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Digital Television Digital Television

Learning Objectives: By the end of this topic you should be able to: • Learning Objectives: By the end of this topic you should be able to: • discuss the range of services offered by digital television networks; • discuss the impact of these services on individuals, television companies and broadcasters; – individual = audience/viewer/subscriber – TV company = make the programmes – broadcaster = transmit the programmes

Digital Television • Who is your TV provider? • How are the TV channels Digital Television • Who is your TV provider? • How are the TV channels delivered to your TV set?

Task: Visit these websites: • www. sky. com • www. virginmedia. com • www. Task: Visit these websites: • www. sky. com • www. virginmedia. com • www. freeview. co. uk • www. youview. co. uk • BT vision Make a note of: • how the channels are provided to the consumer – hardware, communications media • what features/facilities are available to the consumer

Digital Television • usually supplied by satellite or cable operators in UK – satellite Digital Television • usually supplied by satellite or cable operators in UK – satellite - BSky. B (Sky) – cable - Virgin Media • TV via Internet (IPTV) from some broadcasters (ISPs) – You. View - Talk – BT Vision - BT • often subscription services • some ‘free to air’ services – via Freeview/Freesat • need decoder box (digibox) and viewing card – to decrypt signal – to authenticate user’s subscription

Features of Digital Television • TV signal contains information about the transmission – programme Features of Digital Television • TV signal contains information about the transmission – programme details, start/end times • Electronic Program Guides (EPG) – what’s on now, next, later … – personal planner – record to disk (Sky+/V+) • interact with transmission – different camera views or commentary on sports events – voting during programmes (X-Factor, WWTBAM, ……) • programmes-on-demand – watch programmes at a convenient time – different start times for movies – choice of matches (Champions League, Wimbledon)

Features of Digital Television • shopping channels & on-line store catalogues – Dixons, Argos Features of Digital Television • shopping channels & on-line store catalogues – Dixons, Argos … – multimedia display of products • make purchases directly and interactively – order pizza from a commercial (interactive advertising ) – book movie tickets during film review programme • • take part in games with other on-line viewers on-line gambling during live sporting events Internet access send e-mails via telephone line or cable – whilst watching TV & without having to use PC

Learning Objectives: By the end of this topic you should be able to: • Learning Objectives: By the end of this topic you should be able to: • discuss the impact of these services on individuals, television companies and broadcasters; – individual = audience/viewer/subscriber – TV company = make the programmes – broadcaster = transmit the programmes

Pay per View • viewers can pay to watch a particular programme – often Pay per View • viewers can pay to watch a particular programme – often sporting events or movies – available via Sky, Virgin Media – not available via Freeview • viewer can book the programme in advance or at the time of viewing – charge will be added to viewer’s next bill – charges vary: £ 5 - £ 15 per programme • on top of £ 20 - £ 50 monthly subscription

Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV companies Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV companies Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around TV companies Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around TV companies TV company receives extra revenue from customers Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals TV companies viewers will have to pay for each programme Pay per View Individuals TV companies viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV company receives extra revenue from customers viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV company may lose out on income for their subscription channels - if viewers only buy the programmes they are interested in some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals TV companies viewers will have to pay for each programme Pay per View Individuals TV companies viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV company receives extra revenue from customers viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV company may lose out on income for their subscription channels - if viewers only buy the programmes they are interested in some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around Broadcasters broadcaster has to make the ‘pay-per-view’ feature available - could be expensive

Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV company receives extra revenue from customers broadcaster has to make the ‘pay-per-view’ feature available - could be expensive viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV company may lose out on income for their subscription channels - if viewers only buy the programmes they are interested in broadcaster has to have a facility whereby payments can be made for ‘pay-perview’ programmes some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around

Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV company receives extra revenue from customers broadcaster has to make the ‘pay-per-view’ feature available - could be expensive viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV company may lose out on income for their subscription channels - if viewers only buy the programmes they are interested in broadcaster has to have a facility whereby payments can be made for ‘pay-perview’ programmes some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around broadcaster has to put security such as encryption in place to ensure that the programmes cannot be hacked

Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV company receives extra revenue from customers broadcaster has to make the ‘pay-per-view’ feature available - could be expensive viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV company may lose out on income for their subscription channels - if viewers only buy the programmes they are interested in broadcaster has to have a facility whereby payments can be made for ‘pay-perview’ programmes some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around broadcaster has to put security such as encryption in place to ensure that the programmes cannot be hacked a high bandwidth is required, particularly if viewers are allowed to watch at any start time

Voting • allows viewers to vote as part of participating in a television programme: Voting • allows viewers to vote as part of participating in a television programme: – favourite performer in a competition – remove someone from a reality TV show – choose ending of a TV programme • can be made available in a number of ways: – dialling a telephone number or sending a text message – using a website – using the interactive feature of the set-top box

Game show participation • TV games shows are very popular • allow viewers to Game show participation • TV games shows are very popular • allow viewers to take part (in real-time) by answering the questions along with contestants: – multiple-choice options • answer using the remote control for the set-top box – pressing coloured buttons – data sent via digibox telephone connection • answer via dedicated website using computer/Internet • SMS sent from mobile ‘phone

Feedback comments to TV studio • viewers can interact with a TV programme – Feedback comments to TV studio • viewers can interact with a TV programme – by feeding back comments on live shows. • viewer can send a text message – may be shown scrolling along the screen. • viewer may be able to ‘phone in to the show – their comments may be read out – may be able to talk on the show • emails can be sent – may be read out. • set top boxes could be used by viewers – to send a comment to the TV studio – make a choice via remote, wireless keyboard, …. .

Choosing Camera Angles • programmes allow viewer to select the camera angle – sport: Choosing Camera Angles • programmes allow viewer to select the camera angle – sport: director’s cut, behind the goal, ‘manager cam’ …. – reality TV show: choose room (or location) • can select game/court / hole to watch for a sporting event – Champions League football, Wimbledon tennis, Olympic games event, Ryder Cup golf ….

Interactive Recording • can pause live TV – using set-top box & remote control Interactive Recording • can pause live TV – using set-top box & remote control • programme recorded to hard disk • programme resumes watching programme from hard disk – rather than watched live via TV • programmes can be recorded for later viewing – recording set manually or via multi-day EPG – ‘series link’ recording possible • no need to set each recording separately

Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV companies Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV companies Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around TV companies Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch Pay per View Individuals viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around TV companies TV company receives extra revenue from customers Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals TV companies viewers will have to pay for each programme Pay per View Individuals TV companies viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV company receives extra revenue from customers viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV company may lose out on income for their subscription channels - if viewers only buy the programmes they are interested in some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around Broadcasters

Pay per View Individuals TV companies viewers will have to pay for each programme Pay per View Individuals TV companies viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV company receives extra revenue from customers viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV company may lose out on income for their subscription channels - if viewers only buy the programmes they are interested in some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around Broadcasters broadcaster has to make the ‘pay-per-view’ feature available - could be expensive

Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV company receives extra revenue from customers broadcaster has to make the ‘pay-per-view’ feature available - could be expensive viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV company may lose out on income for their subscription channels - if viewers only buy the programmes they are interested in broadcaster has to have a facility whereby payments can be made for ‘pay-perview’ programmes some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around

Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV company receives extra revenue from customers broadcaster has to make the ‘pay-per-view’ feature available - could be expensive viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV company may lose out on income for their subscription channels - if viewers only buy the programmes they are interested in broadcaster has to have a facility whereby payments can be made for ‘pay-perview’ programmes some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around broadcaster has to put security such as encryption in place to ensure that the programmes cannot be hacked

Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each Pay per View Individuals TV companies Broadcasters viewers will have to pay for each programme they watch - could build up a big bill without realising it TV company receives extra revenue from customers broadcaster has to make the ‘pay-per-view’ feature available - could be expensive viewers can watch individual events without paying full subscription price TV company may lose out on income for their subscription channels - if viewers only buy the programmes they are interested in broadcaster has to have a facility whereby payments can be made for ‘pay-perview’ programmes some programmes can be watched at any time - viewer can arrange viewing around their life rather than other way around broadcaster has to put security such as encryption in place to ensure that the programmes cannot be hacked a high bandwidth is required, particularly if viewers are allowed to watch at any start time

Voting Individuals TV companies Broadcasters Voting Individuals TV companies Broadcasters

Voting Individuals viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and having an Voting Individuals viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and having an influence on an outcome TV companies Broadcasters

Voting Individuals viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and having an Voting Individuals viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and having an influence on an outcome premium rate numbers can be very expensive for the viewer TV companies Broadcasters

Voting Individuals viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and having an Voting Individuals viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and having an influence on an outcome premium rate numbers can be very expensive for the viewer TV companies using premium rate numbers will boost revenue - 2 million voters @ £ 1 per call! Broadcasters

Voting Individuals TV companies viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and Voting Individuals TV companies viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and having an influence on an outcome using premium rate numbers will boost revenue - 2 million voters @ £ 1 per call! premium rate numbers can be very expensive for the viewer more than 1 ending needs to be written and performed Broadcasters

Voting Individuals TV companies viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and Voting Individuals TV companies viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and having an influence on an outcome using premium rate numbers will boost revenue - 2 million voters @ £ 1 per call! premium rate numbers can be very expensive for the viewer more than 1 ending needs to be written and performed TV company at the mercy of the voting viewers may not be representative of the majority of viewers - winning vote may possibly be unpopular decision Broadcasters

Voting Individuals TV companies viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and Voting Individuals TV companies viewer feels like they are participating in the programme and having an influence on an outcome using premium rate numbers will boost revenue - 2 million voters @ £ 1 per call! premium rate numbers can be very expensive for the viewer more than 1 ending needs to be written and performed TV company at the mercy of the voting viewers may not be representative of the majority of viewers - winning vote may possibly be unpopular decision Broadcasters broadcaster has to make interactive feature available - could be expensive

Game show participation Individuals TV companies Broadcasters Game show participation Individuals TV companies Broadcasters

Game show participation Individuals viewers feel more part of the game show - more Game show participation Individuals viewers feel more part of the game show - more interested because they are participating TV companies Broadcasters

Game show participation Individuals viewers feel more part of the game show - more Game show participation Individuals viewers feel more part of the game show - more interested because they are participating TV companies if show popular with viewers then TV company receives more revenue from advertisers Broadcasters

Game show participation Individuals viewers feel more part of the game show - more Game show participation Individuals viewers feel more part of the game show - more interested because they are participating TV companies if show popular with viewers then TV company receives more revenue from advertisers TV company has to set up the facility to receive viewers’ answers and to give feedback - could be expensive Broadcasters

Game show participation Individuals viewers feel more part of the game show - more Game show participation Individuals viewers feel more part of the game show - more interested because they are participating TV companies if show popular with viewers then TV company receives more revenue from advertisers TV company has to set up the facility to receive viewers’ answers and to give feedback - could be expensive Broadcasters broadcaster has to make interactive feature available - could be expensive

Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers – expensive for the viewer TV companies Broadcasters

Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers – expensive for the viewer • viewer may have a very strong opinion on a topic – may feel relieved if they can share this with other viewers TV companies Broadcasters

Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers – expensive for the viewer • viewer may have a very strong opinion on a topic – may feel relieved if they can share this with other viewers • may be lots of viewers feeding back – may feel frustrated that their comment has not been included. TV companies Broadcasters

Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers – expensive for the viewer • viewer may have a very strong opinion on a topic – may feel relieved if they can share this with other viewers • may be lots of viewers feeding back – may feel frustrated that their comment has not been included. TV companies • need to moderate messages – may be offensive or libellous Broadcasters

Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers TV companies • – expensive for the viewer • • viewer may have a very • strong opinion on a topic – may feel relieved if they can share this with other viewers may be lots of viewers feeding back – may feel frustrated that their comment has not been included. need to moderate messages – may be offensive or libellous thousands of comments may be received – difficult to find the best comments to include on the show Broadcasters

Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers TV companies • – may be offensive or libellous – expensive for the viewer • • need to moderate messages viewer may have a very • strong opinion on a topic – may feel relieved if they can share this with other viewers thousands of comments may be received • TV company less likely to be criticised of bias may be lots of viewers feeding back – may feel frustrated that their comment has not been included. – difficult to find the best comments to include on the show – if they include a variety of opinions from viewers Broadcasters

Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers Feedback comments to TV studio Individuals • ‘phone numbers are often premium rate numbers TV companies • – may be offensive or libellous – expensive for the viewer • • need to moderate messages viewer may have a very • strong opinion on a topic – may feel relieved if they can share this with other viewers thousands of comments may be received • TV company less likely to be criticised of bias may be lots of viewers feeding back – may feel frustrated that their comment has not been included. – difficult to find the best comments to include on the show – if they include a variety of opinions from viewers Broadcasters • broadcaster has to make interactive feature available – could be expensive

Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do not have to rely on the director – to show them the ‘best’ parts of a show – they choose how they view a programme TV companies Broadcasters

Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do not have to rely on the director – to show them the ‘best’ parts of a show – they choose how they view a programme • viewers may miss something exciting – if it occurs on a different camera view TV companies Broadcasters

Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do not have to rely on the director – to show them the ‘best’ parts of a show – they choose how they view a programme • viewers may miss something exciting – if it occurs on a different camera view TV companies • have to provide many different views of the same event – cost of multiple cameras/operators Broadcasters

Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do not have to rely on the director TV companies • – cost of multiple cameras/operators – to show them the ‘best’ parts of a show – they choose how they view a programme • viewers may miss something exciting – if it occurs on a different camera view have to provide many different views of the same event • if popular then more viewers will subscribe – more revenue Broadcasters

Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do not have to rely on the director TV companies • – cost of multiple cameras/operators – to show them the ‘best’ parts of a show – they choose how they view a programme • viewers may miss something exciting have to provide many different views of the same event • – if it occurs on a different camera view if popular then more viewers will subscribe – more revenue • content from each camera must be appropriate – not just director’s cut Broadcasters

Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do not have to rely on the director TV companies • – cost of multiple cameras/operators – to show them the ‘best’ parts of a show – they choose how they view a programme • viewers may miss something exciting have to provide many different views of the same event • – if it occurs on a different camera view if popular then more viewers will subscribe – more revenue • content from each camera must be appropriate – not just director’s cut Broadcasters • more bandwidth required – for all angles – = higher cost

Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do Choosing a Camera Angle Individuals • viewers get a choice meaning that they do not have to rely on the director TV companies • – cost of multiple cameras/operators – to show them the ‘best’ parts of a show – they choose how they view a programme • viewers may miss something exciting have to provide many different views of the same event • – if it occurs on a different camera view if popular then more viewers will subscribe – more revenue • content from each camera must be appropriate – not just director’s cut Broadcasters • more bandwidth required – for all angles – = higher cost • adverts must be shown at the same time on all channels

Interactive Recording Individuals • has monthly charge TV companies • – adds to total Interactive Recording Individuals • has monthly charge TV companies • – adds to total bill may lose revenue from advertisers – viewers skip adverts • viewers won’t miss part • of the programme (answer the phone …) – pause & return after. . • watch one programme & record another at same time – won’t miss one of the programmes • series link – won’t miss episode attractive to viewers – more likely to buy – more revenue for TV companies Broadcasters • broadcasters need to ensure that EPG is regularly updated • need to manufacture settop boxes with record facility –costly if no charge is made due to competition between broadcasters