- Количество слайдов: 20
Differences in Intelligence
NATURE (genetic influence) n Twins intelligence scores are virtually as similar to those of the same person taking a test twice. n Identical twins show a greater correlation in intelligence scores than fraternal twins. n Brain scans show twins have very similar gray matter volume
NURTURE (environmental influence) Malnutrition can influence cognitive development Head Start and other programs increase children’s school readiness. n Intelligence scores tend to rise during the school year and drop off in the summer months. Argument for year round schooling. n Identical twins reared apart have a lower intelligence correlation than those reared together. n n
The Flynn Effect n Overall intelligence testing has been improving this is called the Flynn Effect (Graph pg. 447) – The avg. person’s intelligence score 80 years ago is equal to a 76 today. – This trend has been observed in many countries. – What could cause the Flynn effect?
The Flynn Effect
Explaining the Flynn Effect n Better nutrition n Better education n More stimulating environments n Smaller families
Nature vs. Nurture Intelligence summary n Nature vs. Nurture-Intelligence – You. Tube
Ethnic Similarities and Differences Genetics research reveals that under the skin, the races are remarkably alike. n Individual differences within races are much greater than the differences between races. n White and Black infants score equally well on infant intelligence measures. n
Ethnic Similarities and Differences n The Disturbing Facts: – Racial groups differ in their average intelligence scores § Avg. IQ for Whites – 100 § Avg. IQ for Blacks – 85 § Avg. IQ for other minorities – between 85 and 100 – Although this gap is shrinking slowly, it still persists. – Are these differences due to genetics or the environment?
Environmental Explanations for Gap n n n n Self –fulfilling prophecies- Gender/race- Stossell Student beliefs about themselves-Black/white doll experiment and Brown decision. Separate but Equal-pt. 1 Teacher beliefs about student abilities. The Pygmalion Effect and the Power of Positive Expectations (1 st 3: 00) Teacher’s unconscious bias when selecting who can take upper level classes. CMS study on 6 th to 12 th grade English scores. Nutrition and scores. In group pressures to not "act white" Uncle Toms.
Environmental Explanations for IQ Gap n n n Prejudice has negative influence on achievement. Ogbu study suggesting that minority groups in all cultures score lower on intelligence tests produced by majority culture. Fewer role models. Less of a perception of school as a means to better life. Fewer family financial concerns. n (Role of TV films). n Look at Tom the Dancing Bug n How Priming Impacts Your Performance
Gender Differences n Gender differences in intelligence is minor… – – – – Girls are better spellers Girls are more verbally affluent Girls surpassed boys in memory for picture associations Girls are sensitive to touch, taste and odor Girls are better at detecting emotions Boys outnumber girls in underachievement - More boys in special education classes Boys are better at math problem solving Boys spatial ability is superior
Stereotype Threat n Stereotype threat – a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. (self-fulfilling prophecy) – p. 465 – Ex. Women score higher on math tests when they are not tested alongside of men – Ex. Blacks score higher when tested by a black test administrator rather than a white test administrator
Take the Australian and Chitling Tests n Take tests
Cultural Bias in testing n Is there cultural bias in testing?
What is meant by bias? n Tests detect differences caused by cultural experiences – Ex. Question – What is a Tobaggon? – And regional bias – A cup is paired with a saucer or you buy insurance to protect your property – AP Psych 2009 exam driver’s license. Q Why is this bias for someone from Tokyo, Shanghai, Seoul. – If this is the case, are intelligence tests a vehicle for discrimination? - show quotes from original creators of
Bias in Testing n TAKE STANDARDIZED TEST OF QUESTIONS THAT HAVE BEEN ELIMINATED DUE TO BIAS. n Q. WHY WERE THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS CONSIDERED BIAS n ETS (Collegeboard) goes to great lengths to create unbias exams today. Ex. - being on the “rubric” team, roomate from Shaghai China, my selection.
Who succeeds on the SAT? n Studies show that upper class white male northeasterners tend to perform better than any other group. Why? – Test was created by white, upper-class males. – What does being like the test creators have anything to do with your ability to perform well on a test? § High socio economic status vocabulary § Test preparation - $$$ § Taking test several times - $$$ § Any others?
Evidence supporting SAT Bias Females have higher HS GPA’s but males perform better on SAT’s 2. Over 1400 SAT scores (1600 scale): 29% from upper class 24% from middle class 14% from lower class High School performance among these particular students has opposite numbers. 1.
Wake Forest Ends testing n No SATs for Wake Forest University – You. Tube Wake Forest example lends doubt to the SATs | Mc. Clatchy A New Book Argues Against the SAT NYTimes. com Review Institutional Discrimination and Standardized Testing/ Homogeneous Grouping.