning e. g. social service in the most effective and economic way. Citizen participation as conception and empirical phenomenon is a condition of e-governance; in particular of a vivid edemocracy since citizen participation seems as an imperative for deliberation and real debate. – Signe Bock Segaard (UIB) • In e-democracy, it is not only the communication between politicians and citizen (G 2 C) that is important, but also the communication between citizens (C 2 C).

Major Categories of Applications of E-Government • Government-to-citizens (G 2 C) – enabling citizens Major Categories of Applications of E-Government • Government-to-citizens (G 2 C) – enabling citizens to interact with the government from their homes – Citizens Benefits: • Find all the information on the Web • Ask questions and receive answers • Pay tax and bills • Receive payments and documents

Major Categories of Applications of E-Government (cont. ) – Governments (services) • Disseminate information Major Categories of Applications of E-Government (cont. ) – Governments (services) • Disseminate information • Conduct training • Help find employment – Electronic benefits transfer (EBT) is an example of G 2 C applications • System relies on a single smart card that accesses cash and food benefits • Recipients get e-transfers to bank account or download to smart card • Reduces fraud

Major Categories of Applications of E-Government (cont. ) • Government-to-business and business–togovernment (G 2 Major Categories of Applications of E-Government (cont. ) • Government-to-business and business–togovernment (G 2 B) – E-procurement • Large amounts of MROs and materials direct from many suppliers • Uses basically a reverse auction system – E-auctions • Auction surpluses from vehicles to real estate • May use 3 rd-party site

Major Categories of Applications of E-Government (cont. ) • Government-to-government (G 2 G) – Major Categories of Applications of E-Government (cont. ) • Government-to-government (G 2 G) – Intelink—sharing information between intelligence agencies – Buyers. gov—general services administration – Federal case registry—health and human services – Procurement marketing and access network—small business administration • Government-to-employees— (G 2 E) – Payment for employees

Vision from 2001: The Stages of E-Government Source: Deloitte Research (see Wong, 2001). Vision from 2001: The Stages of E-Government Source: Deloitte Research (see Wong, 2001).

Implementing E-Government • Stage 1: information publishing/dissemination – Individual government departments set up their Implementing E-Government • Stage 1: information publishing/dissemination – Individual government departments set up their own Web sites that provide: • Information about them • Range of services available • Contacts for further assistance • Stage 2: official two-way transactions – Using legally valid digital signatures and secure Web sites, customers: • Submit personal information • Conduct monetary transactions – Customers must be convinced that: • System keeps their information private • System is free of piracy

Implementing E-Government (cont. ) • Stage 3: multipurpose portals – Customer-centric governments enhance service Implementing E-Government (cont. ) • Stage 3: multipurpose portals – Customer-centric governments enhance service delivery – Customer needs can cut across department boundaries, portal allows customers to use single point-of-entry to: • Send and receive information • Process monetary transactions across multiple departments – Access to Government managed, centralized databases

Implementing E-Government (cont. ) • Stage 4: portal personalization – Customers can access a Implementing E-Government (cont. ) • Stage 4: portal personalization – Customers can access a variety of services at a single Web site • Customers can customize portals with their desired features • Requires sophisticated Web programming allowing interfaces • Added benefit is that governments get a more accurate read on customer preference – Electronic services – Non-electronic services

Implementing E-Government (cont. ) • Stage 5: clustering of common services – All real Implementing E-Government (cont. ) • Stage 5: clustering of common services – All real transformation of government structure takes shape here – Customers see a unified package instead of once-disparate services – Distinction between departments begins to blur – Recognize groups of transactions instead of groups of agencies • Stage 6: full integration and enterprise transformation – Digital encyclopedia is now: • Full-service center • Personalized to each customer’s needs and preferences – Old walls defining services are torn down – Technology integrated across new government structure bridging gap between front and back offices

Digitizing public sector services Norwegian e. Government Program 2012 Reference (Norwegian Government, 2012): http: Digitizing public sector services Norwegian e. Government Program 2012 Reference (Norwegian Government, 2012): http: //www. regjeringen. no/upload/FAD/Kampanje/ DAN/Regjeringensdigitaliseringsprogram/digit_pr g_eng. pdf

Need for coordination between subsectors Need for coordination between subsectors

Principles of the e. Government Program of Norway 1. Digital communication is to be Principles of the e. Government Program of Norway 1. Digital communication is to be the general rule for communication with the public sector 2. The public sector is to provide unified and user-friendly digital services 3. Login to public online services is to be simple and secure 4. Citizens and businesses will receive mail from the public sector in a secure digital mailbox 5. Citizens and businesses will be notified via SMS text messages and e -mail 6. Necessary assistance is to be provided to citizens to ensure they will be able to find and use digital services 7. Development of ICT solutions is to be viewed in the context of the public sector’s work processes and organization 8. Protection of privacy and information security are to be safeguarded 9. Digitization measures of relevance for several services are to be coordinated

Concepts: • e. ID • ID-gateway • My. ID (level 3 secure) • e. Concepts: • e. ID • ID-gateway • My. ID (level 3 secure) • e. ID (level 4, e-signature) • e. ID for suppliers • national ID card (valid travel) • ID-gateway

4. 1 Work and Welfare (p. 32) by 2020. Pensions already on new principles. 4. 1 Work and Welfare (p. 32) by 2020. Pensions already on new principles. 4. 2 Health and care – pp. 33 -35 • Electronic prescriptions (e-resept) • Automatic exemption cards • Helsenorge. no portal • National patient summary • Smart buildings • Helsenett

4. 4 Tax 4. 6 Municipalities 4. 4 Tax 4. 6 Municipalities

6. 7 Information on quality 6. 7 Information on quality

Examples of Levels of Egovernment in Norway State Level: www. regjeringen. no and http: Examples of Levels of Egovernment in Norway State Level: www. regjeringen. no and http: //tjenester. norge. no Fylke Level: www. mr-fylke. org Community: www. molde. kommune. no