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Digital Stress and Key Industry Issues Sharad Sadhu Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union BES EXPO 2010 Digital Stress and Key Industry Issues Sharad Sadhu Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union BES EXPO 2010 International Conference & Exhibition, New Delhi

The Small Ones n n n TV production – IT equipment islands appearing / The Small Ones n n n TV production – IT equipment islands appearing / established TV transmission – digital trials and trails, but…. Archives – in tapes and films; lists, index cards Radio studios - digital-IT based production, fully or in part Radio transmission - digital trials, but…. Newsrooms: mostly IT assisted

The Big Broadcasters n n n TV production – IT based in some areas The Big Broadcasters n n n TV production – IT based in some areas – but there is a problem TV transmission – accomplished – but a big problem Archives – progressing Radio studios – fully automated digital-IT based Radio transmission – yes for many, some not keen Newsrooms: Fully IT based

Digital Transition in Studios: Impact • • • Larger TV b’casters have huge production Digital Transition in Studios: Impact • • • Larger TV b’casters have huge production facilities Multi-channel, multi-studio set up Big task to change everything to IT based Managing the change needs great effort Money is not the only problem Inter-operability problems persist

Digital Transition in Transmissions: Impact • • For large TV b’casters, setting up digital Digital Transition in Transmissions: Impact • • For large TV b’casters, setting up digital transmission networks needed big investments Operating simulcast is another drain on resources Broadcasters who have taken the plunge are in financial and resource crunch Everybody is waiting for the ASO

Broadcasters Under Stress n Taking up digital services has put broadcasters under financial stress Broadcasters Under Stress n Taking up digital services has put broadcasters under financial stress u u n n Infrastructure investments are huge, content creation is costly Re-training staff is expensive Simulcast is a big drain on resources Ad revenues have not seen a big jump Stress has impacted even the big ones Analogue Switch-Off may provide some relief

Analogue Switch-off Many non-technical issues to be resolved for successful ASO n u u Analogue Switch-off Many non-technical issues to be resolved for successful ASO n u u Public acceptance Affordable STBs / TVs Broadcaster stress, resource depletion Needs national effort US example: Not fully successful despite State help n u u Gave away 59 M coupons, used only 31 M 2. 9% yet to change

Broadcast Environment n n n n n Analogue layout completed, Digital creeping up Audiences Broadcast Environment n n n n n Analogue layout completed, Digital creeping up Audiences seek multi-channel, anywhere-anytimeany platform, Hi Def services Satellite TV has flooded environment Convergent media players, Blue Ray, DVD, PVR, IPTV, HBBtv, fragment markets State funding down, new investments needed Horizontal markets in content, delivery Smallest broadcasters need help to consolidate Green broadcasting, green footprints Small public broadcasters set up joint ventures for pay-DTV: Laos, Cambodia

Industry’s Concerns n n n n n Sustaining operations, finding finances for investments Finding Industry’s Concerns n n n n n Sustaining operations, finding finances for investments Finding new revenue streams Shrinking ad market share Transition to digital broadcasting New content genres, more sports, live events, niche market services, lower production costs Using Internet to enhance customer value Pragmatic editorial independence Preserving, harvesting of archival material European views differ on many issues

Asia Does Not Speak Out Despite protestations to otherwise, A-P does not speak out Asia Does Not Speak Out Despite protestations to otherwise, A-P does not speak out n Little transfer of info, culture outside of region, except by “Western” media n News predominantly shown across the region is Either directly from western sources u Or by taking coverage from such sources u n n n Illustration: Copenhagen conference – Obama, Brown highlighted, carried by all stations here Not much news about 190 leaders’ contribution Imbalance needs to be addressed effectively

Social Networking Sites Broadcasters’ need presence on Social Networking sites n Provide news, content Social Networking Sites Broadcasters’ need presence on Social Networking sites n Provide news, content downloads, snapshots n But 66% of most viewed material professionally made * n Make use of material after verification Cannot use: Bus Uncle (HK), Maru Cat (Japan) type material _____ * EBU , Burgess & Green, Intl. Journal of Digital TV u

Internet TV, IPTV Hype on uptake of Internet TV, IPTV n Facts - monthly Internet TV, IPTV Hype on uptake of Internet TV, IPTV n Facts - monthly hrs spent per user * n u u n Broadcast TV: 151 Internet TV: 3 Facts: Uptake of IPTV ** as %age of population u u China: 0. 1 %, Japan: 0. 2 % Hong Kong: 13. 1 %, France: 2. 3 % _____ * Three Screens Survey 2009 (US) - Nielson Company ** R. Briel and Wikipedia

Advertising: How Much n Reviewing regional guidelines for Advertising u u Ads in children's Advertising: How Much n Reviewing regional guidelines for Advertising u u Ads in children's / school programming u n How many ad breaks in 30 min? How many ads Abrupt level changes in picture, sound Advertising in UK (1 Dec 2009) u u u n One ad break 30 min news programme period No ad breaks in 30 min children's programme slots No abrupt changes in picture, sound Practices for EPG providers u u Prominence for public service channels Features for people with disabilities

Producing Content n Need high efficiency in content production u Super-compressions like MPEG-4 “Audio Producing Content n Need high efficiency in content production u Super-compressions like MPEG-4 “Audio Video Objects” helps greater efficiency Multi-platform, desk-Top, networked production u Non-linear techniques u u n n Virtual Studios innovate production, savings File servers provide efficient workflow, asset management

Signal and Content Protection n n 1961 Rome Convention grossly outdated WIPO unable to Signal and Content Protection n n 1961 Rome Convention grossly outdated WIPO unable to conclude on signal protection Crucial element: Digital content copying is easy Premium content providers unwilling to supply without protection u n Protection needed at broadcaster, consumer ends Networked content u Protection needed over entire network

Revisiting ABU CEN n Basic issue is: Do ABU members want to share content? Revisiting ABU CEN n Basic issue is: Do ABU members want to share content? u u What type of content can they offer Is it useful for other members, given t t n Set up CEN Content Working Party / Forum / Consortium to research u u n Diversity of language, Culture Political sensitivities, other factors How much content would be available? Would that sustain any exchange network in the long run? Guidelines on type of content required Do we require subtitling? What about radio content, how do we deal with it? Only after these issues are resolved, can a meaningful step be taken towards setting up CEN

Managing Digital Business n n n Huge investments need consultation with technical, content offering, Managing Digital Business n n n Huge investments need consultation with technical, content offering, marketing, business To secure new investments, identify workable revenue streams Navigate in crowded market where media players fight for customers, revenues Motivate consumers, retailers, manufacturers Adapt to new business, commercial environment u Exploit short, long tailed content

Freeview: Way to go Digital Pay-TV model failed n Consumers did not pay for Freeview: Way to go Digital Pay-TV model failed n Consumers did not pay for what was free on analogue n Success model: Freeview – free digital offering n u n Bundles up many broadcasters, channels UK, New Zealand, Australia, DTH in India

Hybrid Broadcast Broadband n n On TV set, viewer gets to watch broadcast TV Hybrid Broadcast Broadband n n On TV set, viewer gets to watch broadcast TV or on-line TV content or both This has placed initiative in hands of TV audiences Main issue is: Who will control the TV screen with HBB Will broadcasters be dominant or will Internet TV providers offer better content?

And what about Shortwave Radio? n n n 7000 daily transmissions, 10, 000 hrs And what about Shortwave Radio? n n n 7000 daily transmissions, 10, 000 hrs Enormous operating costs, capex Genuine b’casting service, usually ignored by the industry I see great potential Digital services operating from Japan, China, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Korea Republic Newcomers: Malaysia, Bangladesh, India, Bhutan, Papua New Guinea

PSB Functions: E W B S n n Broadcasters’ role in disaster warning, risk PSB Functions: E W B S n n Broadcasters’ role in disaster warning, risk reduction, post-disaster relief, is crucial EWBS system alerts public instantly on radio, TV, satellite (Japan, Korea) ABU has helped spread this message, plan for implementation Radio-in-a-Box very useful: Padang example

Emergency Warning: Public Service n n Radio, TV, sat. b’casters offer effective emergency warning Emergency Warning: Public Service n n Radio, TV, sat. b’casters offer effective emergency warning systems in the Asia -Pacific Macro management is the problem

Impact of Convergence n n n n Convergence has altered industry profile Traditional structures Impact of Convergence n n n n Convergence has altered industry profile Traditional structures are fading away New players from other industries try to dominate content creation, delivery Will current industry structure remain relevant in near future, if so, how? What will it be like in 5 /10 years? With new players, industry profile will have a marked change Industry will reflect new audience needs Even management of broadcasting entities will undergo changes

ABU Should Provide Thought Leadership to Industry n In changing environment, how should broadcasters ABU Should Provide Thought Leadership to Industry n In changing environment, how should broadcasters u u u n n n Chart their course of action? Deal with new technologies in market place? Who is to advise them on regional, global perspectives? Where should they obtain unbiased professional advice? How to take informed decisions on huge investments? The ABU’s role needs to respond to all these requirements Shepherd broadcasters, businesses towards new directions The ABU should concern itself with the totality of broadcasting ABU should provide thought leadership to industry Advocate, protect common interests of members

Europe’s Views on FTA n Many countries limit number of FTA broadcasters n Certain Europe’s Views on FTA n Many countries limit number of FTA broadcasters n Certain events reserved FTA TV, distorts competition against pay-TV n EC requires 50 % content broadcast be of “European works”

Europe’s Views on FTA n Whether sports rights should be sold individually, by teams Europe’s Views on FTA n Whether sports rights should be sold individually, by teams or by a sports league n High degree of control with one entity u u u Finland, PSB controls all TV distribution networks Norway, telco owns most networks Mexico, Italy, largest FTA broadcasters 85% audience

EU Views n Dual broadcasting system of State public service broadcasting and commercial broadcasting EU Views n Dual broadcasting system of State public service broadcasting and commercial broadcasting fails to provide a balanced public forum for all political perspectives n In new media environment, public service broadcasting is no longer justified, despite its potential for creation of value-based content

EU Views Content & Technology n EU Views Content & Technology n "the growth of news distributors through digital technology is accompanied by an unprecedented loss of the value of reference that the media had in analogue world“ n EBU: Cultural diversity and media pluralism have always been the touchstones of Europe's public service broadcasters n The principles of cultural diversity and media pluralism are today acknowledged and defended internationally by the UNESCO

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