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Domain Knowledge Navigating; Course Ware for A New Masters in Transport & Infrastructure Marcel Ludema Section Transport Policy and Logistical Organisation Faculty of Technology, Policy & Management Delft University of Technology the Netherlands M. W. Ludema@tbm. tudelft. nl +31 15 278 1885 E-Learn 2005, Vancouver, October 26 th, 2005
Outline Executive Master of Transport & Infrastructure Knowledge Decomposition with Reference Models Confetti Reference Model Mono-Disciplinary Reference Model Causal Relationship Reference Model Layered System Reference Mode Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis & Management Reference Model Life Cycle Engineering & Management Reference Model Restricted A La Carte Reference Model Towards a Domain Knowledge Navigating System Preliminary Design Domain Knowledge Navigating System Conclusions and Next Steps
Executive Master of Transport & Infrastructure Transport is the lifeline of each society Continuous inflow of academia Insight in transport systems and their characteristics Theoretical and practical methods and tools to engineer and manage transport systems in an integrative way • Generic language, on both engineering and management to approach and solve complex problems in a collaborative manner • •
Executive Master of Transport & Infrastructure • What should the underlying structure be for such a Master Degree Program? • No universal way to look at Transport Systems and the field of Transport & Infrastructure in general. • Choosen program structure should be comprehensive. • It should meet the final-qualifications. • Structure and available content (existing and/or easy available material) should be in balans. • Can relevant knowledge reference models (structure – content) be composed?
Knowledge Decomposition with Reference Models 1. Confetti Reference Model 2. Mono-Disciplinary Reference Model 3. Causal Relationship Reference Model 4. Layered System Reference Mode 5. Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis & Management Reference Model 6. Life Cycle Engineering & Management Reference Model 7. Restricted A La Carte Reference Model
Confetti Reference Model • Sum-up a series of relevant topics and bring them under the same umbrella, for example managerial topics, engineering topics and case studies. • Advantage: Can be engineered and maintained with low effort because the elements of the model are loosely coupled. • Disadvantage: Maintaining the central thought or focus is difficult because of the lack of an integral consistency.
Confetti Reference Model
Confetti Reference Model Engineering topics Managerial topics Case topics Infrastructure planning Public Transport Entrepreneurship Analysis of a public-private owned bus station Electrification of rail systems Procurement of heavy equipment Future river ferry systems Reliability engineering Marketing management Commuter door to door services Double highway engineering Innovation Management Personal Traveller Assistants Intelligent traffic sign systems Private Public Partnerships Transformation from public to pay roads Choice of optimal materials for concrete roads Service Provider Agreements Mobile ticket ordering Designing Passenger Terminals Cost-Benefit Analysis of large transport infrastructure Problems related to Seamless Mobility Traffic modelling Capacity Analysis Ministries of Transport of the world Service Network Design Transportation Economy Running a Public Transport Service Time-table design OEEI-methodology Designing a mobility hub Evaluating scenarios for the future of zero emission cars Handling Warranty Issues within Joint Ventures Organising Park & Ride
Mono-Disciplinary Reference Model • Follows the most widespread way science looks at problems. Each scientist is preaching its own discipline; showing methods and tools one “should” apply to tackle problems. • Advantage: The multi-focus will learn students to approach the same type of problem by means of a sequential integrative approach. • Disadvantage: It decomposes the field of Transport into disciplines, and by doing so; omit the fact that problems often are of an inter-disciplinary nature.
Mono-Disciplinary Reference Model
Mono-Disciplinary Reference Model Disciplines or Perspectives Theories Applying methods & tools Cases Engineering Perspective Transport System Engineering ISO/IEC 15288 Systems Engineering Developing the Maglev Track Mathematical Perspective Linear Programming Practice with Aims Finding optimized Passenger Terminal Locations Planning Perspective Planning theory Potential Surface Analysis Plans for Light Rail in and around Groningen Organizational Perspective Organizational Coordination Decoupling centralization and decentralization Analysis of the KLM-NS collaboration for the HSL Political Perspective Transportation in ideal socialist & liberal worlds Logic Reasoning and Argumentation techniques The Dutch A 4 problem Economic Perspective Transport Economy Utility Functions and (Multi)Modal choice The Transport Innovation Dilemma Psychological Transport Psychology NOA-model Intelligent Transport Systems & Automated Guided Vehicles Sociological Social Values Transport Benchmarking social motives of mobility Evaluation of Free Rail Travel for Students Financial Perspective Budgeting the National Infrastructures Sustainability of Funding Infrastructure Design and funding of boarder crossing high-ways Judicial Perspective Transportation Law Spatial Planning Procedures and the voice of the public External Safety, Schiphol Case
Causal Relationship Reference Model • It shows how core topics in the field of transport relate and what the impact these relations might be in respect to decision-making processes. • Advantage: It connects core topics within the field. It will give students in the field of transport insight in the interconnectedness & interdependency between topics within policy, planning and decision-making issues. • Disadvantages: There is a lack of hierarchy of relationships. Adding new core topics is arbitrary.
Causal Relationship Reference Model
Causal Relationship Reference Model Module(s) Topics Transportation & Traffic Demand, Modal shift, Time-Space Distribution NVVP, RVVP, (National & Regional Transport and Traffic Plans, Availability of Public Transport, Density of Urban Areas, Transport & Traffic Modelling Mobility Needs & Availability of Mobility Means Modal-Choice, Car-use and ownership Environment, liveability, risks/safety Environmental Problems caused by traffic and the effects of counter measures, Living in Modern cities, MER (Environmental Effects Reports) Locations Transport Geography, Demographical Scenario, Trip, Activity based approaches, Spatial Planning & the role of the Local, Regional, National & European Government Technology Dynamics, Hybrid-Engines, High-Speed Trains, Continuous Mobile Traffic Information, Multi-Agent Based Planning, Intelligent Transport Systems Accessibility Car accessibility by development of Park & Ride & Mobility Hubs, Developing and Maintaining an ideal Sub-way system Usability of Transport Means Adaptability of transport means to fulfil service performances Transportation Safety Analysis of traffic (un)-safety, safety implications of infrastructure design alternatives Cost, Time Quality Acceptance Modal-Choice, Preference Models, Re-Design Requirements of Transport Services
Layered System Reference Model • Several layers and interfaces. Every underlying layer supplies services directly to the layer above and indirectly to the higher layers. Each layer above sets demands upon services supplied by the underlying layer's. • Advantage: Topics may be discussed in respect to the layer or interface one wants to address. • Disadvantage: Provides an artificial interpretation of the transport system. In real projects, decision makers and organisations involved are not reasoning according to these layers.
Layered System Reference Model
Layered System Reference Model Layers, Interfaces & other aspects (theories) Additional Topics Social and Economic Mobility Estimation of developments in passengers flows, Scenario analysis and flow estimation. Budgeting & Investments in future infrastructure based on demographical developments Passengers and Freight Characteristics Needs and Motivations of Movements Demand & Supply Chain Networks, Locations & Locations, (Multi)-Modal Choices & Seamless Modality Transport Service Marketing Satisfying Human & Organisational Mobility Needs, Transport Prices, Products (Services), Promotion & Place (access/aggress points) Customer Satisfaction & public transport services Transport Services Designing Transport Services, Collaboration in Transport Services, Responsiveness and Adaptability Asset Management Fleet Management, Leasing Transport Means, Life Cycle Cost Analysis & Maintenance Management, Public & Private Ownership Transport Means Car, Plain, Trains, Ship characteristics, Human Factors of Driving Traffic Coordination Traffic Flow Models, Signalling & Signing Systems, Road Access Dose Systems, Pay-lanes External Influences: Ethics Research & Development Innovation Safety Internal safety, Choice versus No-choice Scenario Analysis, Energy Transfer, Biometrics Technology Assessment, Marketing External Safety of Transport Infrastructure External Influences: High/Low/Green/Waste Technology Throw Away Trains, Hybrid Engines, Re-Usability of materials, Zero-Emission Engines
Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis & Management Reference Model • Decomposing the field of Transport in 4 directions: 1. 2. 3. 4. • • physical structure of the transport systems itself; project management as a systems engineering approach; transport services that fulfil the needs of the customer; organisation and management issues that support the need to fulfilment processes during the life cycle of transport systems. Advantage: Cases can be addressed in each direction. Disadvantages: Lecturers have to flavour the specific content of their own discipline with general casematerial. Special integrative modules are necessary to test the ability to use an integrative perspective.
Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis & Management Reference Model
Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis & Management Reference Model Direction Module(s) Topics & Cases Transport Systems Transport Infrastructure MER-procedures, Spatial Investment Strategies, Road & Rail Construction Projects, Infrastructure Planning Techniques Transport Means Performance Analysis, Man-Machine Interface Design, Safety Analysis, RAMSAnalysis, (Non)-Interchange ability of characteristics of transport means Time-Table Design Integration & Coordination of Time-Table for Door-To-Door Passenger Transport, Resource Assignment Pricing Strategy Stated Preference Analysis, Service/Market Analysis, Feasibility Analysis of New Innovative Transport Systems, Customer Service Level Design Capacity Management What if Analysis and Simulation, Asset Management, In-versus Out sourcing, MTBF & MTTR analysis Problem Solving Methods Design/Research System Analysis, Linear & Dynamic Programming, Transport, Assignment & Transhipment Problems, Causal Analysis of Problem Spaces, Goal Trees, Multi-Criteria Analysis Systems Engineering Need-Fulfilment Analysis, Functional Analysis, Collaborative Engineering, Safety Engineering, Design To X-ability Transport Project Management Cost –Benefit Analysis, PERT-planning techniques, Project Financing, Cost Estimating Techniques, Target Costing, Project Budgeting Outsourcing & Decentralization PPP-PPS structures, Transaction Cost Theory, Design & Construct of Complex Transport Systems, Outsourcing Maintenance Activity Transport Services Transport Systems Engineering Transport Organization & Management
Life Cycle Engineering & Management Reference Model • Decomposing in relevant life cycle phases of a transport system with several typical aspects. • Advantages: Good interpretation of the whole life cycle and its relevant aspects of transport systems. A rich case database of historical and current projects exists. Relevant organisations part of historical projects can be consulted. • Disadvantages: Each lecturer must interpret and make analyses of the historical and current projects that are discussed during the course, this will consume time.
Life Cycle Engineering & Management Reference Model
Life Cycle Engineering & Management Reference Model Life Cycle Phase Focus Direction Topics Need Analysis & Conceptual Design Transport System Engineering Definition of Problem and Needs Analysis (e. g. HST, mobility hub, light rail system, Transport System Feasibility Analysis Transport System Layers Locked-In layers as basis to Fulfil Future Needs, Designing Flexible and Robust Transport Systems, Transport System Innovations Transport Services Virtual Value Systems Organization & Management Setting up a Project Management Organization, Organizing Multi-Project Management Preliminary System Design Transport System Engineering Design To X-Ability, Logistics Support Analysis, Collaborative Engineering, Life Cycle Costing Detailed Design & Development Transport System Engineering Design To X-Ability, Logistics Support Analysis, Collaborative Engineering, Life Cycle Costing, Capacity Engineering, Evaluation by Simulation, Value Engineering Construction Transport System Engineering Transport Engineering & Operations Analysis, Transition from Construction to User Operation for Large-Scale Systems & Equipment Utilization & Support Transport System Engineering Operational Management Optimisation, Maintenance Management, Logistics Support, Re-engineering / Mid-life updates. Retirement & Disposal Transport System Engineering Environmental Effects Analysis, Material Recycling, Reuse and Disposal
Restricted A La Carte Reference Model • Adjusting a course participant prior knowledge, work experience and interests to a given course structure. It consists out of some required basic modules in the beginning of the course to learn the goals of the course and learning to know the other participants and several elective courses. • Advantage: It completely fulfils personal needs. Interaction with other participant during case studies. • Disadvantage: Forming a common language and a focus on the integrative approach may not be fulfilled to its full right with this course structure.
Restricted A La Carte Reference Model
Towards a Domain Knowledge Navigating System • Domain knowledge is as the prescribed concept of everything the developers of the educational program agreed on students should learn. • This knowledge can be decomposed into explicit knowledge, which can be documented, and tacit (or implicit) knowledge, individual knowledge and skills related to a person. • To go from explicit knowledge towards implicit knowledge (internalization) is achieved thru training under realistic circumstances. Navigating though well structured domain knowledge facilitates this process.
Towards a Domain Knowledge Navigating System • Humans tend to form mental models of the domains they investigate as part of their understanding of these domains and necessary problem solving activities. • Domains should closely parallel the mental models of representative professionals. • The level of integration of domain knowledge is best described as structural knowledge and can be modeled in several alternative ways.
Towards a Domain Knowledge Navigating System • The reference models described can be seen as conceptual models that embed the structural knowledge to facilitate the alternative ways to disclose the incorporated knowledge. • To facilitate navigation; reference models are linked by means of concept mapping, a process designed to “sketch out” internal conceptual structures by externalizing them in terms of networks of concepts and propositions.
Towards a Domain Knowledge Navigating System • Learning from navigating through concept maps model, like hypermedia tools, and other cognitive tools takes place in several ways (Jonassen & Wang, 1993). • The interpretation of the knowledge of an expert is shown in the form of a graphical map: a spatial description of the nodes and their relationships. • A graphical browser provides an informative overview so the learner does not get lost easily navigating the graphical map of the knowledge domain.
Preliminary Design of a Domain Knowledge Navigating System • An overview of the Domain Knowledge Navigating Systems (DKNS) and its three layers, reference layer, topic layer and case layer, as well as some connections.
Preliminary Design of a Domain Knowledge Navigating System • A first preliminary design of the Domain Knowledge Navigating Systems (DKNS) was modeled using The tm Brain as a graphical browser because this program makes is easy to add and assess the functionality of the system in an experimental manner. • The first version of the system was tested by a few lecturers and students; they were enthusiastic about the idea, gave helpful suggestions and information for the next versions of the design.
Snap-shots Preliminary Design Domain Knowledge Navigating System
Snap-shots Preliminary Design Domain Knowledge Navigating System
Snap-shots Preliminary Design Domain Knowledge Navigating System
Conclusions and next steps • Concept maps help learners to represent the (semantic) relationship among concepts. By navigating the system in respect to the reference models the user ‘feels‘ that information like topics and cases can be disclosed in different ways. • Adding the related textual information evolves the system into a content management system with transport and infrastructure encyclopedic knowledge.
Conclusions and next steps • A finalized system can be used by teachers and learners to access relevant knowledge in respect to scheduled courses and their personal need and interest. • The model can be expended for personal use giving users the possibility to add information and comments. A user group may be formed to fill-up and expand the system and to keep it up to date. • To model the dynamic of the relations between concepts links currently static could be modeled in ifthen-else rules and relevant equations.
Questions ? Marcel Ludema M. W. Ludema@tbm. tudelft. nl