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Dyslexia and Related Disorders The International Dyslexia Association (IDA). IDA encourages the reproduction and distribution of this fact sheet. If portions of the text are cited, appropriate reference must be made. Fact sheets may not be reprinted for the purpose of resale. Fact Sheet #63 – 01/03
Dyslexia n n The word dyslexia comes from the Greek language and means poor language. Individuals with dyslexia have trouble with reading, writing, spelling and/or math although they HAVE THE ABILITY and have had opportunities to learn. Individuals with dyslexia CAN LEARN; they just learn in a different way. Often these individuals, who have talented and productive minds, are said to have a language learning difference.
Dyslexia Symptoms Difficulty with oral language n Late in learning to talk n Difficulty pronouncing words n Difficulty acquiring vocabulary or using age appropriate grammar n Difficulty following directions n Confusion with before/after, right/left, and so on n Difficulty learning the alphabet, nursery rhymes, or songs n Difficulty understanding concepts and relationships n Difficulty with word retrieval or naming problems
Dyslexia Symptoms Continued Difficulty with reading n Difficulty learning to read n Difficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words (Phonological Awareness) n Difficulty with hearing and manipulating sounds in words (Phonemic Awareness) n Difficulty distinguishing different sounds in words (Auditory Discrimination)
Dyslexia Symptoms Continued Difficulty with reading (Continued) n Difficulty in learning the sounds of letters n Difficulty remembering names and/or shapes of letters n Reverses letters or the order of letters when reading n Misreads or omits common small words n “Stumbles” through longer words n Poor reading comprehension during oral or silent reading n Slow, laborious oral reading
Dyslexia Symptoms Continued Difficulty with written language n Difficulty putting ideas on paper n Many spelling mistakes n May do well on weekly spelling tests, but there are many spelling mistakes in daily work n Difficulty in proofreading
Related Disorders Difficulty with handwriting (Dysgraphia) n Unsure of right or left handedness n Poor or slow handwriting n Messy and unorganized papers n Difficulty copying n Poor fine motor skills
Related Disorders Difficulty with math (Dyscalculia) n Difficulty counting accurately n May reverse numbers n Difficulty memorizing math facts n Difficulty copying math problems and organizing written work n Many calculation errors n Difficulty retaining math vocabulary and/or concepts
Related Disorders Difficulty with attention (ADD/ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) n Inattention n Variable attention—pays attention to certain things n Distractibility—easily distracted n Impulsivity—difficulty in controlling impulses n Hyperactivity
Related Disorders Difficulty with motor skills (Dyspraxia) n Difficulty planning and coordinating body movements n Difficulty coordinating facial muscles to produce sounds
Related Disorders Difficulty with organization n Loses papers n Poor sense of time n Forgets homework n Messy desk n Overwhelmed by too much input n Works slowly
Related Disorders Other n Difficulty naming colors, objects, and letters (Rapid Automatized Naming) n Memory problems n Needs to see or hear concepts many times in order to learn them n Distracted by visual stimuli n Downward trend in achievement test scores or school performance n Work in school is inconsistent n Teacher says, “If only she would try harder, ” or “He’s lazy. ” n Relatives may have similar problems
Thoughts to consider Everyone probably can check one or two of these characteristics. That does not mean that everyone has dyslexia. A person with dyslexia usually has several of these characteristics, which persist over time and interfere with his or her learning. If your child is having difficulties learning to read and you have noted several of these characteristics in your child, he or she may need to be evaluated for dyslexia and/or a related disorder.
What Kind of Instruction Does My Child Need? n n Dyslexia and other related learning disorders cannot be cured. Proper instruction promotes reading success and alleviates many difficulties associated with dyslexia. Instruction for individuals with learning differences should be: Explicit – directly teaches skills for reading, spelling, and writing Systematic and Cumulative – has a definite, logical sequence of concept introduction Structured – has step-by-step procedures for introducing, reviewing, and practicing concepts Multisensory – engages the visual, auditory, and kinesthetic channels simultaneously or in rapid succession.
Accommodations Schools can implement academic accommodations and modifications to help dyslexic students succeed. For example, a student with dyslexia can be given extra time to complete tasks, help with taking notes, and work assignments that are modified appropriately. Teachers can give taped tests or allow dyslexic students to use alternative means of assessment. Students can benefit from listening to books on tape, using text-reading computer programs, and from writing on computers.
TAKS Accommodations n n n n n Provide color transparencies/overlays Provide place markers Permit individual administration of tests, allowing student to read aloud. In this setting, the student may read aloud while working or may read the subject area test into a tape recorder during testing and play the tape back while working Provide a large-print version of the test Permit oral responses to test items, mark responses in test booklet, or type responses Permit student to dictate the composition directly to a test administrator, spelling out all words and indicating all capital letters and punctuation marks Permit student to tape record the essay while composing it, then play it back for the test administrator, spelling, capitalizing, and punctuating it Permit student to type written composition on a typewriter or on a computer, but may not use the computer’s “spell check” Permit test questions and answer choices for the Math, Grade 8 Social Studies, Grade 8 Science and/or Grade 5 Science tests to be read aloud
TAKS Bundling Orally reading all proper nouns associated with each passage before students begin reading that passage, n Orally reading all questions and answer choices to students, and n Extending the testing time over a two-day period. n
Classroom Accommodations n n n n Reduce the number and length of required assignments/homework Allow more time for regular assignments Break the assignment into a series of small assignments / chunking assignments Reduce the reading level of the regular assignment (reword, edit) Use alternatives to Written/Reading assignments (performance/”hands-on” activities/physical assignments, oral presentations, reports, projects, etc. ) Use individual learning packages with clearly stated objectives Repeat instructions and give more detailed directions
Classroom Accommodations n n n n Brief the student on key points before starting an assignment Underline/outline major points in the regular assignment Give instructions through several channels, (written, oral, etc. ) Allow phonetic spelling on assignments Reversals/transpositions of letters/numbers should not be marked wrong. Instead, reversals/transpositions should be pointed out. Teacher aide/volunteer takes notes for the student Classroom peers make carbon copies for the student Student tapes lessons or lectures
Dyslexia Intervention—Elem. n Texas Scottish Rite Dyslexia Training Program The Texas Scottish Rite Hospital Dyslexia Training Program for Children is most appropriate for elementary school-age students from second semester first grade through fifth grade. Classes should be composed of students who have been screened and identified as learners who would benefit from this type of written language instruction. Students should be of average or above-average intelligence (IQ of 90 or above).
Dyslexia Intervention—Sec. n Texas Scottish Rite Literacy Program The Texas Scottish Rite Hospital Literacy Program is designed for secondary school age and adult students. Classes should be composed of students who have been screened and identified as learners who would benefit from this type of written language instruction. Because of the emphasis on intense phonetic analysis of written language, the program should be used with students of average or above-average intelligence (IQ of 90 or above).
Other Interventions being used Esperanza n Voyager n Read Naturally n Rewards n Fast For. Word n
Section 504 Overview John Copenhaver and Miriam K. Freedman
Section 504 Overview n Section 504 / Americans with Disabilities Act is a civil rights statute that prohibits discrimination. Like the sister statutes of Title VI (race) and Title IX (gender), Section 504/ADA focuses on discrimination based solely on disability.
Civil Rights n Section 504 is often referred to as the first civil rights act for individuals with disabilities. Section 504 applies to students, parents, employees, and other individuals with disabilities.
I. D. E. A. -vs. - Section 504 n I. D. E. A. (Individuals w/Disabilities Education Act) is a funding statute. n I. D. E. A. requires the student to have one of thirteen specific disabilities. Section 504 is not categorical; but, covers any qualifying physical or mental impairments. n Section 504 is a non-discrimination statute designed to provide equal opportunity. I. D. E. A. is designed to provide specialized instruction to enable the student to achieve at a level commensurate with his own ability. n I. D. E. A. is limited to students with an educational need. Section 504 may cover students with no educational need (such as a wheelchair- bound student).
Section 504 Subpart A—General Provisions Subpart B—Employment Practices Subpart C—Physical Accessibility Subpart D—Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subpart E—Postsecondary Education Subpart F—Health, Welfare, and Social Services Subpart G—Procedures
General Education n Section 504 / ADA should be a General Education management responsibility.
Section 504 has been around since 1973 n Section 504 gets little respect because funding is not attached.
Roles of School Personnel School Board of Education • Policy on Nondiscrimination • Grievance Procedure • Hearing Procedure Superintendent • 504 Coordinator Designation • Annual Notice to Parents/Students • Continuing Notice to Parents/Students 504 Coordinator • 504 Procedures Coordination • Staff Training • Section 504 Grievance Procedures Management School Principals and Certified and Classified Staff • • • Nondiscriminatory Practices in Classrooms Referral/Identification/Evaluation Parent Involvement and Encouragement Program Modifications and Accommodations Curricular Adaptations
Section 504 Three Prong Eligibility Standard A Student who: Has a (1) physical or mental impairment which (2) substantially limits (3) one or more major life activities, had a record of such impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.
Section 504 The student has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of a person’s major life activities. n Walking n Seeing n Working n Breathing n Hearing n Caring for one-self n Learning n Speaking The impairment must impact the student’s education.
What Is Substantial? Always…. … 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Never……… 1
Examples of Students with Disabilities Who Might be Eligible Under Section 504/ADA n n n n HIV/AIDS Tuberculosis Arthritis Asthma Allergies Diabetes Obesity Epilepsy Heart Disease Chronic Fatigue *Pregnancy Orthopedic Dyslexia *It depends n n n *Special Education—Qualified Students Conduct Disorder Temporary Disability ADD/ADHD *Drug and Alcohol Migraine Headache Tourette Syndrome TBI—Traumatic Brain Injury Cerebral Palsy Cancer Multiple Sclerosis *Slow learners
Illustration A person with a minor vision impairment, such as 20/40 vision, does not have a substantial impairment of the major life activity of seeing.
Illustration A person who is deaf is substantially limited in the major life activity of hearing. A person with a minor hearing impairment, on the other hand, may not be substantially limited.
Definition of Eligibility n n Has a record of such an impairment. EXAMPLES of individuals who have a record of an impairment are persons who have histories of mental or emotional illness, learning disabilities, asthma, heart disease, cancer, etc. and students in Special Education.
Definition of Eligibility n n Is regarded as having such an impairment. Anna, a student with mild diabetes controlled by medication, is barred by the staff from participation in certain sports because of her diabetes. Even though Anna does not actually have an impairment that substantially limits a major life activity, she is protected under Section 504/ADA because she is treated as though she does.
Eligibility Every person eligible for Section 504 will not necessarily be eligible for Special Education. n Every person eligible for Special Education IS ALSO PROTECTED UNDER SECTION 504. n
Points to Remember When Considering Section 504 Eligibility n High standard to meet for Section 504 eligibility n On the average, only 1 -2% of the student population of any school is deemed Section 504 eligible. n Learning difficulties not always due to a physical or mental impairment. n Student will forever have a record of being divided. n Section 504 eligibility is not for “at-risk” students. n Phrase “substantially limits” is in present indicative verb form. Thus, student must be presently, not potentially or hypothetically, substantially limited.
Definition Issue n NOTE: The second and third prongs of the definition referring to individuals with a “record of” or regarded as “having an impairment” are relevant only when some negative action is taken based on the perception or record. “This cannot be the basis which the requirement for a free appropriate public education (FAPE) is triggered. ” (OCR Policy Memorandum, August 3, 1992) However, such discrimination can result in costly litigation.
Accommodations n Modifications made by classroom teacher(s) and other school staff to enable the students to benefit from their education program. A plan should be developed outlining services and/or accommodations.
Parent Involvement n The parents should be included in the 504 process whenever possible.
Documentation n It is important to document evaluation results, eligibility determination, services, and placement issues regarding each student. DOCUMENTATION IS ALWAYS A BEST PRACTICE.
Student Assistance Team / CRC n The Student Assistance Team / CRC (pre-referral) will provide support and suggestions to classroom teachers regarding any student experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties. If the strategies are unsuccessful, a referral for an evaluation could be made to Section 504/Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) or Special Education.
Referral n Referrals are accepted from parents, professional staff, students, and/or other staff members. The problem(s) and previous remedies (Response to Intervention) are considered and reviewed.
Notification n The school notifies the parents or guardians, in writing, of the schools’ reason and intent to conduct an evaluation. The notice should include a description of the evaluation and procedural safeguards. Parental consent would be considered best practice for all Section 504/ADA evaluations.
Section 504/ADA Committee Meeting A best practice is to use the Student Assistance Team as the Section 504/ADA Committee. Typical members would include the following: n Parents n Counselor n Student (when appropriate) n Principal n Teacher(s) n Other (as needed) The committee of knowledgeable persons will study and analyze the evaluation data to determine if the student has a mental or physical disability that substantially limits a major life activity and influences the student’s educational program.
Eligibility and Accommodations/Services n If the student IS eligible under Section 504/ADA, the team determines accommodations and/or services that will enable the student to benefit from his/her education. This can be documented on an individual Section 504 plan.
Services n The following factors are considered by a team knowledgeable about the student and the disability: ¨ Evaluation results ¨ Section 504/ADA eligibility ¨ The student’s unmet needs ¨ Services and/or accommodations based on eligibility ¨ Possible staff inservice ¨ Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Implementation n The school staff makes the necessary accommodations to allow for the student’s disability. Parents should be consulted and given opportunities for input. The accommodations and/or services are then implemented.
Review Primary Responsibilities under Section 504 1. Evaluation: Conduct an evaluation that is adequate for that child. Evaluations should be unique to the case and individual. Must determine IF there is a disability. 2. Meeting: Convene a group of people knowledgeable about the child, the disability, and his/her academic needs. 3. Placement: Determine placement and related services (accommodations) to make the disabled student equal to the nondisabled student.
Review n Each student’s accommodations and/or services are reviewed periodically. Best practice would be at least annually.
Common Accommodations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Provide a structured learning environment. Repeat/simplify instructions regarding class assignments and homework. Supplement verbal instructions with visual ones. Use behavior management techniques. Adjust class schedules. Modify test delivery. Use tape recorders, Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI), and other audiovisual equipment. Select modified textbooks or workbooks. Tailor homework assignments. Tutor one-on-one.
Common Accommodations 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Use classroom aides and notetakers. Modify nonacademic times (lunchroom, recess) and physical education. Change student seating. Change instructional pace. Change instructional methods. Change instructional materials. Provide peer tutoring. Implement behavioral/academic contracts. Use positive reinforcements (rewards). Use negative consequences (punishments). Use supplementary materials.
Process Overview for Dyslexia / 504 n n A student exhibits reading difficulties Response to Intervention doesn’t work Suspect dyslexia A 504/CRC meeting occurs Parent permission to test Screening—Vision/Hearing, Parent survey, Teacher survey, grades, student samples collected and reviewed ¨ Assess for Dyslexia ¨ ¨ n 504/CRC reconvenes, determines: Yes 504—severe dyslexia and those who will receive TAKS Dyslexia Bundling ¨ No 504—students NOT substantially limited in major life activity, mild dyslexia ¨ Placement and accommodations ¨ Parent notification of assessment results and 504 meeting ¨