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Dominant Ethnicity From Background to Foreground Eric Kaufmann Birkbeck College, University of London Dominant Ethnicity From Background to Foreground Eric Kaufmann Birkbeck College, University of London

Omission in Current Literature n n Nation and dominant ethnie conflated in popular mind Omission in Current Literature n n Nation and dominant ethnie conflated in popular mind and in the scholarly literature (i. e. French in France; Japanese in Japan) Parochialism (ethnic as 'other' in US literature) nationalism, citizenship, migration, ethnic studies, political theory equate ethnic = minority Dominant group is not background, but an active sub-national player

Dominant Ethnicity n n n Kymlicka's notion of ethnicity typical Ethnic group (primary/secondary) vs Dominant Ethnicity n n n Kymlicka's notion of ethnicity typical Ethnic group (primary/secondary) vs nation Schermerhorn 1970 - 'dominant majority', 'dominant minority' Smith 1986 - 'core ethnie'. 1991 'dominant ethnie. ' Other terms: 'staatsvolk', 'host society', 'charter group', 'herrenvolk democracy', etc.

Dominant Ethnicity Dominant Ethnie remains within nation, though often elided by dominant group members Dominant Ethnicity Dominant Ethnie remains within nation, though often elided by dominant group members n Not reducible to 'ethno-nationalism' n Straddle pre-modern period and modern era of nations n

Varieties of Dominant Ethnicity Majorities or minorities n Dominance of state or sub-state nation Varieties of Dominant Ethnicity Majorities or minorities n Dominance of state or sub-state nation n Economic, Political, Cultural, Demographic n Indigenousness (Smith; Horowitz) and power (Schermerhorn, Doane) n S. Caribbean cases demonstrate n

The Emergence of Dominant Ethnicity n West: Norms of Cultural liberalism/ Universal personhood n The Emergence of Dominant Ethnicity n West: Norms of Cultural liberalism/ Universal personhood n n Rise of Far Right Developing Countries: Collapse of post-colonial and Cold War states; Norms of self-determination; Democratisation n Rise of Ethnic Party Systems (i. e. Africa)

The Shadowy Nature of Dominant Ethnicity n n Must look not only at state The Shadowy Nature of Dominant Ethnicity n n Must look not only at state or national elites, but at the often informal structures of dominant ethnicity Dual national-ethnic functions of many elites (I. e. Ghana, Singapore, US, Ireland) Expansive strategies (power over particularity) Restrictive strategies (authenticity over power)

Dominant Ethnicity in Theoretical Context Resurgence and decline in postmodernity n Role of diaspora Dominant Ethnicity in Theoretical Context Resurgence and decline in postmodernity n Role of diaspora (i. e. India; Croatia; Israel) n Dominant ideologies do not determine dominant ethnicity n

Multiculturalism and Dominant Ethnicity Multiculturalism as a left-wing movement is problematic without a dominant Multiculturalism and Dominant Ethnicity Multiculturalism as a left-wing movement is problematic without a dominant ethnic group against which to define itself n In a truly plural society with no dominant group (i. e. Mauritius, Trinidad), multiculturalism is a conservative movement n

Empirical Questions Political questions: how does group maintain power and economic advantage? n Cultural Empirical Questions Political questions: how does group maintain power and economic advantage? n Cultural questions: national-ethnic identities; struggle over symbolic/narrative dominance; demographic policy n

Normative Questions Dominant ethnicity necessary for stable power sharing systems? (O' Leary 2001) n Normative Questions Dominant ethnicity necessary for stable power sharing systems? (O' Leary 2001) n Is the ethnicity of a dominant group worth consideration/preservation? n Can we have a liberal form of dominant ethnicity? (i. e. a liberal 'national ethnicity') n

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