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Diameter Real-Time Credit Check and Accounting § Diameter Acceleration Program § Interlink Networks § Diameter Real-Time Credit Check and Accounting § Diameter Acceleration Program § Interlink Networks § 15 April 2002 § Rich Mironov © Richard Mironov, 2002. All rights reserved. www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

Agenda § § § Speaker introduction RADIUS billing and credit problems i. Pass RADIUS Agenda § § § Speaker introduction RADIUS billing and credit problems i. Pass RADIUS model Diameter and Credit Control Carrier uses Summary www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

Rich Mironov § Principal, Mironov Consulting v Strategic product planning v Clients in wireless Rich Mironov § Principal, Mironov Consulting v Strategic product planning v Clients in wireless networking, AAA, VPN services, security appliances § Early product driver at i. Pass v Senior Director, Product Management v Software, billing, quality of service, security, VPN integration § Silicon Valley alumnus v HP, Tandem, Sybase www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

Disclaimer § One man’s opinion § Not representing clients or previous employers § Your Disclaimer § One man’s opinion § Not representing clients or previous employers § Your input and observations requested www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

RADIUS Billing History § Ground-breaking for its time § Simple service authorization v “Approved” RADIUS Billing History § Ground-breaking for its time § Simple service authorization v “Approved” or “Rejected” § Assumed reliable NAS behavior v Exactly one START, one STOP v No local time START STOP START STOP START § Stretched beyond its design goals v Wholesaling v Remote billing systems v Complex pricing and rating v Prepaid services v Simultaneous session control INVOICE PAYMENT INVOICE www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

RADIUS Billing Challenges § START and STOP are stateless v Retry mechanism creates duplicates RADIUS Billing Challenges § START and STOP are stateless v Retry mechanism creates duplicates v Which users are currently connected? v Validity of unmatched STOPs “!? #*” § Workarounds for local time unreliable § Prepaid services v Pre-approve a specific amount v Real-time rating based on complex factors § Third party transactions v Service price inquiry, balance check v Refunds www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

i. Pass Model § World’s largest roaming provider v 15, 000 POPs in 150 i. Pass Model § World’s largest roaming provider v 15, 000 POPs in 150 countries Provider’s NAS i. Pass Net. Server Customer’s AAA i. Pass Global Transaction Centers i. Pass Settlement System i. Pass Roam. Server www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

i. Pass RADIUS Challenges § Millions of STARTs, STOPs v ~ 200 carriers, PTTs, i. Pass RADIUS Challenges § Millions of STARTs, STOPs v ~ 200 carriers, PTTs, ISPs v Duplicates, unmatched records, overlaps § Batch overhead START STOP START STOP START START STOP STOP STOP START STOP START STOP STOP STARTSTART START STOP STOP STOP START STOP START STOP v Matching, cleaning, de-duplication § § No unique identifier Concurrent session identification Refunds and adjustments Potential prepaid overruns INVOICE PAYMENT INVOICE INVOICE REFUND CREDIT BLOCK USER REBILL NEW CHANNEL www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

Diameter Credit Control Proposal § Harri Hakala, et al, March 2002 http: //www. ietf. Diameter Credit Control Proposal § Harri Hakala, et al, March 2002 http: //www. ietf. org/internet-drafts/draft-hakala-diameter-credit-control-02. txt § Proposes Diameter application for real-time cost and credit control Accounting Server Client Application Service Consumer Service Element Credit Control Server www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

New Credit Control Capabilities § Session-based (reliable Diameter transport) v Service Element sends (expected) New Credit Control Capabilities § Session-based (reliable Diameter transport) v Service Element sends (expected) cost v Credit Control Server approves, reserves sufficient credit v Service Element confirms final charge amount v Credit Control Server may do partial refund request 2 min @ € 1. 25/min € 2. 50 credit hold final total € 2. 25 Service Element € 2. 25 charge, € 0. 25 released Credit Control Server www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

Prepaid Service Opportunities Many ways to avoid “last session overrun” model § Pre-priced services Prepaid Service Opportunities Many ways to avoid “last session overrun” model § Pre-priced services v Reserve exact credit amount § Renewable session services v Re-authorize every 90 seconds § Typical transaction price v Exact amount in final submission § One-time events charged in one pass v E-purchases, reservations, refunds, flat-rate transactions, directory assistance, driving directions… www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

More Creative Pricing § Service price inquiry and “shopping engines” v Allows complex rating More Creative Pricing § Service price inquiry and “shopping engines” v Allows complex rating and third party service delivery v “How much per unit for service-type for customer-ID via channel during time-of-day and day-of-week? ” v Which remote storage service is lowest cost for 13 GB, max 10 days, encrypted, 2 MB/sec throughput? § Complex pricing v Frequent Flyer: High. Use. Group 2 get first minute free v Bundling: Use service B this week and service A is free v Specials: 20% off next one or 35% off next six v Third parties subsidize service, buy on spot market www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

Benefits § More revenue, fewer write-offs v Industry estimate of 2% - 5% unbillable Benefits § More revenue, fewer write-offs v Industry estimate of 2% - 5% unbillable sessions v Recover $250 k/year on $10 M product line v Confirm customer’s credit status before providing service § Price inquiry allows many new rating options v Volume purchasing across providers by end customer v Time-of-day by service by customer v Vary wholesale terms by reseller by service type v Auction-style bidding § Concurrent users (Diameter) v Improves tracking of simultaneous sessions v “Shared” accounts with enforceable limits www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

Finer-Grained Policies Possible § Four subscriber groups v Corporate Platinum, corporate Gold, consumer Silver Finer-Grained Policies Possible § Four subscriber groups v Corporate Platinum, corporate Gold, consumer Silver (usagebased), flat rate consumers § Session limits, simultaneous users v Platinum: unlimited, up to 20 simultaneous sessions v Gold: 4 hours weekday, unlimited weekend, single session v Silver: 1. 5 hours M-F 7 AM-7 PM, else 3 hours. 2 simultaneous v Flat rate: 20 min M-F, 3 hours weekend, single session only § High speed access (ISDN or 802. 11 b Qo. S) v Platinum: full bandwidth at all times v Gold, Silver: 80% of max Mon-Thurs… § Need rich set of policy tools www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

Challenges § Finished applications v Current IETF draft not yet approved, implemented § Adoption Challenges § Finished applications v Current IETF draft not yet approved, implemented § Adoption v First uses will be internal to single carrier networks v Upgrade NAS, AAA, accounting, billing, SLAs v Third party services require adoption of interoperable applications www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

Summary § Reaching limits of RADIUS accounting § Diameter and Credit Check expand possibilities Summary § Reaching limits of RADIUS accounting § Diameter and Credit Check expand possibilities for service delivery, rating, billing § Adoption and deployment are next phases www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394

Diameter Real-Time Credit Check and Accounting § Diameter Acceleration Program § Interlink Networks § Diameter Real-Time Credit Check and Accounting § Diameter Acceleration Program § Interlink Networks § 15 April 2002 § Rich Mironov © Richard Mironov, 2002. All rights reserved. www. mironov. com rich@mironov. com 650. 315. 7394