- Количество слайдов: 36
Digital Libraries & Children’s Libraries © Malore I. Brown, Ph. D. Rutgers University [email protected] rutgers. edu
Digital Libraries & Children’s Libraries • OUTLINE • Overview - process of collection development • Identify challenges of collection development in digital libraries • Highlight practice issues in selecting and accessing both types of collections. • Discussion – concerns in selection
Definitions of Collection Development • 1 st edition Evans, 1979 • 4 th edition Evans, 2000 • “ the process of meeting identifying the strengths the information needs of and weaknesses of a the people ( a service library’s materials population) in a timely and collection in terms of economic manner using patron needs and information resources community resources and locally held as well as attempting to correct from other organizations. ” existing weaknesses, if any. ”
Definitions of Collection Development • The definitions have changed over 20 years. • Emphasis on “information needs” and not just “materials. ” • Emphasis on “TIME” • Seeking both internal and external information resources.
The Concept of Collections • In a traditional library distinctive qualities: § Objects – actual documents, physical location and presence. § Location – building § Economics- ownership of the object through purchase § Access- tangible, physical, actual
Collection Development • Selection and collection development are arts, not sciences. . . a person wishing to practice the art must devote years to developing the necessary skills. • All libraries share a certain general characteristic: – the need to assemble a collection materials needed by their patrons.
Collection Development • Basic elements of collection development: – determine what information resources are needed – identify the appropriate items – acquire the items – evaluate the collection
Collection Development • Primary purpose of libraries and information centers is to assist in the transfer of information and the development of knowledge.
Collection Development • “Digital Libraries”in Library collections are a new format within libraries. • An evolution of sorts – changing the way we look at collections. • A new revolution – everything is new • How do libraries deal with these changes?
• What is a Digital Library? : Two major conceptualizations 1. Distributed objects - various forms, distributed access, representation, operability (computer science) 2. Institution, collection, services, availability (libraries) • First is research perspective • focus on a range of research problems, with little or no operations; “D-lib” very broadly interpreted • Second is library operational perspective • focus on practical problems of transforming library institutions and services, with little or
Research Definition "Digital libraries are organized collections of digital information. They combine the structuring and gathering of information, which libraries and archives have always done, with the digital representation that computers have made possible. ” Lesk, 1997 “Digital library is a managed collection of information, with associated services, where information is stored in digital formats and accessible over a network. ” Arms, 2000
Library Definition “Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities. ” Digital Libraries Federation (DLF)
Emergence of Digital Libraries • Digital information systems evolved from: – Online databases for searching – Online Catalog – Electronic reference databases – Full-text digital articles and journals and digital collections – New forms of scholarly communications, e-publications, earchives in numerous fields.
Digital Collection • Changes the way users look for information • Changes the way librarians select “materials” • Changes the way librarians “own” materials • Changes the technical and network environment • Changes access
Digital Collection • A collection of virtual, digital and multimedia information resources. – Selected/created using collection policy – User community defined – Owned, licensed or free access – Possible resource sharing – consortia – Adapted for a network environment – Linked to other collections – Collection not in one physical location
Advantages of Digital Libraries • Access: brings library to users – always available; broad range delivery – many libraries now possible to use • Sharing: information resources; linking • Currency: very timely, up-to-date information • Searching, browsing: use of computer power • Information resources: new forms possible • Services: endless possibilities
Major Challenges of Digital Libraries • Involves a variety of intangible objects: • External: epublications, ejournals, e-books, multimedia. • Bridging the digital divide • Resistance to new technology
Major Challenges of Digital Libraries • Involves a variety of intangible objects: • Internal: actual objects, collections, databases created within the library. • Gateways: directories, portals – Links selected, organized, evaluated
Economic Challenge • Challenge of ownership v. access • Collection limited to monetary funds available • Licensing to electronic publications (dependent on time and restrictions of use) • Sharing – costs and access through a consortia • Charging – passing on costs to users, subsidizing
Location Challenge • In-house local network • Dependent of Internet and networked arrangements. • Distributed to large number of locations. – Becomes several collections – Lose control over distributed resources
Challenge of Access • How are resources accessed? – Information retrieval for searching – Search engines – Navigation • Levels of access. – Dependent on policy and license – Partial –cannot access all information – Full – dependent on arrangement • Security.
The Information Environment • • • from print digital from local international from secure uncertain from poverty overload from service empowerment
The changing information environment of the 21 st Century complex and fluid • • connective and interactive • diverse, ambiguous and unpredictable • no longer constrained by time, place and national boundaries: e-environment • info place info space knowledge space • information overload potential
Subject Specific Services • An assembly of web pages specific to children or young adults as a user group - links • A collection of CD-ROM databases for children – e. g. encyclopedias, educational software • Subscribing to online services for use by children and the adults who work with them
Digital Libraries & Children’s Libraries • The next few slides include a sample of what is available on the web for children’s digital libraries: • Sample web pages for children’s librarians, teachers, or any adults who are interested in Children’s Services. • Sample web pages from encyclopedias online – e. g. Britannica. com and Microsoft Encarta (both searchable online)
Digital Libraries & Children’s Libraries • In searching these sites keep in mind that search strategies used in regular online databases is preferred. (i. e. Boolean and keyword searching) • Teaching these searching strategies to children is also important.
Practical Issues in Selection • Online Services – licensing agreements • CD-ROMs – cost, networking, circulating or only in-house use. • Training – for staff and children (possibly teachers and parents) • Internet use – Acceptable Use Policies, chat room use, e-mail • Book marking web sites prior to children’s use • Evaluating sites, products, trial periods
Conclusion • Digital Libraries provide a great service, excellent access to resources, opportunities to see and do more. • A great challenge economically. • Challenge to decide what services are the best • Digital Libraries have been an extension from traditional library services. • Don’t worry libraries are here to stay! We just have additional services now.
Discussion Let’s discuss specific concerns in selection of resources in children’s libraries. (Digital or traditional) THANK YOU!