- Количество слайдов: 20
Development of Finnish wood measurement Timber measurement vision & implementation Heikki Pajuoja Nordic wood measurement excursion October 21 -23 2008
www. metsateho. fi R&D Focus Areas in 2008 Wood Resources Resource Management Wood Procurement Logistics • Forest Resources and Harvesting Potential • Labour Availability and Expertise • Decreasing Seasonal Variation • Forestry Profitability • Development of Forest Work Productivity • Timber Measurement • Harvesting and Using of Small-sized Wood • 2008 Services and Information Management Introduction 2
www. metsateho. fi Timber measurement vision 2010 Accurate measurement results from the volume and quality of raw material Cost-effective, real-time and automatic measurement-, sorting- and analyzing systems
www. metsateho. fi Timber measurement vision Moisture of chips, freshness, size of chips and amount of bark Internal and external quality of logs, shape without bark Machine vision applications using advanced technologies X-ray, laser and radar, digital image, image-analyzing microwaves, sound waves, IR (infrared radiation) 3 D –models, etc. Energy content of fuel wood Fibre and mass quality per pulpwood assortments 4
www. metsateho. fi R&D program for timber measurement The storage rot determination and recognition The quality and dimensions of standing trees Non-touching measurement technique for harvesters Weight scaling of pulpwood based on dry mass -On-line determination of moisture On-line measurement system for industrial wood chips The shape without bark and quality of logs at the mill Energy wood measurement Information utilization The profitability of timber quality measurement
www. metsateho. fi Current Activities of Finnish Wood Measuring A. Laser Scanning ( in use at the 10 mills) – Automated Modus 2000 measures wood bundles loaded on trucks. B. The shape of logs (without bark) – (log scanners, x-ray) – At least two company-specific log measurement device development projects are running led by R&D organizations and companies. – Log scanners and x-rays are already used at ten sawmills. C. Improvements to the Harvester Measurement (sample stems) D. Truck Weight Scales for Scaling Timber E. Energy Wood Measurement – The different interest groups of timber scaling have approved the principles of energy wood measurement (February 2008).
www. metsateho. fi MODUS 2000 measures at Simpele mill… 7
www. metsateho. fi Laser Scanning for Truck’s Bundles Volume Measuring 3 scanning distance laser 1 laser distance sensor More than 200 000 observations per truck! 8
www. metsateho. fi Truck Weight Scales for Scaling Timber q The purpose was to develop a simple and feasible scaling method for small lots of pulp- and logwood. q Especially utilized for delivery sales. q The purpose of the method will replace the measuring of stacked pulpwood at the road side. q The loader mounted scales of the timber truck method is more accurate and cost-effective than the measuring of stacked pulpwood at the road side. q The different interest groups of timber scaling have approved this new method for testing during the three-year period 2006 – 2008. q After the testing period, the ministry of agriculture and forestry will confirm directives for this method. (from the beginning of 2009).
www. metsateho. fi Improvements of the Harvesters’ Measurement q Control and calibration methods of harvesters’ measurement devices – Development and standardization of the daily control routine by the operator § Randomized sample-stem –system § 1 – 2 sample-stem per two days ➭ regularly running sample § The idea is very similar as in the Skog. Forsk project. § Saving sample trees in krt –file and forming a summary report is currently in progress (forest industry, harvester manufactures) – ready to use in spring 2009. – Development of the present control measurement rules q New official harvester measurement legislation came into force in on 1 st May, 2007. q Harmonization of the volume calculation, in the part of butt end logs (0 – 1, 3 m), among different machine manufacturers and calipers q The purpose of the modification is to promote measurement accuracy and at the same time proactively prevent bad measurement results.
www. metsateho. fi Non-touching measurement of growing stock (PUMI –project) • A method based on laser and digital photography technology for the measurement of tree dimensions • The aim is to develop a device prototype for the non-touching measurement of growing stock – The device would enable the measurement of tree diameters from various heights as well as the measurement of tree heights and quality variables. – It would determine the ”outersurfaces” of the tree trunk with a laser line and digitalphoto. • The accuracy of diameter measurements using the Laser-camera was 6 mm (s. e. ) 11
www. metsateho. fi Non-touching measurement technique for harvesters – METRIX (10/2006 – 09/2009) Aim • The project studies new measurement technologies forest harvester heads. • The research goals are to measure and estimate the tree trunk dimensions and other quality variables affecting the processing of the trunk in real-time so that optimal cutting can be automated and trunk information can be sent to processing mills. • Research will focus on applying signal processing methods to machine vision, laser measurement, and other optical measurement technologies in demanding forest environment. Research organisations • Helsinki University of Technology (prof. Arto Visala) • Tampere University of Technology, • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Funding and partners • TEKES (Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and innovation), forest companies, machine manufacturers (UPM, Stora. Enso, Metsäliitto, Ponsse, Vansco, John Deere, Komatsu ja Logset) The role of Metsäteho • Vision, project preparation, leading group, RFID-project
www. metsateho. fi Research partners and their roles - Metrix • TKK/ Laboratory of Automation Technique Using machine vision based on a laser scanner, moving object detection and structured light in the measurement of tree trunk shape and quality attributes • TKK/ Laboratory of Photogrammetry Using stereo vision and machine vision that is based on structured light in the measurement of tree trunk shape and quality attributes. • TTY-Tampere University of Technology The real-time utilization of a camera in calculating diametres and ring densities and locating rot. Measuring diametres with machine vision that is based on stuctured light. • VTT Machine vision An optical flange sensor and its continued development • Metsäteho – Standardizing data and data transformation and making them trackable with RFID-technology.
www. metsateho. fi Measuring the moisture content of wood • The goal was to examine the possibilities to measure wood moisture • Includes measuring the moistness of logs and log loads as well as wood chip moisture • On-line –measurements • Based on the interaction of radiation and the material • Results are published (in Finnish) at www. metsateho. fi: – Result slides 2007/07: On-line -wood moisture content measurements – VTT: s report 8. 3. -07 ”State of art – Studying the measuring of wood moisture content” 14
www. metsateho. fi Measuring the moisture content of wood • Several methods – IR and NIR, microwaves – X-ray, gamma and neutron activation – Properties/Qualities of the electric field • Problems – – Surface measurement Thickness of the material Quality variation of the material Depence of temperature • Recommendations – Chips: combining different methods – Logs: neutron activation
www. metsateho. fi Combination measurement for the determination of chip moisture content • On-line moisture content determination, based on the combination of different measurement techniques, is studied. – Possibility to decrease the impact of snow and ice. • NIR, Gamma and Impedance –measurements • In standard conditions each give good results. – but if changes in chip quality or conditions → Identification and automatic calibration is required 16
www. metsateho. fi PUUNA -project • Measuring moisture content and element concentration in round wood, logs or loads → NAA-Neutron Activation Analysis • Basic research H, C, N ja O –relations in the material Explosives, small C/O Drugs, big C/O Water, C/O = 0 Wood, C/O 1, 5 Andy Buffler, "contraband detection with fast neutrons", Radiation Physics and Chemistry 71 (2004) 853 -861 17
www. metsateho. fi Gamma indicators C/O-relation and ”impurities” + n-generator H+-absorption 18
www. metsateho. fi Ongoing and upcoming research projects • METRIX -project (Metsäteho contact Jarmo Hämäläinen) • RFID in wood procurement (Asko Poikela) • Combination mesurement for determining wood chip moisture on-line (Antti Korpilahti) • PUMI -project (Jarmo Hämäläinen) • PUUNA -project (Antti Korpilahti) • Company-specific projects
www. metsateho. fi Other measurement issues on the agenda q Changing measurement legislation in progress q Measuring of energy wood - Tapio´s skeletal agreement q Updating the timber density tables for different timber assortments