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Drivetrain Development and Reliability • Need pictures Sandy Butterfield 5/10/2006 Wind Program Peer Review Drivetrain Development and Reliability • Need pictures Sandy Butterfield 5/10/2006 Wind Program Peer Review 1

Design Evolution (Jason) History of designs. Why do they look like they do. § Design Evolution (Jason) History of designs. Why do they look like they do. § Variable speed – enabler for control of torque loads § High speed brakes gone § Noise (much reduced) § Integration ? ? ? § Design tools much improved § Margins much lower § Standards (assisted development of design practice now used for rest of the industry) § Size, lubrication, condition monitoring, 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 2

Drivetrain Evolution 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 High failure rates & noise Drivetrain Evolution 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 High failure rates & noise Lubrication additives and filtration Variable speed introduced High speed brakes eliminated Drivetrain rating increasing Wind turbine standards development 40, 000 hr. rebuilds required Condition monitoring 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 3

State of the art in drivetrain design Enercon, 6 MW Multibrid, 5 MW Vestas, State of the art in drivetrain design Enercon, 6 MW Multibrid, 5 MW Vestas, 4. 5 MW 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 4 Clipper, 2. 5 MW

Design Problems Plaguing Industry § Gearbox failures have plagued the wind industry since early Design Problems Plaguing Industry § Gearbox failures have plagued the wind industry since early 80 s. § Current life much less than 20 years, even using best practice § Reliability remains an issue throughout the drivetrain – Mainshaft and gearbox bearings—especially planetary spherical roller bearings – Housing deflections? – Power electronics IGBT failures – Others Planetary Bearing Inner Race and Roller Failure 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 5 • A. Toms - Gastops

Sample Wind Turbine Data Related to AFRL Prognostics Critical Mass Rate Critical Mass Loss Sample Wind Turbine Data Related to AFRL Prognostics Critical Mass Rate Critical Mass Loss 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 6

Program contributions (Walt) Dyno history of contributions (industry partnerships) understanding field problems qualifying production Program contributions (Walt) Dyno history of contributions (industry partnerships) understanding field problems qualifying production prototypes qualifying new braking controls, lubricants, gear tooth lead testing new concepts multi gen (clipper) NPS (DDG) (Wind. Pact) GEC (mediuim speed gen) (Wind. Pact) Standards support role in AGMA / IEC 61400 -4 gearbox guideline by errichello Wind. Pact drive train study Prototypes NPS DDG GEC hybrid 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 7

What should the DOE program be doing to foster High. Reliability Systems? Ap op What should the DOE program be doing to foster High. Reliability Systems? Ap op ria Co te E nd nv iti iro on n s me n Improved O&M ta l Accurate Loads & Design Requirements 2006 Wind Program Peer Review rin o t ni o on M ti di n Co High-Reliability Systems System Reliability Analysis Capability -in d ne ility g si iab De el R g Full-Scale Testing pr Reduced Failure Rates 8 O&M Data Base D M esi ai g nt ne ai d na -in bi lit y

Current Programs (Full Scale Dyno Tests) NPS § NPS Wind. Pact Direct Drive Gen Current Programs (Full Scale Dyno Tests) NPS § NPS Wind. Pact Direct Drive Gen prototype test § GEC Wind. Pact medium speed drive prototype test 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 9 GEC

Current Program (Improved O&M) § Drive train R&D needs workshop (NREL 4/05) – Identified Current Program (Improved O&M) § Drive train R&D needs workshop (NREL 4/05) – Identified near term needs (failure data, industry collaborative root cause analysis, condition monitoring) – Loads validation – Greater integration between loads codes and internal stress codes – DDG appear to be heavier/more costly but hold promise for greater reliability and lower cost with R&D, especially for offshore § Predictive Maintenance Management workshop (NREL 4/20/06) – CM technology for gearing & bearings available but challenge to apply it economically to wind. – Other areas unique to wind turbines unexploited. (blades, automated fault diagnosis, model assisted load monitoring, poor performance diagnosis. – Need for integrated SCADA systems, O&M management systems and automated data interpretation tools. 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 10

Opportunities: (Reducing Failure Rates) § Reliability tools § Second generation Wind. Pact drive train Opportunities: (Reducing Failure Rates) § Reliability tools § Second generation Wind. Pact drive train study under Sea. Con and prototypes. § Loads Code/Gearbox internal stress code integration 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 11

Integrated Codes are Needed Component Level Full System Level – Determine design integrity of Integrated Codes are Needed Component Level Full System Level – Determine design integrity of individual components based – Determine loads throughout full on specified loads system for component level – Single-physics model analysis – Not industry-specific – Multi-physics model – Commercial products available – Wind industry-specific (ANSYS, etc. ) • L. Mumper - SKF – Single-physics model – Uncoupled loads do not capture housing flexure – Commercial products available (ANSYS, ADAMS, Sim. Pack)? – Simple modeling of components 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 12

Opportunities: Industry Collaboration § O&M database – Develop automated diagnostics – Identify R&D needs Opportunities: Industry Collaboration § O&M database – Develop automated diagnostics – Identify R&D needs – Fuel reliability models § Predictive Maintenance Management (Pd. M) – Sandy will finish this. 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 13

Gearbox premature mortality investigation project (Walt) 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 14 Gearbox premature mortality investigation project (Walt) 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 14

Opportunities: Exploring new concepts SEACON extension of Wind. PACT drivetrain study 1. 2. 3. Opportunities: Exploring new concepts SEACON extension of Wind. PACT drivetrain study 1. 2. 3. 4. Survey existing concepts Cost estimates Reliability estimates Better understand the direct drive / geared system reliability and cost tradeoff 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 15

Future Plans (Sandy) § More workshops planned – O&M Practices (SNL Sept 06) – Future Plans (Sandy) § More workshops planned – O&M Practices (SNL Sept 06) – Predictive Maintenance Management II (NREL March 07) § Sea. Con Drivetrain concept studies § Attempt to organize industry collaboratives – Gearbox failure investigation – O&M data base – Condition monitoring opportunities 2006 Wind Program Peer Review 16