- Количество слайдов: 20
Digital Object Identifier The case for supporting the International DOI Foundation doi>
Features and benefits of DOI doi> • Persistent identification – Not just a location – Permanent, trackable, name – Stays the same if ownership, location, control changes – No need to update customers if location changes • Can incorporate existing identifiers – Standard e. g. ISBN, ISSN, ISMN, SICI, ISRC – Non-standard / public e. g. PII – Private e. g. workflow, internal production – Assigned by the publisher – or on his behalf • Can integrate with existing internal and external systems – Sales, royalty, stock, analysis, etc – Web sites, etc.
Features and benefits of DOI doi> • Automated link from DOI to any (and multiple) data – e. g. Multiple locations; purchase options; additional info; access control • See DOI-EB for a demonstration – controlled globally by the publisher. – can be used globally by an intermediary, customer, etc. – No other system can do this • Build your own custom features: entirely extensible architecture • Generic applicability; any form of intellectual property, any granularity (text, music, audio. . ) – ensure interoperability • Uses existing standards; ensures long term use
Business benefits doi> • Promotes use of material in a legal, controllable, manner • • Proven, implemented, real system in use now – e. g. Cross. Ref: 72 publishers, 3. 5 million DOIs in one year, 1 million hits per month, supports existing businesses – Registration Agencies appointed in US, Asia Proven defence against new entrants – The best defence: better features, better services, by legitimate routes - e. g. Cross. Ref defeated Pub. Ref through superior service Demonstrated unique additional features available now – Multiple resolution; See DOI-EB work Low risk, low cost, standard solution – Not a proprietary system; available at low cost – controlled by neutral, not-for-profit Foundation with single aim. – Built on open standards; allows use of existing standards – Comprehensive effort reduces risk of "dead-end": Asia as well as EU, US; multimedia e. g. text, music, software
Proven, well-received doi> • See www. doi. org/quotes for impartial reviews – Seybold Report – Business Week – Publishers Lunch – Publishers Weekly – Accenture (Andersen Consulting) – Software and Information Industry Association – Electronic Publishing Services (EPS) - etc. • Endorsed by key bodies: AAP, PA, STM, IPA, SIIA, etc.
A significant global player doi> Member of, or participant in, all other global related efforts • WIPO: NGO status • W 3 C: member • ISO TC 46, ISO MPEG: category A liaison • NISO: voting member and Board member • OEBF, IETF, SIIA, etc; participant IDF was a key funder of indecs (see ONIX metadata standard now widely used in publishing) IDF has funded launch of indecs 2 which extends this to rights management
Sound foundations doi> Based on existing, proven components: • Numbering: principles of unique identification • Description: INDECS analysis – principles for interoperable data in e-commerce – ONIX and similar implementations are used • Action: Handle System – digital object architecture (Kahn) – widespread use, scalable, efficient • Policies: existing proven concepts – learn from e. g. ISBN, EAN/UPC, Visa • All are extensible: – allows seamless interoperation with Rights data dictionaries; Rights languages; digital object architecture; etc.
doi> NUMBERING extensible Any form of identifier DESCRIPTION
What more is needed now? doi> • Coordinated work to support efficient operation: – Governance – Refine operational rules – Development of standards for application building (e. g. multiple resolution) – Development of additional features, tools • Promotion and publicity to ensure deployment and avoid fragmentation • Work with other activities to prevent conflicts and promote efficiency – Standards bodies, consortia, etc (w 3 C, IETF, OEBF, MPEG, ISO, SIIA, XML, Xr. ML, etc. )
Example IDF work: technical doi> Multiple resolution feature allows any publisher to define their own options : e. g one click away from purchase in a defined format etc Underlying rules DOI pop-up window
Example IDF work: advocacy doi> • Participate in and influence standards work: – – – – W 3 C's DRM interest group MPEG-21 framework Open E-book Forum IETF's Digital Rights Management Group ISO standards e. g. ISTC Metadata work e. g. PRISM, ONIX, indecs 2…. . Internet standards etc • IDF co-funded indecs and is now working on related data dictionaries for practical use • IDF funded launch of indecs 2 (rights management data dictionary)
What is needed now? doi> Membership support to provide finance for the work • Membership grew consistently to 2001; – renewed effort now necessary to complete work • membership supports development as operating federation gradually takes over • basis of business model • proven model in other sectors (Visa, ISBN, EAN/UPC); community invests now to get benefit for all • Business model demonstrated as sustainable: – “Deployment” paper – 5 year financial model for scenario building (RA Working Group)
Our aim: Building infrastructure doi> “Imagine a country where nobody can identify who owns what, addresses cannot easily be verified, people cannot be made to pay their debts, resources cannot conveniently be turned into money, ownership cannot be divided into shares, descriptions of assets are not standardized and cannot easily be compared, and the rules that govern property vary from neighbourhood to neighbourhood or even street to street. You have just put yourself into the life of a developing country or former communist nation” “The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Succeeds in the West and Fails Everywhere Else” by Hernando de Soto (2000)
Our aim: Building infrastructure doi> “One of the most important things a formal property system does is transform assets from a less accessible condition to a more accessible condition, so that they can do additional work. Unlike physical assets, representations are easily combined, divided, mobilized, and used to stimulate business deals. By uncoupling the economic features of an asset from their rigid, physical state, a representation makes the asset "fungible" - able to be fashioned to suit practically any transaction. ” “The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Succeeds in the West and Fails Everywhere Else” by Hernando de Soto (2000) DOI provide the tools for representations of intellectual property
A consistent call by the publishing industry doi> Information Identification - IPA/STM ; Uniform File Identifiers - AAP (1995) • “. . need to unify in one scheme music, audiovisual, document management, internet engineering, digital libraries, copyright registration and object based software” • “. . maximise utility of digital objects; enable core interoperability; enable integration of disparate sourced data; ability to trace ownership to manage rights” • requirements: – protect legacy investments – enable interoperability – provide link between digital and physical – maintain privacy of users – have persistence – standard syntax – global scalability DOI delivers all this – global uniqueness – global meaning
Why support IDF? • Ensure the DOI is widely implemented doi> – Underpinning of consistent rules, infrastructure, and wide uptake • Ensure content community sets standards – Technology standards are not enough (Napster) – Strong lead by publishing industry - text as the lead carrier, but supports audio, video, etc – No other existing forum is doing this: W 3 C, OEBF, MPEG 21 etc. all looking at parts • Common community platform: – DOI results from extensive work by AAP, IPA, STM (1995+) • IDF has strong lead, recognised position, and support. – Build on what has been achieved • Promote collaboration – Content and technology communities are represented – interoperate with others; reduce costs, prevent mistakes • Facilitate building of specific added-value services.
Benefits of supporting IDF doi> • Cost-effective access to digital commerce expertise: – Membership cost is equivalent to 2 -3 days per month of one consultant (even at highest membership level) – Detailed monthly briefings • Preferential access to business opportunities: – IDF makes connections between members and potential applications: explore at low risk possible business opportunities – Early access to results of prototypes, plans – Shared ownership of IDF output (data dictionaries, future developments) • Share cost of development of prototypes: – Costs can be shared by participants rather than by one company • Influence the course of the IDF: – participate in working groups, annual meeting, prototypes, board – share in use of resulting technologies • The benefits of standards: reduced risk, increased speed.
How to support IDF doi> • International DOI Foundation: founded 1998 – Not-for-profit communal effort; paid membership support – Members own and control DOI effort – IDF is developing all aspects of DOI system • Open to all interested parties • Governance by board elected from members • Membership fees: – $30, 000 per annum – $10, 000 for small /not-for-profit members – [$5000 per annum for non-member affiliates] • Membership support will enable us to put self-funding operating federation in place • www. doi. org
Registration Agencies doi> • Provide a simple one-stop DOI solution for a community • An additional business opportunity for some members • Build on the features and acceptance of the system – build on existing services or offer new services – management of content, management of metadata, etc. • RAs may build as little or as much as they wish on this – simple assignment, through to a wide range of services • RAs determine their own fate: – IDF provides federal structure for infrastructure, predictable costs and governance model – open market structure for applications • Business opportunity is a shared risk: – DOI service supported by multiple RAs and multiple applications – Shared costs of the infrastructure – common infrastructure encourages common added-value tools
Further information Norman Paskin n. paskin@doi. org The International DOI Foundation http: //www. doi. org doi>