- Количество слайдов: 100
DSM 504: LEADERSHIP AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR INTRODUCTION
Course description Effective leadership is a critical ingredient of successful organizations. Unfortunately superior leadership ability is in scarce supply. This is quickly evidenced in political, public, private and non profit institutions where you find the leaders not being able to take the organizations where it should go and the followers feel dissatisfied with the leadership.
Course description cont… The consequences of poor leadership is poor performance, poor returns on investment for the share holders (for private sector) and poor service delivery to the citizenly (for NGOs and Governments Leadership is closely related to behaviour in organisations. Effective leadership can modify and influence behaviour for effective performance of individuals and teams
Course objectives 1. Enhance the understanding of both leadership and organizational behaviour 2. Appreciate the changing perspectives of leadership and organization behaviour to make a difference in organisation 3. Connect effective leadership and organizational behaviour to effectively influence performance in organisations
Course content 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Organizational Behaviour: Its Meaning, Nature And Scope Essence Of Organizational Behaviour: Why Study “OB” Challenges And Opportunities For OB Leadership: Its Meaning, Nature And Scope The Changing Perspectives (Theories) Of Leadership Effective Leadership: Styles And Patterns Of Leadership Behaviour Behavioral Performance Management Power And Politics In Organisations Teamwork And Organizational Behaviour Managing Conflict In Organisations Managing Stress In Organisations Leadership In Public Interest: Good Governance, Responsibility And Accountability
Evaluation and grading Case study Assignments 15% Term Paper 15% Continuous Assessment Test 20% Final examination 50% TOTAL 100%
Organisational behaviour Introduction
Definition It is the field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups and structure on behaviour in the organisation for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving organizational effectiveness It is a systematic study of the behaviour and attitudes of both individuals and groups within the organisations Concerns itself with the scientific study or the behavioral process which occurs in work settings”
Focuses on understanding and explaining individual and group behaviours in organisations It is concerned with what people do in an organisation and how that behaviour affects performance The understanding, prediction and management of human behaviour in the organisations More micro than macro
OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within an organization. OB focuses on improving productivity, reducing absenteeism and turnover, and increasing employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment. OB uses systematic study to improve predictions of behaviour.
OT vs. OB vs. HRM Organizational Theory Focuses on the organisation as the unit of analysis. Organizational attributes such as goals, technology and culture are the subject of study. Organizational theory often uses an acrossorganizational approach or macro perspective in gathering new knowledge.
Human resources management Attempts to apply the principles of the behavioral sciences in the workplace While OB is somewhat more concept oriented, HRM is more concerned with applied techniques and behavioral technology. HRM tries to provide a link between the individual and the organisation by designing and implementing systems to attract, develop and motivate individuals within the organisation
OB Emphasis on the scientific study of behavioral phenomena at individual and group level Level of analysis Micro/theory oriented OT Focuses largely on organizational and environmental phenomena Level of analysis Macro/theory oriented
HRM Focuses on the application of behavioral knowledge in selecting, placing, and training personal Level of analysis Micro/application oriented field of study
The Rigour of OB looks at consistencies ◦ What is common about behaviour, and helps predictability? OB is more than common sense ◦ Systematic study, based on scientific evidence OB has few absolutes OB takes a contingency approach ◦ Considers behaviour in context
Beyond Common Sense Systematic Study ◦ Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence Behaviour is generally predictable There are differences between individuals There are fundamental consistencies There are rules (written & unwritten) in almost every setting
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field Psychology Social Psychology Anthropology Political Science
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)
WHY BOTHER STUDY ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 1. 2. 3. Practical application Personal growth Increased knowledge
Practical application There are important practical benefits to understanding the principles of organizational behaviour: ◦ Development of personal styles of leadership can be guided by knowledge of the results of studies of OB that have attempted to relate leadership styles to situational requirements ◦ The choice of problem solving strategy or the selection of appropriate employee appraisal format can be guided by an understanding of the results of studies in the associated topic areas
Practical application (cont. . ) In the area of performance enhancement, benefits can be gained by applying knowledge gathered in the field of OB Because the environment in which the organisation operates is increasing in complexity, one must understand how to design effective organizational structures and how to relate to individuals from diverse and often international background Being able to deal effectively with others in organizational settings requires understanding of OB
Practical application (cont. . ) Attracting and developing talented individuals are 2 issues critically important to the survival and prosperity of an organisation Emphasis of human element instead of on technical financial and other tangible resources often separate competing organisations when it comes to organizational performance. This occurs because all serious competitors in a given industry are likely to have attained nearly the same level of technical sophistication
2. PERSONAL GROWTH The second reason for studying OB is the personal fulfillment we gain form understanding our fellow human Understanding others may also lead to greater self-knowledge and self insight Such personal growth is an aspect of education that is often cited as the greatest benefit of studying the liberal arts and sciences
Personal growth (cont…) Advancement in the business world ◦ It is also important for advancement in business world – it can make a difference when it comes to advancing beyond an entry level position. ◦ Entry level hiring are based largely on technical competency, such as certification in a specialized area e. g. CPA. Bachelor’s degree, MBA etc. ◦ Promotions however are often based on more that mere technical competency. ◦ They are based on demonstrated abilities to understand work effectively with superiors, peer and subordinated. ◦ In short, an understanding of organizational behaviour may be invaluable to you once you have that first job and seek to distinguish yourself
3. INCREASED KNOWLEDGE To gather knowledge about people in a work setting At minimum, the filed seeks to gather knowledge for its own sake just like some sciences like Physics and chemistry; the practical use of certain findings may not be practical for years. Same could apply to Organizational Behaviour. Some early theories were not of immediate use but are today useful Additionally, the study of OB can help one think in a critical fashion about matters that relate to experience of working. Such critical thinking ability can be useful in analyzing both employees and personal problems
challenges facing organisations today that have made it necessary for managers to Study OB
Challenges facing organisations 1. 2. Improving quality and productivity More and more managers are confronted with the challenge of having to improve their organisations productivity and the quality of their products and services. In improving quality and productivity, they are implementing programmes like TQM and Business Process Reengineering (BPR) Improving people skills/interpersonal skills OB gives the manager the opportunity to completely exercise insight in behaviour, how to alter the behaviour and generally improve interpersonal skills The subject matter of OB helps both practicing managers as well as potential managers to develop skills that can be used on the job
Challenges facing organisations (cont…) 3. Managing workforce diversity Workforce diversity has important implication for management – managers will need to shift their philosophy form treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to them in ways that will ensure employee retention and greater productivity. 4. Responding to Globalization The world today is continuous becoming global village. Organisations no longer constraint themselves to national boarders. OB provides us with fundamental concepts to enable us focus on how cultural differences might require managers to modify their managerial practices
Challenges facing organisations (cont…) 5. Empowering people Managers are empowering employees; they are putting employees of what to do. They have to learn how to give up control and employees have to learn how to take up responsibility for their work. 6. Stimulating innovativeness and change This implies that today successful organisations must foster innovation and master the art of change, or they become extinct. Victory will go to organisation that maintain flexibility, continually improve quality and beating competition in the market place
Challenges facing organisations (cont…) 7. Coping with temporariness Today change is an ongoing activity for most manages. Managing in the past could be characterized by long periods of stability, interrupted occasionally by short periods of change. But managing today could be described as long period of on going change, interrupted occasionally by short periods of stability The world that most managers and employees face today is that of permanent temporariness. There is permanent change in the jobs themselves, so workers need to continuously update their knowledge and skills to perform new jobs requirements Today managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness. They have to live with flexibility and unpredictability.
Challenges facing organisations (cont…) 8. Dealing with employees’ loyalty Today, organisations seek to be lean, and mean by closing down operations, moving to low cost regions, closing the less profitable branches, and eliminating entire levels of managing and replacing permanent employees with temporary ones. These kinds of changes result in a decline of employee loyally. Employees perceive that their employers are less committed to them and as a result, they result to being committed to their employer The manager therefore is to devise ways to motivate workers who feel less committed to their employers, but at the same time maintain organizational global competitiveness
Challenges facing organisations (cont…) 9. Improving Ethical Behaviours Organisations today are characterized by cut backs, expectations of improving workers productivity and tough competition in the market place. Due to there pressures, employees feel pressured to cut corners, break roles, and engage in other forms of questionable practices could also be contracted to give guidance to employees Today managers need to create an ethically healthy climate, living by example, for employees where they can do their work productively and confront minimal degree of ambiguity regarding what constitutes right and wrong behaviour.
OB – HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT (1900 – 1945) First developed by Fredrick W. Taylor (1856 – 1915) Taylor aimed at making management a science abased on a well recognized, clearly defined and fixed principles He replaced the rule of the thumb method of scientific management
Taylors core values The rule of: Reason, Improved quality Lower costs Higher wages and higher output Labor-management cooperation, experimentation Clear tasks and goals, Feedback, training, mutual help and support, stress reduction, ◦ Careful selection and development of people. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
Taylors core values He was the first to present a systematic study of interactions among job requirements, tools, methods, and human skill, to fit people to jobs both psychologically and physically, and to let data and facts do the talking rather than prejudice or opinions
He advocates the use of ◦ ◦ ◦ Observation Measurement Experimentation Analysis Rationality Reasoning As a chief instrument for developing managerial systems
Taylor principles Father of scientific management Principles Develop a science for each element of work Select the best worker for each task Train the worker in the prescribed method Develop a spirit of cooperation between management and labor ◦ Divide the work between management and labor into equal shares, each doing what they do best ◦ ◦
The basic components of scientific management as propounded by Taylor are: ◦ ◦ ◦ Determination of the standard of performance Functional foremanship Responsibilities of management Differential piecework system of wage payment Mental revolution
Determining the standards of performance Taylor introduced the “time and motion study” to identify exactly how long it takes to do a task and identify and eliminate wasteful motions Functional foremanship Here Taylor called for separation of planning from doing where the functional foreman (specialist) did the planning of various aspects of work
Responsibility and management Managers should accept responsibility for planning, directing and organising Managers should perform these functions in a scientific way – i. e. analyse all operations and develop scientific methods of doing them Workers should be scientifically selected and trained Managers should heartily cooperate with workers to ensure that work is done according to scientifically selected managers
Differential piece work system of payment – to ensure that workers turn out optimal production – so that workers who work hard get more Mental revolution Taylor held that the technique of determining work standards, delimiting wasteful operations and differential piece rate system of wage payment should benefit the worker in form of higher wage payment and the employer in form of higher production and this would result to a “mental revolution” between , management and workers They would develop a cooperative rather than antagonistic attitude towards each other
Criticism of Tailors Study Saw man as an economic being - man is only motivated by money Saw that man can be programmed as a machine – in the development of standards of performance
The Hawthorne Studies (1924 – 1945) The Hawthorne Experiments The experiments were carried out between 1927 and 1933 at the Chicago Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company. Four studies were carried out namely: ◦ ◦ The illumination studies The Relay Assembly Test Room Studies The interviewing Program The Bank Wiring Room studies
The illumination studies These studies were expected to determine the relationship between the level of illumination and worker’s productivity. It was expected that worker’s productivity would increase with increasing levels of illumination. The studies failed to prove any relationship between worker’s productivity and level of illumination
Relay assembly test room studies These studies were carried out to determine the relationship between worker’s productivity and improved benefits and working conditions. Manipulated factors of production to measure effect on output: ◦ Pay Incentives ◦ Length of Work Day & Work Week ◦ Use of Rest Periods ◦ Company Sponsored Meals The studies found out that there was no cause – and – effect relationship between working conditions and output. Rather, there were other factors that affected worker’s output such as his/her attitudes and supervisor behavior
Interview programme A group of employees were interviewed to learn more about their opinions with respect to their work, working conditions and supervision. The workers suggested that: Psychological factors help determine whether a worker is satisfied or dissatisfied in any particular work situation The person’s need for self-actualization determines his/her satisfaction in the work. A person’s work group and his relationship to it, also determines his/her productivity. Behavior of managers and workers in the work setting is as important in explaining the level of performance as the technical aspects of the task
Bank wiring room studies This study was expected to study the effect of group influence on workers productivity. Few Special Conditions ◦ Segregated work area ◦ No Management Visits ◦ Supervision would remain the same ◦ Observer would record data only – no interaction with workers New incentive pay rate was established for the small group Any increases in output would be included in departmental pay incentives The researchers found out that an informal grouping and relationship was a critical factor in the workers’ productivity. The informal group determined the group’s productivity, and functioned as a protective mechanism (served both for internal and external purposes).
Conclusions on Hawthorne experiments An industrial organization is a socio technical system. The socio part is the human aspects that need to be taken care of in order to increase workers’ productivity and the technical system is the physical aspects that also need to be improved. Employee attitudes and morale are also important as determinants of productivity. Other factors include worker’s personality and supervisor’s behavior, leadership style also affect worker’s altitude and morale. A worker’s social group has a prevailing effect on his or her altitude and productivity
Contribution The Hawthorne Studies have however made the following contribution OB. ◦ Their finding on the importance of informal groups is also a key to organization theory. ◦ Contribution on course effect of job satisfaction ◦ Contribution in the role of leadership and style of leadership ◦ Their emphasis on employee altitude towards work as an additional to other factors was a breakthrough in OB.
CONTINGENCY APPROACH (1945 – PRESENT Following World War II, a new approach on organizational behaviour began to develop Called the contingency approach, it acknowledged the difficulty of offering simple general principles to explain or predict behaviour in organizational setting The approach sought to specify the conditions under which we can expect to find certain relationships. As such it represented a search for the factors that would aid in predicting and explaining behaviour
Organizational behaviour researchers who subscribe t the contingency approach believe that employee behaviour is too complex to be explained by only a few simple and straight forward principles. Instead, they seek to identify the factors that are jointly necessary for a given principle to hold Contingency researchers recognize the interdependency of personal and situational factors in determination of employee behaviour therefore if you ask what is the best way for a manager to behaviour – autocratically or democratically, the contingent researcher will consider issues like subordinates expectations and preferences and the situations at hand, cultural differences, etc
CULTURE –QUALITY MOVEMENT (1980 – PRESENT TQM is a corporate culture characterized by increased customer satisfaction through continuous improvements, in which all employees actively participate Two terms that gained quick interest among managers and organizational researcher’s wee organizational culture and quality improvement. The authors of several books in the early 1980 s – Peter Waterman ( In Search of Excellence), Deal and Kennedy ( Corporate Culture) and others focus on how to build a strong set of shared positive values and norms within a corporation (that is a strong corporate culture) while emphasizing quality service, high performance and flexibility.
Organisational excellence, core values and core competencies First step in building organizational excellence is building quality into people. Organizational excellence is a result of building quality into the following 4 Ps: ◦ ◦ people; partnership; processes of work; and products/service products.
Building quality into people The first priority of any quality strategy must be to build quality into people, which is the essential foundation and necessary catalyst for improving partnerships, processes and products. The quality strategy relating to building quality into people should be designed to strengthen two essential parts: ◦ Core Values (CV) and ◦ core competencies (CC).
Core Values (CV) The CV are the non-changeable spiritual values such as honesty, loyalty, integrity, goodness, trust, justice, respect, humbleness, dignity, etc. which are independent of culture, time, place, race and age. If CV are ignored in the quality strategy the company will not be able to utilize the CC, which they try to build into the people. Various managerial efforts seem to have small effect if these values are lacking between employees and between management and employees. Research shows that trust is a prerequisite for communication and dialogue, building people relationships, building competencies and capabilities and for building a co-operative culture.
Research also shows that procedural fairness and procedural justice in the decision making process are associated with increased motivation and commitment toward the decisions made among employees. Research show furthermore that even though the employees have the opportunity to participate in the decision-making process, they will get negative motivational effects in form of frustration if their voices have not been respected in the process.
Recent research results carried out indicate strongly that one of the most critical factors for attaining employees' motivation and commitment is related to personal CV. In short, it seems that CV are very critical motivating factors of human beings.
Core competencies (CC) The CC, which comprise the capabilities needed to satisfy human's mental needs, can at the lowest level be subdivided into two main areas: ◦ emotional competencies (EC); and ◦ intellectual competencies (IC). Some research has shown that the strongest determinant for human success is emotional competence or intelligence competencies
Core competence - EC And according to recent research the IC can explain less than 10 percent of a company's success, while the EC can explain 90 percent of a company's success. EC are human capabilities to feel, to see, to listen, to aware, to sense, to taste, etc
Emotional competencies/emotional intelligence
Do you know anybody who is extremely bright and yet cannot put life together? That very bright student but failed in university? That very bright employee but performance is wanting? Scientist over years have discovered another type of intelligence which is not IQ but EQ is essential for survival
What EC involves EQ/EC involves a combination of competencies which allow a person to: ◦ ◦ ◦ Be aware of own emotions Understand own emotions Be in control of own emotions Recognize and understand emotions of others and Use that knowledge for their own success and success of others
Core competence - EC Include various types of interpersonal skills such as techniques for emphatic listening, dialogue, discussion, etc. People who do not posses the EC will get serious problems in understanding other people. Thus, EC are especially critical issues, which have tremendous impacts in building interpersonal relationships.
Categories of EC Category Description Self to know one's inner awareness feeling, preference, intuition as well as one's strengths and weaknesses Having realistic understanding of our own abilities and strong sense of self confidence competence Emotional self awareness Accurate self assessment Self confidence
Component description Competencies Self • To be able to control one's • Self control regulatory/ own feeling, impulse, stress management. and changing environment • Conscientiousness • Handling our own emotions so that they do not interfere but facilitate • Trustworthy • Having ability to defer gratification in pursuit of goals • Achievement • Recovering well from emotional stress • Initiative • Adaptability • Orientation
component Social awareness Description • Sensing what others are feeling • Being able to understand situation from other peoples perspective • Cultivating relationship with diverse range of people Competencies Empathy Organizational awareness Service orientation
category description Competencies Social skills Handling emotions in respect to other people Influence Leadership Able to read Developing people intricacies of social interactions Communication Able to interact in social situations well Change catalyst Able to use this skill Building bonds set to influence, negotiate, persuade Team work and lead collaboration
Those with High level of EQ feel…. Motivation, Focus Friendship, Fulfillment Freedom, Balance Connection, Desire Peqce of mind, Awareness Balance, Self control Autonomy, Contentment Appreciation Those with Low levels of EQ feel…. . Loneliness, Fear Frustrations, guilt Emptiness, Bitterness Instability Lethargy Depression, Disappointment Resentment, Anger Dependence, victimization failure
Core competence - IC are related to human capabilities, which involve reasoning in contrast to the EC, which involve sensing and feeling. These include: ◦ Planning and organizing, decision making, leadership , team building skills, professionalism, relationship management, client/ stakeholder focus, verbal/written communication, processing work, taking initiative, adaptablity etc.
Relating 4 Ps to CV and CC A pre-condition for achieving organizational excellence defined as “the 4 P” (people, partnership, processes and products) is to satisfy peoples' needs in a balanced way. The CC are those capabilities, which, together with the CV, are important for satisfying peoples' spiritual and mental needs so that business excellence can be achieved. CV and the EC especially are related to the first 2 P, i. e. people and partnership.
Without focusing on the CV and the EC it will be very difficult to achieve Excellency in the last 2 P, i. e. processes and products. To build quality into the last 2 P IC are needed. The critical or core IC are those competencies, which are needed to satisfy people's intellectual needs and at the same time necessary to build Excellency into the organization's processes and products.
As an effective response to growing global competition high quality was seen to be the result of high employee commitment and loyalty, - focusing on people, CC and CV and do this High levels of employee commitment and loyalty is believed to result, partially, from greater employee involvement, In some organisations, a deliberate focus can be identified that seeks to have employees openly discuss aspects of corporate culture, and suggest techniques for achieving a culture that emphasizes greater teamwork and cooperation
Advocates of culture – quality movement claim that productivity and financial return can be significantly enhanced by developing culture that emphasize key values Presently, the evidence suggest that, properly introduced, there are some economic advantages to following culture-quality movement
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK OF OB
OB – Theoretical Framework Although OB is extremely complex and includes many inputs and dimensions, three frameworks: ◦ The cognitive, ◦ Behaviouristic, ◦ social cognitive frameworks Can be used to develop an overall model for OB
Cognitive Framework The cognitive approach to human behaviour has many sources of inputs ( the five senses) Cognition, which is the basic unit of the cognitive framework, can be defined as the act of knowing an item from information Under this framework, cognition precedes behaviour and constitutes input into the persons thinking, perception, problem solving, and information processing
Edward Tolman Cognitive framework Although Tolman believed behaviour to be appropriate unit of analysis, he felt that behaviour is purposeful, that it is directed towards a goal He felt that cognitive learning consists of a relationship between cognitive environmental cues and expectations Through experimentation, he found out that a rat could learn to run through an intricate maze, with purpose and direction, towards goal (food)
Tolman observed that at each point in the maze, expectations were established – in other words, the rat learned to expect a certain cogitative cue associated with the choice point might eventually lead to the food If the rat actually received the food, the association between the cue and the expectancy was strengthen, and leaning occurred Tolman’s approach could be depicted that learning is an association between the cue and the expectancy)
In his laboratory experiment, he found that animals learned to expect a certain event would follow another – for example, animal learned to behaviour as if they expect food when a certain cue appeared. Thus, Tolman believed that learning consist of expectancy that a particular event will lead to a particular consequence This cognitive concept of expectancy implies that the organisms is thinking about or is conscious or aware of, the goal.
Thus Tolman and others espousing the cognitive approach felt hat behaviour is best explained by these cognitions Applied to OB, cognitive approach has dominated unit of analysis such as perception, personality and attitudes, motivation, decision making and goal setting
BEHAVIOURISTIC FRAMEWORK The roots of behavioristic theory of human behaviour can be trace back to the work of Ivan Pavlov and John Watson These pioneering behaviorists stressed the importance of dealing with observable behaviour instead of the elusive mind that had preoccupied earlier psychologist They used the classical conditioning experiment to formulate the stimulusresponse (S - R) explanation of human behaviour
Both Pavlov and Watson felt that behaviour could be best understood in terms of S-R A stimulus elicit response They concentrated mainly on the impact of the stimulus and felt that learning occurred when the S -R connection was made Ivan Pavlov who attributed leaning to the association or connection between stimulus and response (S-R
Based on Pavlov classical conditioning experiment using dogs as subjects When presented with meat powder ( unconditioned stimulus) - the dog secreted saliva (unconditioned response) When he merely rang a bell (neutral stimulus) the dog did not salivate When meat was accompanied with the ringing of the bell several times, then Pavlov rang the bell without presenting the meat, the dog salivated to the bell alone
Conclusion - that the dog has become classically conditioned to salivate (conditioned response) to the sound of the bell ( conditioned stimulus Thus classical conditioned can be defined as a process in which a formerly neutral stimulus, when paired with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicit a conditioned response; in other words, the S -R connection is learned
Example of Pavlov S - R Stimulus (S) Is stuck by a pin Is shocked by an electric current Is surprised by a loud sound Is tapped below the kneecap Response ® Flinches Jumps/screams Flexes lower leg
B. F Skinner Another psychologist whose work explains this framework is B. F. Skinner. He felt that the early behaviorists helped explain respondent’s behaviours (those behaviours elicited by stimulus) but not the more complex operant behaviours In other words, the S -R approach helped explain the physical reflexes, for examples, when stuck by a pin (S), the person will flinch ( R) or when tapped below the kneecap (S) the Epson will extend the lower leg ( R)
Skinner felt that classical conditioning explains only respondent (reflexive) behaviours. – i. e. involuntary responses that are elicited by a stimulus He felt that more complex, but common human behaviour cannot be explained by classical conditioning alone. He noted that the greater part of the behaviour of an organism was under control of stimuli which were effective only because they were correlated with reinforcing consequences Through his research thus , skinner posited that behaviour was a function of consequences, not the classical conditioning eliciting stimuli
He felt that most human behaviour affects, or operates on, the environment to receive a desirable consequences. This type of behaviour is learned through operant conditioning Operant conditioning is concerned primarily with learning that occurs as a consequence of behaviour, or R-S. It is not concerned with the eliciting causes of behaviour, as classical , or respondent, conditioning is The organism has to operate on an environment (thus the term operant conditioning) in order to receive the desirable consequences.
The preceding stimulus does not cause the behaviour in operant conditioning; it serves as a cue to emit the behaviour. For skinner and other behaviorists, behaviour is a function of its contingent environmental consequences So behavourisitic approach is environmentally based. It posits that cognitive processes such as thinking, expectancies, and perception may exist but are not needed to predict and control or manage behaviour
On the other hand, Skinner found out through his operant conditioning experiment, that the consequences of a response could better explain most behaviour than elicit stimuli could He emphasized the importance of the response-stimulus (R -S) relationship
Example of Skinners operant conditioning Response ® Works Talks to others Enters a restaurant Enters a library Increases productivity Completes a difficult assignment Stimulus (S) Paid Meets more people Obtain food Finds a book Receives merit pay Receives praise or a promotion
Today operant conditioning has much greater impact on human learning than classical conditioning It explain much of organizational behaviour E. g. people go to work to feed, cloth and house themselves and their families working (conditioned response) is instrumental in obtaining food, shelter and clothing Managers can analyse the consequences of organizational behaviour, to change the environment, and help accomplish goals
Social cognitive Framework The cognitive approach has been accused of being mentalistic, and the behavioristic approach has been accused of being deterministic. Social Cognitive theorists argue that the S-R model and to a lesser degree the R –S model, are too mechanistic explanation of human The social cognitive approach tires to integrate the contribution so both of these approaches Social cognitive theory recognizes the importance of behaviorism’s contingent environmental consequences, but also includes cognitive processes of self regulation
Based on the work of Albert Bandura social learning theory and David and Luthans, this framework proposes a social learning approach to organizational behaviour Social learning takes the position that behaviour can best be explained in terms of a continuous reciprocal interaction among cognitive, behavioral and environmental determinants. The persons and the environmental situations do not function as independent units but, in conjunction with the behaviour itself, reciprocally interact to determine behaviour
Bandura explains that “it is largely through their actions that people produce the environmental conditions that affect their behavior in a reciprocal fashion The expediencies generated by behaviour also partly determine what a person becomes and can do which in turn, affects subsequent behaviour
Social cognitive theory framework Social/organisational environment Behavior Cognition behavioural consequences