- Количество слайдов: 24
Developing a Project utilizing the CDM Scheme of the Kyoto Protocol Worldbank Workshop on CDM Jakarta, Indonesia September 13 th, 2006 Oliver WALTER
Financing in the Project Development Process Financing is a most decisive step in the entire project development process, it is not a bolt-on element, which can be set up at the end of a process, but must be secured and embedded early in the process! Finance Dept. /Institutions shall be involved at an early stage of a project! a good and bankable project must be identified at the beginning! lack of realistic and viable projects! convincing approach towards potential lenders (also bankers have to be trained!)
Sources of Financing / Risk Insurance Sources for Kyoto related financing might be: • Funds/donors: Global Environment Facility, GEF, www. gefweb. org Special Climate Change Fund http: //unfccc. int/cooperation_and_support/financial_mechanism/special_climate_change_fund/items/3657. php • Export Credit Agencies so far, only limited experience and they do not consider it as their task! • International Financial Institutions (EIB, SIDA, NDF, . . ) often, grants by IFIs are a hindrance for a CDM project, as concessional financing is not permitted. • commercial banks required tenors, amounts, . . ?
(Financial) environments Establishing the necessary enabling environments, including removing of barriers remains an essential element not only in relation to financing but also to the overall process of technology transfer. important aspect for prove of financial additionality in Baseline Study! take into account trade, investment and environmental policies! sustainable development objectives have to be made palatable to financial institutions/ ECAs (generally, Mo. F is behind National Carbon Fund and ECA, one budget pot! - national measures vs. flexible instruments. ) innovative legislation linked with incentives a good understanding and cooperation between involved government institutions is a precondition, often a Mo. U is of great value!
Collateral Structure • focus on creditworthiness of Borrower/Guarantor and country risk often requires challenging security packages • more and more, traditional securities do not suffice anymore in particular for high volume projects (pledge, mortgage, corporate guarantees, prom. notes, …) cash payments for CERs by a purchasing fund/national JI/CDM program are considered as bankable security from a lender’s point of view!
ERPA as collateral – escrow account • Emission Reduction Purchase Agreements are concluded between the owner of the CERs in the host country and the buyer of the Certificates. Upon Commercial Operation of a plant (= start of repayment period) and successful Monitoring, CERs will be generated, issued and thereafter transfered from the national register of the host country to the fund‘s country. • So far, only PPAs were accepted as security by banks, nowadays ERPAs become more commonly accepted by Lenders as bankable and reliable collateral. • it is favourized to have CER payments by the buyer to be effected on an off-shore escrow account, serving as partial repayment of the loan.
Key factors for success • collect info and build up detailed knowledge of CDM regulations • select good, CDM-eligible project • company’s in-house common understanding and convince Management for CDM as useful instrument and benefit • bankable security structure for set-up financing • have a clear picture on additional CDM related cost PIN at early stage to potential buyer/Validator for 1 st cross check might save stranded cost • together with client early positioning towards involved (non-) govt. institutions (Ministries, Consultants, Banks, Embassies, OE, …) • close co-operation between related government entities
Carbon Financing Structure payments for CERs nat. JI/CDM Fund off-shore escrow account CE R s ER P PDD, Validation Registration A co era tio n additional collateral package Importer host country govt. - DNA support, Lo. E, Lo. A co-operation ct y pl ra nt co cr ed up s it ag Exporter support of approval Government partial repayment of loan -op re em en t co ve r ECA cover Lender
Simplified CER revenue calculation Project: Hydro Power Plant, MEUR 100 Installed Capacity: 2 x 45 MW Annual Output: 220. 000 MWh Carbon Factor acc. to BLS: ~ 1 ton of CO 2 e/MWh Tons of CO 2 avoidance: approx. 220. 000 tons of CO 2 e per annum CERs: approx. 220. 000 CERs shall be issued/annum Commercial operation: 1/2008 Kyoto Period: 2008 -2012 Price per CER: EUR 5, - Revenues: EUR 5. 500. 000, - during 1 st Kyoto Comm. Period (5, 5% contribution)
VA TECH FINANCE JI / CDM experience Project in force and under implementation: EUR 300. 000 Projects with a considerable volume under development, inter alia: India: Biomass, MEUR 16 Mexico: Waste Treatment, MEUR 18 Bhutan: Hydro Power, MEUR 150
Case Study: HEPP TSANKOV KAMAK Financing of a Pilot Project under the Kyoto Protocol
Project Data Hydro Power Plant Tsankov Kamak (2 x 40 MW) • Total Project Cost: approx. EUR 200 Mio. • Client: NEK, Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania (investor, owner, operator & borrower) • Exporters: - VA TECH HYDRO - ALPINE MAYREDER - Verbundplan
Starting Point in 2001 Approach of IFIs and ECAs (Oe. KB) for Financing: Project Cost: MEUR 200 versus MEUR 5 max. Oe. KB cover for BG Security: NEK corporate risk versus request for State Guarantee Tenor: 16 y versus cover of up to 5 y repayment period Client: 100% state owned versus cover only for private clients
Development • Kyoto Protocol approach: Tsankov Kamak to be realized as Joint Implementation (JI)-Project based on the Kyoto Protocol • Memorandum of Understanding: Sept. 2 nd, 2002 Ministry of Environment, Austria – Bulgaria • Pilot Project: November 2002 Tsankov Kamak declared as Pilot Project between Austria & Bulgaria • Supply Contracts: signed Oct. 1 st, 2003 • Credit Agreements: signed Nov. 14 th, 2003, Financial Closing 4/2004 Deal of the Year 2003, declared by Trade Finance Magazine
Financing EXPORT CREDIT AGREEMENT - EUR 100 mio. loan - Tenor: 16 years - ECA: Cover of 5 Export Credit Agencies (A, CZ, D, F, S) COMMERCIAL CREDIT AGREEMENTS -4 loans, in total EUR 120 mio. - Tenor: 7 years
Collateral structure a mixture of structured security package consisting of, inter alia, Bulgarian government involvement, various escrow accounts, pledge of assets, mortgage of the site, promissory notes, …
KYOTO PROTOCOL ASPECTS BASELINE STUDY: elaborated by Austrian Consultant - international Validation - official recognition as JI-project EMISSION REDUCTION PURCHASE AGREEMENT: concluded between NEK and Kommunalkredit for transfer of ERUs revenues serve as collateral! EMISSION REDUCTION UNITS (ERUs): Upon commercial operation (2008), ERUs will be generated and purchased by the Republic of Austria (approx. 200. 000 ERUs/year).
(KYOTO-) FINANCING STRUCTURE Kommunalkredit NEK (Bulgarian Utility Austrian Supplier’s Group Loa n company) Ag r ee G 1 Oe. KB m Payment of B St ase ud L y ine (B LS ) Pledge Agreement MEER, Mo. F interest, principal KWI or fo f in BLS off shore escrow accounts 4 annual payments Su co pp nt ly ra s ct DNV ion iss tes n Em tifica r ctio ent du Ce Re reem g ion iss e A Em rchas Pu n atio id val LS B of Emission Payments en ts G 3 reinsurance VA TECH FINANCE Gmb. H ECA lenders Comm. lenders intercreditor agreement
SUMMARY AUSTRIA BULGARIA • 1 st JI/CDM project • green, clear energy • Export increase • Reduction of CO 2 -Emissions • Purchase of ERUs • Job creation • increase of ECA/Oe. KB • know-how transfer cover • financial viability (ERUs) MEUR 5 MEUR 80!!! • WWTP Devin Excellent cooperation between both countries: Ministries, Embassies, Commercial Councils, Banks, …. .
Austrian CDM-program I • Target: contribution to Austria’s Kyoto target by purchase of emission reduction certificates • Effectiveness: since December 3 rd, 2003 • Basis: Environmental Promotion Law • Agent: Kommunalkredit Public Consulting
Austrian CDM-program II Preferred project categories: • building/rehab of electricity units working with renewable energy (wind, hydro, biomass, biogas, …) • avoidance/treatment of deposit gas • measures resulting in lower energy consumption • waste measures with CO 2 reducing effect • change of energy (renewable or lower C-content)
Austrian CDM-program III Criteria: • accordance with UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol • consent of both countries, preparedness of co-operation • measurable reduction of GHG, due to project • contribution to sustainability in host country • no minimum quantities of emission reduction certificates • Memorandum of Understanding is advisable • availability of local structures & know how to execute CDM project • good relations to regional / local institutions in host country
win-situation for Indonesia and Austria AUSTRIA • continuation on cooperation on the hydro sector • export increase • purchase of CERs • reaching Austria’s • national Kyoto target INDONESIA • green, clear energy • Reduction of CO 2 -Emissions • Job creation • know-how transfer • financial viability (CERs) • improved natural resources utilization, sustainable industrial development, acceleration of national economic growth, … As the bilateral CDM Implementation Agreement is already signed between Indonesia and Austria, the start of project realization could be within a very short time frame after a Project Identification Note has been agreed
CONTACT DETAILS: VA TECH HYDRO AUSTRIA Andre SCHOPPER VA TECH FINANCE Oliver WALTER VA TECH HYDRO NDONESIA Josef M. ULLMER Andre. [email protected] at [email protected] com Ullmer. [email protected] co. id Penzinger Strasse 76 A – 1141 Vienna Austria Tel. : +43 -1 -89100 -3948 Fax: +43 -1 -89100 -3821 Serravagasse 10 A – 1140 Vienna Austria Tel. : +43 -1 -8920903 -23 Fax: +43 -1 -89 55 205 G. ENZENHOFER Enzenh. [email protected] co. id VA TECH Bld. 2 nd Floor Jl. Talang No. 3 Proklamasi Jakarta 10320 - Indonesia Tel. : +62 -21 -3906929 Fax: +62 -21 -3905006