ae2b775f20227ff7c4cf30b9acde7d1c.ppt

- Количество слайдов: 115

Do Now (11/11/13): n What do you know about electric charges? What do you think the word “electrostatics” means? n Pass your HW in please! n

Electrostatics

Bad Hair Day

Static Charges Rub a balloon on a wool sweater and it will stick to the wall. Why? Rubbing a balloon on a wool sweater creates charges on the surfaces. Electrons are added or subtracted from the atoms.

Charges That Things Accumulate • Neutral • • Human hands (usually too moist, though) • Rabbit Fur • Glass • Human hair • Nylon • Wool • Fur • Lead • Silk • Aluminum • Paper • Cotton • Steel Neutral Steel • Wood • Amber • Hard rubber • Nickel, Copper • Brass, Silver • Gold, Platinum • Polyester • Styrene (Styrofoam) • Saran Wrap • Polyurethane • Polyethylene (like Scotch Tape) • Polypropylene • Vinyl (PVC) • Silicon • Teflon Very negative • Very positive • •

Charging an Object by Touching + + + + + Two Objects—one is charged + + Objects touch—charge is transferred + + Objects separate— both are charged

Behavior of Electric Charges

Charging an Electroscope An electroscope is a device that permits us to explore the concepts of induction and conduction charging.

Charging by Contact Some electrons leave rod and spread over sphere.

Charging by Induction Rod does not touch sphere. It pushes electrons out of the back side of the sphere and down the wire to ground. The ground wire is disconnected to prevent the return of the electrons from ground, then the rod is removed.

Charge Distributions Charge on Metals Charge on Insulators Charge on Metal Points Excess charge on the surface of a metal of uniform curvature spreads out. Charge on insulating materials doesn't move easily. Excess charge on a metal accumulates at points. Lightning, lightning rods.

Charges on a Conductor

Attracting Uncharged Metallic Objects Electrons are free to move in metals. Nuclei remain in place; electrons move to bottom.

Charges on an Insulator

Attracting Uncharged Nonmetallic Objects

Charges Accumulate on Points

A Shocking Experience

How Lightning Occurs

Electrostatics Is Not Friction n n Electrostatic charges are not caused by friction. The materials involved and the pressure and speed of contact and separation affects the magnitude of the charge. This contact and separation process is known as "triboelectrification, " or "tribocharging. “ n. The suffix tribo means to rub in Greek, thus triboelectrification simply means to electrify (or charge) by rubbing, or by contact.

Applications of Electrostatic Charging Fine mist of negatively charged gold particles adhere to positively charged protein on fingerprint. Negatively charged paint adheres to positively charged metal.

Electrostatic Air Cleaner

Electric Forces n The strength of the electric force varies with the square of the distance between the charges k q 1 q 2 F = r 2 n n Where k = 8. 988 x 109 Nm 2/C 2 (but approximate 9 x 109) and a coulomb is the charge which results in a force of 9 x 109 N if placed on two objects 1. 0 m apart

Important Numbers Charge of the electron: -1. 6 x 10 -19 C = -e Charge of the proton: 1. 6 x 10 -19 C = +e Mass of the electron: 9. 11 x 10 -31 kg Mass of the proton: 2000 times electron (1. 67 x 10 -27 kg)

Charges n A coulomb is an extremely large charge n n Charges produced by rubbing objects are typically about a microcoulomb The charge of an electron is 1. 602 x 10 -19 C Sometimes the force between charges is written as: F = (1/4πε 0) (Q 1 Q 2/r 2) where ε 0 is the permittivity of free space = 1/4πk = = 8. 85 x 10 -12 C 2/Nm 2 n

Forces Between Charges n n The force field between charges depends on their sign and their magnitude Electric forces are vectors like all other forces 0. 30 m Q 1 = -8. 0 μC 0. 20 m Q 2 = +3. 0 μC Q 3 = -4. 0 μC Net force on charge 3 will be the sum of F 31 and F 32

Simple Force Calculation F = k Q 1 Q 2/r 2 -------------------k = 9 x 109 N-m 2/C 2 F = (9 x 109) (5)(8)/22 = 9 x 1010 N This is an enormous force, because a Coulomb is a huge charge: What is the force between the charges? If the two charges are of opposite sign, what is the direction of the force? One Coulomb is the charge on 6. 25 x 1018 electrons.

Do Now (11/12/13): Three Charges on a Line Where may any test charge q be placed between the charges if it is to experience zero electric force?

Three Charges on a Line: Part I Force between any two charges: F = kq 1 q 2/r 2 -------------------------------- Forces by the two charges must be equal but opposite: Force by red charge = k(5)q / x 2 Force by yellow charge = k(8)q / (4 -x)2 Where may any test charge q be placed between the charges if it is to experience zero electric force? Forces are equal: k(5)q / x 2 = k(8)q / (4 -x)2 Solve for x: x = 1. 77 m

Three Charges on a Line: Part II On the line in which region, A, B, or C, may a point be found at which the net force on a positive test charge q would be zero?

How Lightning Occurs

Electric Force Vectors Consider the forces exerted on the charge in the top right by the other three:

Electric Fields Produce Forces

The Electric Field Due to a Point Charge F = k. Qq 0/r 2 Define: E = F/q 0 = k. Q/r 2

Electric Fields n n An electric field extends outward from every charge and permeates all of space The electric field is given by the force on a very small test charge q, such that: E = F/q n The field at a distance r from a charge Q is: E =F/q = k. Q/r 2 q

Electric Fields Electric field due to a positive point charge. Arrows point in the direction along which a positive test charge would accelerate. ---------------------------- F = k. Qq 0/r 2 E = F/q 0 = k. Q/r 2 Electric field due to a negative point charge. ------------------Arrows point toward negative charge. Field is spherically symmetric.

Field Lines n n n The field lines indicate the direction of the electric field; the field points in the direction tangent to the field line at any point The lines are drawn so that the magnitude of the field, E, is proportional to the number of lines crossing a unit area perpendicular to the lines. The closer the lines, the stronger the field Electric field lines start on positive charges and end on negative charges and the number starting or ending is proportional to the magnitude of the charge

E-Field of Spherical Charge Distributions Radius of the ball is r = 0. 5 m. What is the electric field E 2 m from the center of the ball? (Assume uniform distribution) E = k. Q/r 2 = (9 x 109)(5)/22 = 1. 125 x 1010 N/C

Electric Field Calculation E 2 = (3. 0)2 + (2. 0)2 = 13. 0 E = 3. 61 N/C q = tan-1(2/3) = 33. 7 degrees

Symmetry In Electric Field Calculations

Electric Field of Dipoles

Electric Fields Under the Sea Elephant Gnathonemus detects nearby objects by their effects on the electric field. Cells in shark detect weak electric fields caused by the operation of the muscles of its prey. Fields as weak as 10 -6 N/C are detectable

The Electric Field of a Lightning Strike n. The direction of the electric field is from positive to negative despite the fact that the current flow is from negative to positive n. This is consistent with the force on a POSITIVE test charge

Examples of Electric Field Strengths Source E Source (N/C) E (N/C) House wires 0. 01 Thunderstorm 10, 000 Near stereo 100 Breakdown of air 3 x 106 Atmosphere 150 Cell membrane 107 Shower 800 Laser 1011 Sunlight 1000 Pulsar 1014 Compare to the field detectable by sharks, 10 -6 N/C

Practice: n Complete Problem #10 and #11 in your textbook in Chapter 15

Do Now (11/13/13): n n Pick up a green/yellow half sheet from the back of the room on your way in Review yesterday’s Do Now (the solution is on the back board)

A Parallel Plate Capacitor Example: s = q/A = charge density E = s/e 0 = 8. 85 x 10 -12 N-m 2/C 2 e 0 is called the "permittivity of vacuum" A = 0. 15 m 2 q = 6 x 10 -6 C s = q/A = 6 x 10 -6 C/ 0. 15 m 2 = 40 x 10 -6 C/m 2 E = s/e 0 = 40 x 10 -6/ 8. 85 x 10 -12 = 4. 52 x 106 N/C

Do Now (11/14/13): n n n Find a place in the room where you are as far away from as many people as possible. Write it down. Go stand there.

Electric Field Inside a Conductor If E weren't zero inside, the Excess charge inside a metal free electrons (not shown) moves to the surface. would accelerate. At equilibrium, all excess charge on a metal resides on the surface of the metal.

Electric Fields and Conductors n In a static situation (charges not moving) the electric field inside a conductor is zero n n If there were a field, there would be a force on the free electrons, since F=q. E. They would move until they reached positions where the force on them would be zero Therefore, any net charge on a conductor distributes itself on the surface n The charges get as far away from each other as possible

Electric Fields and Conductors (cont’d) n A charge placed inside a conducting sphere results in charges as shown in the figure

Electric Fields and Conductors (cont’d) n The electric field of static charges is always perpendicular to the surface outside of a conductor n If there were a parallel component of the field, the electrons would move along the surface until they reached positions at which no force was exerted on them.

E-Field is Perpendicular to Conductors in Equilibrium

Uncharged Metal Plate in an Electric Field Metal plate is polarized by the external electric field. Sheets of charges on plate set up electric field (not shown) which cancels the external electric field. If the electric field E weren't zero inside the metal, what would happen?

What is the field inside a hollow box placed between two charged plates? n n n If the box was a solid block of conducting material the field inside would be zero For a hollow box the external field does not change, since the electrons can still move in the same ways A hollow box is a useful way to protect sensitive electronics from external electric fields, such as produced by lightning

Recognizing Incorrect Electric Field Patterns This field configuration can't exist because the bottom of the ball will be positively charged, so a field should exist between the plate and the bottom of the ball. On the left and right sides in this view, the electric field E is tangent to the metal ball, so a tangential force on the electrons would exist, contradicting the fact of equilibrium.

Using Metal to Shield Electronic Components

Electric Flux Through a Plane Surface Electric Flux = F = EA cos q

Electric Flux Through a Closed Surface Electric Flux = F = E DA cos q (Some texts use DS for the area) -------------------------- If there is no net charge inside this closed surface, the net flux is zero: every arrow that enters must exit. E-field vectors which enter a surface provide negative flux, while vectors which exit give positive flux.

Electric Flux Visually we can try to understand that the flux is simply the # of electric field lines passing through any given area. In the left figure, the flux is zero. In the right figure, the flux is 2. • When E lines pass outward through a closed surface, the FLUX is positive • When E lines go into a closed surface, the FLUX is negative

Gauss's Law Friedrich Gauss (1777 -1855) Gauss's Law: S AE cosq = q/e 0 q = net charge inside Gaussian surface This is useful if q = 0 and E = constant.

Gauss’ Law Where does a fluid come from? A spring! The spring is the SOURCE of the flow. Suppose you enclose the spring with a closed surface such as a sphere. If your water accumulates within the sphere, you can see that the total flow out of the sphere is equal to the rate at which the source is producing water. In the case of electric fields the source of the field is the CHARGE! So we can now say that the SUM OF THE SOURCES WITHIN A CLOSED SURFACE IS EQUAL TO THE TOTAL FLUX THROUGH THE SURFACE. This has become known as Gauss' Law

Gauss’ Law The electric flux (flow) is in direct proportion to the charge that is enclosed within some type of surface, which we call Gaussian. The vacuum permittivity constant is the constant of proportionality in this case as the flow can be interrupted should some type of material come between the flux and the surface area. Gauss’ Law then is derived mathematically using 2 known expressions for flux.

Gauss & Michael Faraday was interested in how charges move when placed inside of a conductor. He placed a charge inside, but as a result the charges moved to the outside surface. Then he choose his Gaussian surface to be just inside the box. He verified all of this because he DID NOT get shocked while INSIDE the box. This is called Faraday’s cage.

Gauss’s Law n For Physics B: E-field inside a conductor is zero

For Closed Surfaces:

Calculus:

Gauss's Law Gives Field Due to a Point Charge Gauss's Law: SAE cosq = q/e 0 A = area of sphere = 4 pr 2 E is the same at all points on the surface q = 0 cos q = 1 (4 pr 2)E = q/e 0 E = q/(4 pe 0 r 2)

Gauss's Law Application SAE cosq = q/e 0 q = s. A where s = charge density This is a sheet of charge--not a metal A 1 E + A 2 (0) + A 3 E = s. A/e 0 plate. Sheet is very large (edges are 2 AE = s. A/e 0 not shown); near center of sheet, the E vector is perpendicular to the sheet. E = s/2 e 0

Gauss’ Law – How does it work? Consider a POSITIVE POINT CHARGE, Q. Step 1 – Is there a source of symmetry? Yes, it is spherical symmetry! You then draw a shape in such a way as to obey the symmetry and ENCLOSE the charge. In this case, we enclose the charge within a sphere. This surface is called a GAUSSIAN SURFACE. Step 2 – What do you know about the electric field at all points on this surface? It is constant. The “E” is then brought out of the integral.

Gauss’ Law – How does it work? Step 3 – Identify the area of the Gaussian surface? In this case, summing each and every d. A gives us the surface area of a sphere. Step 4 – Identify the charge enclosed? The charge enclosed is Q! This is the equation for a POINT CHARGE!

Cylinder with Charge distribution n Charge distribution:

Gauss’ Law and cylindrical symmetry der a line( or rod) of charge that is very long (infinite) + + + We can ENCLOSE it within a CYLINDER. Thus our Gaussian surface is a cylinder. This is the same equation we got doing extended charge distributions.

Gauss’ Law for insulating sheets and A charge is distributed with a uniform charge density over an infinite disks plane INSULATING thin sheet. Determine E outside the sheet. For an insulating sheet the charge resides INSIDE the sheet. Thus there is an electric field on BOTH sides of the plane. + This is the same equation we got doing extended charge distributions.

Gauss’ Law for conducting sheets and disks A charge is distributed with a uniform charge density over an infinite thick conducting sheet. Determine E outside the sheet. + + E =0 + + + For a thick conducting sheet, the charge exists on the surface only

In summary Whether you use electric charge distributions or Gauss’ Law you get the SAME electric field functions for symmetrical situations. Function Equation Point, hoop, or Sphere (Volume) Disk or Sheet (AREA) “insulating and thin” Line, rod, or cylinder (LINEAR)

Practice: n Complete the multiple choice questions in Chapter 15

Gauss's Law Applied to Parallel Plate Capacitor Large plates close together; ignore E is zero at the left end and E is fringing at edges. Electric field inside parallel to the side. the metal is zero. E is perpendicular to the plates (far from the edges). q = s. A EA = s. A/e 0 We assume a charge density s E = s/e 0

Wimshurst Machine n Invented by James Wimshurst in 1882 n n The first studies of sparks and oscillating electrical discharge were made using this type of machine. Electrostatic machines were fundamental in the early studies of electricity, starting in the XVII century, in the form of "friction machines", and their development culminated at the end of the XIX century with the development of powerful "influence machines".

Theory Of Operation Of A Wimhurst Machine n n n n The disks can be made of plastic, glass, or hard rubber The counter-rotating disks cause air molecules to become electrically activated by the frictional movement between the disks. This rotating action causes the disks to become continually charged an electrostatic charge builds up, which will cause a flash over if not bled off. To prevent flash over, a series of foil sections are attached to the center portion of each disk and equally spaced and back to back with foil sections on the outer sides. To remove the charge, collection arms are arranged to collect the charge and transfer the charge to a storage capacitor. At 45 degrees to these collection points is a neutralizing bar that extends the full length of the disk and has brushes at both ends. A neutralizing brush equals the charges on the metal foil position at both positions on both sides. The neutralizing bar on opposite side disk is at ninety degrees to the one for the other side.

Van de Graaff Generator

Van de Graaff Generator

How It Works n n When the motor is turned on, the lower roller (charger) begins turning the belt. Belt is made of rubber and the lower roller is covered in silicon tape, n Lower roller begins to build a negative charge and the belt builds a positive charge. n n Silicon is more negative than rubber; therefore, the lower roller is capturing electrons from the belt as it passes over the roller Positive charges from belt are deposited on sphere

Cereal Storm

Van de Graaff Generator A. B. Output terminal—an aluminum or steel sphere Upper Brush—A piece of fine metal wire Upper Roller—A piece of nylon Belt--A piece of tubing Power supply Lower Brush Lower roller—nylon covered with silicon tape C. D. E. F. G.

Do Now (11/18/13): Define the following in your own words. If you do not know, hypothesize: n Capacitance n Voltage n Potential

Definitions n n Electric Field = force per unit charge Electric Potential = potential energy per unit charge electric potential = electric potential energy charge Vab = Va – Vb = -Wab/q n The change in electric potential is the work done on a unit charge 1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb

Brainstorm: The charges that flow through the wires in your home ____. a. are stored in the outlets at your home b. are created when an appliance is turned on c. originate at the power (energy) company d. originate in the wires between your home and the power company e. already exist in the wires at your home

Voltage Sources n To do useful work voltage sources capable of maintaining a steady current flow are required n n n Generators Batteries Fuel cells Voltage provides the force to “push” electrons through a circuit

Electric Potential n n Just as with gravitational potential energy, the zero point of electric potential is an arbitrary location The larger rock has the greater potential energy; the larger charge has the greater electric potential energy

Relationship Between Electric Potential and Electric Field n The effects of a charge distribution can be described using either the electric field or the electric potential n n n Electric potential is a scalar which makes it sometimes easier to use Work done by the electric field to move a positive charge q from b to a is: W = q. Vba If there is a uniform field between two plates, the work can be written as: W = Fd = q. Ed Therefore, Vba = Ed or E = Vba/d The units of electric field are either V/m or N/C, 1 N/C = 1 V/m

Example n n Two parallel plates are charged to 50 V. If the separation between the plates is 0. 050 m, calculate the electric field between them E = V/d = 50 V/ 0. 050 m = 1000 V/m

Equipotential Lines and Surfaces n Along equipotential lines and surfaces, all points are at the same potential n An equipotential surface must be perpendicular to the electric field at any point

Equipotential Examples #1 The potential along an equipotential curve is the same at any point Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric field lines

Equipotential Examples #2 V = W/qmoved As we move a charge from one equipotential line to another we change its electric potential It takes the same amount of work to pull a charge to one spot on the curve as it does to pull it out to a different spot on the curve. That means that the work done per unit of charge (electric potential) is also the same. The work done was 10 J on 1 C so the potential difference is 10 J/C or 10 volts.

Electron Volts n n A joule is a large unit of measure when charges of the size of electrons are considered An electron volt (e. V) is defined as the energy acquired by a particle carrying a charge equal to that of an electron when it is moved through a potential difference of one volt 1 e. V = 1. 6 x 10 -19 J

Electric Potential of a Point Charge n n The electric potential at a distance r from a point charge Q is given by: V = (1/4πε 0) (Q/r) = k (Q/r) V goes to zero as r → ∞

Work to Force Two + Charges Together What is the minimum work required to move a charge q = 3. 0 μC from a great distance (r = ∞) to a point 0. 5 m from a charge Q = 20. 0 μC? n The work required is the change in potential energy: W = q. Vab = q (k. Q/rb – k. Q/ra) = (3 x 10 -6 C) (9 x 109 Nm 2) (2. 0 x 10 -5 C) = 1. 08 J (0. 5 m) n

Which Has the Most Potential Energy? Largest negative energy Hardest to separate Positive energy

Capacitors n A capacitor is a device for storing electric charge n n The simplest capacitor consists of two parallel conducting surfaces If a voltage is applied to a capacitor it becomes charged n n The amount of charge is given by Q = CV where C is called the capacitance of the capacitor Capacitance is measured as coulombs per volt and this unit is called a farad

Capacitance n The capacitance C is constant for a given capacitor n n It does not depend on Q or V; it depends only on the structure of the capacitor For parallel plates of area A separated by a distance d in air the capacitance is given by: C = ε 0 A/d

Dielectrics n n n In most capacitors the conducting layers are separated by an insulating material that is called a dielectric The dielectric increases the voltage that can be applied to the plates before they short out and they can be placed closer together The dielectric increases the capacitance of the capacitor by a factor K which is called the dielectric constant C = Kε 0 A/d or C = εA/d where ε = Kε 0

How a Dielectric Works n Consider a capacitor with charges +Q and –Q on its plates n The voltage between the plates is Q = CAVA where the subscript A refers to having air between the plates

How a Dielectric Works #2 n Now place a dielectric between the plates n n n The electric field between the plates will induce charges in the dielectric even though the charges can’t flow The net effect is as if there were a net charges on the outer surfaces of the dielectric The force on a test charge q within the dielectric is reduced by the factor K because some of the field lines no longer go through the dielectric

How a Dielectric Works #3 n Because the field is reduced within the dielectric the force on the test charge is reduced by a factor of K n n n The voltage is now given by V = VA/K But the charge on the plates has not changed so Q = CV where C is the capacitance with the dielectric present We can write: n n C = Q/V = Q/(VA/K) = QK/VA = KCA Therefore the capacitance is increased by the factor K

Common Dielectric Constants

Example n n n A capacitor consists of two plates of area A separated by a distance d connected to a battery of voltage V from which it n Since the capacitor remains connected to the battery, the acquires a charge Q voltage V must remain the While connected to the same battery a dielectric is n But inserting a dielectric inserted increases the capacitance C Will Q increase, and Q = CV decrease, or stay the n Therefore, if C increases, Q same? must also

Storage of Electric Energy n A charged capacitor stores electric energy n n The net effect of charging a capacitor is to move a charge from one plate to another n n The energy in a capacitor is equal to the work done to charge it As more and more charge accumulate on a plate, the harder it becomes to put more charge on it The energy in a capacitor is U = ½QV = ½CV 2 = ½Q 2/C since Q = CV

Example n A camera flash unit stores energy in a 150 μF capacitor at 200 V n n n How much electric energy is stored? U = ½CV 2 = ½(150 x 10 -6 F)(200 V)2 = 3. 0 J Notice that FV 2 = (C/V)(V 2) = CV = C(J/C) = J

Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) n In a cathode ray tube, electrons are boiled off a hot electrode and are accelerated by a potential of 5 -50 k. V n The electrons are steered onto the screen by pairs of parallel deflection plates n Changing the voltage on the deflection plates will change the position of the electrons on the screen

Do Now (11/19/13): n n n Draw a parallel circuit Draw a series circuit What is the difference between the two?

Multiple Capacitors When used in circuits capacitors can be either in series or parallel n When connected in parallel, the voltage is the same across all capacitors Q = Q 1 + Q 2 + Q 3 = C 1 V + C 2 V + C 3 V n A single capacitor with the equivalent capacitance can be written as Ceq n Therefore, Ceq. V = C 1 V + C 2 V + C 3 V or = C 1 + C 2 + C 3 n Capacitors in series just add n The effect is as if the surface area of the plates was increased n

How Lightning Occurs

When Charges Move Against Forces, Work Is Done • • In order to bring two like charges near each other work must be done. In order to separate two opposite charges, work must be done. As the monkey does work on the positive charge, he increases the energy of that charge. The closer he brings it, the more electrical potential energy it has. When he releases the charge, work gets done on the charge which changes its energy from electrical potential energy to kinetic energy.

Practice: n Complete the multiple choice questions in Ch. 16