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Design of e. Learning Courses Christina Steiner 23 November 2003 SE Current Issues in Design of e. Learning Courses Christina Steiner 23 November 2003 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Overview § § Introduction Design of e. Learning Courses Converting Traditional Courses to e. Overview § § Introduction Design of e. Learning Courses Converting Traditional Courses to e. Learning Specific Aspects of Creating e. Learning Courses § § § Guidelines for Presentation of Content Guidelines for Interactivity Elements of Effective e. Learning 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Introduction § common educational model in classroom learning § „education = transmission of information“ Introduction § common educational model in classroom learning § „education = transmission of information“ s § lecture approach problems s passive learning s s artificial divide between practice and instruction s s s presentation of concepts, principles, thoeries unability to relate abstract concepts to specific cases irrelevant subject matter and inappropriate assessment s 23 November 2005 learner in a passive role content of courses driven by what can be easily tested and measured SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Introduction § § increasingly powerful and affordable computers and networking increasing use of e. Introduction § § increasingly powerful and affordable computers and networking increasing use of e. Learning courses benefits § § § increased access potential for improved quality of instruction new opportunities for learning activities potential for individualisation of learning experience deploying learning experiences more conveniently and costeffectively for large numbers of learners problems § replicating the „education = transmission of information principle“ s § § § whitout exploiting the technology‘s capabilities passive learning lacking opportunities to apply knowledge in authentic contexts complex skills/knowledge rarely included - hard to measure 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Introduction § key principles for creating effective learning § learning by doing s § Introduction § key principles for creating effective learning § learning by doing s § § learning from mistakes learning from stories s § goal-directed authentic tasks, simulations etc. things to consider when designing e. Learning § § § thinking carefully about what the course should cover organising learning material in a way that makes sense to learners putting the learner in control situating learning in authentic contexts providing a rich set of resources and support to the learners using appropriate course structure and delivery mechanism 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Design of e. Learning Courses § instructional design/development is the architecture of learning § Design of e. Learning Courses § instructional design/development is the architecture of learning § § § planning, developing, and adapting instruction based on learner needs and content requirements critically important for elearning designing effective instructional design development process § cycle of four main activities s analyse s s design s s creating learning experiences evaluate s 23 November 2005 deciding how to meet the goals build s s determining the learning need measuring effectiveness SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Design of e. Learning Courses § analyse § § § determine the need for Design of e. Learning Courses § analyse § § § determine the need for instruction setting global goal analysing the potential learners s s s measuring learners‘ current knowledge s § What do learners want to learn? Where are they when they learn? When will they take the course? How can they learn best? What technologies can learners use? determining what the course must teach • comparing desired level of knowledge to learners‘ current knowledge specifying the results that should be achieved s 23 November 2005 establishing instructional objectives SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Design of e. Learning Courses § design § dividing the high-level goal into lower-level Design of e. Learning Courses § design § dividing the high-level goal into lower-level subgoals s s setting specific learning goals identifying learning experiences deciding how to implement the learning experiences defining standards s 23 November 2005 e. g. colours, fonts, layout, button behaviour SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Design of e. Learning Courses § build § § content outline organising and developing Design of e. Learning Courses § build § § content outline organising and developing content s § creating learner-relevant examples developing/selecting learning material s s creating new learning objects reusing existing learning objects s § learning object repositories/libraries • e. g. Merlot, Ariadne, Ed. NA; collections of collections selecting delivery methods s 23 November 2005 learning platforms SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Design of e. Learning Courses § evaluate § no course is perfect and every Design of e. Learning Courses § evaluate § no course is perfect and every course can be improved! s s s offering a pilot course analysing the results revising the course s s 23 November 2005 direct result of evaluation process good instructional design is never a linear, one-time process, but an ongoing cycle of development SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Converting Traditional Courses to e. Learning § converting existing courses into web-based format § Converting Traditional Courses to e. Learning § converting existing courses into web-based format § risk of utilising old methods of face-to-face delivery s s § § ineffective courses without utilising the opportunities offerd by the Internet lack of conversion model course redesign should aim in providing opportunities for building knowledge by purposefully interacting and actively participating 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Converting Traditional Courses to e. Learning § conversion must not mean replication § simply Converting Traditional Courses to e. Learning § conversion must not mean replication § simply using e. Learning technology to conduct a conventional training course at a distance s § e. g. slide presentation with none of the interactivity and interaction of the classroom setting things to consider § § is e. Learning right for the course, and the learners costs, technologies how to convert classroom learning materials and experiences to successful e. Learning experiences viewpoints of course producer and learner 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Converting Traditional Courses to e. Learning § phases of the conversion process § setting Converting Traditional Courses to e. Learning § phases of the conversion process § setting goals s goals for the e. Learning course need not be the same as those for the classroom course s s § reanalysing learners s § reassess learners to acquire additional information about them specifying the course s § Are there goals that were unable to achieve in the classroom? Can e. Learning technologies allow to achieve them? describing the lessons, sections, topics, activities, practices, and other aspects of the course converting materials s 23 November 2005 for each learning experience in the classroom course it has to be decided how to realise the same experience in remote learners SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Converting Traditional Courses to e. Learning § evaluating a prototype s testing pilot version Converting Traditional Courses to e. Learning § evaluating a prototype s testing pilot version of the course with actual learners s § measuring subjective reactions, pedagogical effectiveness… redesigning based on feedback s 23 November 2005 identifying ways for improving the course SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Guidelines for Presentation of Content § using a variety of media (text, graphics, audio, Guidelines for Presentation of Content § using a variety of media (text, graphics, audio, video) § § accomodating individual learning styles text § § using less text than in traditional instruction longer texts s s § well-defined text structure s § summary with links to definitions, references etc. providing separate print file cues and overviews increasing readability s s 23 November 2005 links to definitions of difficult terms paragraph summaries, questions SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Guidelines for Presentation of Content § graphics, images § § § including not too Guidelines for Presentation of Content § graphics, images § § § including not too much graphical information including captions and annotations audio, sound effects § simple, short segments s § easier to manage and store video, animation § ‚fat media‘ s managing possible problems with downloading/viewing s s s 23 November 2005 providing CD-ROM shocking course content in small segments simultaneously downloading and viewing (streaming) SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Guidelines for Interactivity § levels of interaction in online learning § § between learner Guidelines for Interactivity § levels of interaction in online learning § § between learner and content between learner and instructor/tutor s § between learners s § e. g. e-mailing, chat discussion groups/forums, chat, bulletin board learning strategies/guidelines w. r. t. theses levels of interactivity 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Guidlines for Interactivity § individualised learning § students take greater responsibility of learning s Guidlines for Interactivity § individualised learning § students take greater responsibility of learning s § student-centered learning activities hyperlinking § hypermedia gives learners more freedom in the choice of paths through the learning materials s pre-determined path of instruction vs. s § freedom in navigation orientation guidelines § § § identifying current position in the course returning to previous position/starting point strategies to aid orientation s 23 November 2005 e. g. progress bar, network representations SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Guidelines for Interactivity § navigation guidelines § § minimising amount of cognitive activity associated Guidelines for Interactivity § navigation guidelines § § minimising amount of cognitive activity associated with controlling the interface facilitating navigation s s § simplicity and consistency in design site maps, hierarchical trees etc. collaborative learning § important strategy for e. Learning s s § avoiding isolation sharing knowledge with others ways of student interaction and collaborative learning s e. g. online discussion forums, e-mail s s s § responding whenever you want reflecting on the topic before responding written nature supports learning activity needs to be guided and structured 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Elements of Effective e. Learning § effectively designed educational materials § § facilitate the Elements of Effective e. Learning § effectively designed educational materials § § facilitate the achievement of desired learning outcomes design of electronic learning materials § absence / reduction in face-to-face instruction s s § distinguishes online or e. Learning from traditional instruction requires different educational design considerations often the educational ideal of e. Learning matches poorly against the reality of delivery § paying attention to the core elements of e-learning design s 23 November 2005 reduce the gap between educational intention and the reality of student experience SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Elements of Effective e. Learning § design of e. Learning resources requires understandings of Elements of Effective e. Learning § design of e. Learning resources requires understandings of diverse disciplines § § § education multimedia content resource publication electronic technologies six elements of effective e. Learning design (Brown & Voltz, 2005) § activity, scenario, feedback, delivery, context, impact § focus on learning s s 23 November 2005 learner experience effectiveness SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Elements of Effective e. Learning 1. Activity § tasks providing an experience likely to Elements of Effective e. Learning 1. Activity § tasks providing an experience likely to lead students to the desired new understanding s s rich learning activities active involvement of the learner s s § § allowing to make choices engaging and challenging students needs to be considered from the learners‘ perspective example s Sonic Space City s s Where Do Frogs Lay Their Eggs? s 23 November 2005 exploring and manipulating sounds typically found in a city exploring freshwater environments to learn about where native frogs live and breed SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Elements of Effective e. Learning 2. Scenario § § interesting context or scenario can Elements of Effective e. Learning 2. Scenario § § interesting context or scenario can assist the activity to have meaning encouraging and assisting learners by an interesting scenario into which the activities are placed s s s § topics and themes that are relevant and interesting to the learner s § story, role play, or simulation learning or skill gained through the activity will be transferred to future real world situations issues and problems of learning scenario similar to those in the real world target audience must be clearly identified example s Community Enterprise s 23 November 2005 trying to make decisions that benefit the economy, society and the environment SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Elements of Effective e. Learning 3. Feedback § § experience becomes knowledge through reflection Elements of Effective e. Learning 3. Feedback § § experience becomes knowledge through reflection effective e-learning design should provide feedback s s § variety of feedback strategies, e. g. s s § fostering learning from the experience enabling learners to increase their level of skill and knowledge reflective responses to prescribed questions semi-automated responses by the system to student actions and work shared comments in online forums personal responses via email, telephone, and post effective use of feedback will enable an e-learning design to set up a dialogue within which the student participates 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Elements of Effective e. Learning 4. Delivery § § § good educational design relies Elements of Effective e. Learning 4. Delivery § § § good educational design relies on appropriate delivery to reach its full potential conditions for defining appropriate or effective delivery depend on contextual variations on learning environments aspects of delivery of e-learning related to the elements of activity, scenario, and feedback s s s 23 November 2005 maximising the engagement of the learner with the activity enabling the communication of stimulating contexts maximising opportunities for feedback and reflection SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Elements of Effective e. Learning 5. Context § some aspects of the usage context Elements of Effective e. Learning 5. Context § some aspects of the usage context are implied by the previous elements s activity, scenario, and feedback s s § delivery element needs to consider the technical infrastructure contextual considerations s s § need to take into account the users’ profiles institutional objectives of the e-learning program role and skills of any instructor longevity of the resources cultural sensitivities the broader context within which the learning activity is delivered can influence many elements of e-learning design, e. g. s supervisory situation s s fit into a sequence of learning s 23 November 2005 stand alone resource, teacher input required etc. e. g. exploration, knowledge assessment SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Elements of Effective e. Learning 6. Influence § different perspectives of the influence of Elements of Effective e. Learning 6. Influence § different perspectives of the influence of an e. Learning intervention s personal influence on the learner s s social influence on the learning (and broader) community s s extent to which people other than the learner will benefit • cultural appropriateness of the material • extent to which the design makes demands on others working with or supervising the learner • ethical values implicit in the design or content environmental influence s 23 November 2005 extent to which the content benefits the user • extent of learning • attitudes extent to which the environment will benefit from the design • use of resources required to develop and deliver the e. Learning materials • influence on environment of activities required by people using or administering the learning materials SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Conclusion § e. Learning is not a magic bullet § § e. Learning has Conclusion § e. Learning is not a magic bullet § § e. Learning has to be well-planned and built properly in order to provide effective learning general aim when designing e. Learning: designing rich learning activities that allow students to learn with computers rather than from computers 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Thank you for your attention! Thank you for your attention!

References § § § Brown, A. R. & Voltz, B. D. (2005). Elements of References § § § Brown, A. R. & Voltz, B. D. (2005). Elements of Effective e-Learning Design. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Retrieved November 20, 2005 from http: //www. irrodl. org/content/v 6. 1/brown_voltz. html Golas, K. (2000). Guidelines for Designing Online Learning. Proceedings of Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference Proceedings. Washington: National Training Systems Association. Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http: //www. tspi. swri. org/pub/pdf/2000 ITSEC_ONLINELEARNING. pdf Graeme, D. (2004). Learning Object Reepositories. wwwtools For Education. Retrieved November 20, 2005 from http: //magazines. fasfind. com/wwwtools/magazines. cfm? rid=1030 Horton, W. (2000). Instructional Design for Online Learning. In B. Bruce, C. Fallon, & W. Horton (Eds. ), Getting Started with Online Learning (pp. 11 -41). San Francisco: Macromedia Inc. Retrieved November 20, 2005 from: http: //www. macromedia. com/learning/online_learning_guide. pdf Jona, K. (2000). Rethinking the Design of Online Courses. In R. Sims, M. O'Reilly & S. Hawkins (Eds. ), Learning to Choose: Choosing to Learn, Proceedings of the 17 th Annual ASCILITE Conference, Lismore (pp. 3 -16). NSW: Southern Cross University Press. Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http: //www. ascilite. org. au/conferences/coffs 00/papers/kemi_jona_keynote. p df 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

References § § § Klemm, W. R. (2001). Creating Online Courses: A Step-by-Step Guide. References § § § Klemm, W. R. (2001). Creating Online Courses: A Step-by-Step Guide. The Technology Source. Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http: //technologysource. org/article/creating_online_courses/ Tuzun, H. (2001). Guidelines for converting existing courses into web-based format. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 360370). Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http: //www. ementor. edu. pl/_xml/wydania/2/14. pdf Willis, B. (n. d. ). Distance Education at a Glance. Guide 3: Instructional DEvelopment for Distance Education. Engineering Outreach: University of Idaho. Retrieved Nobember 20, 2005 from http: //www. uidaho. edu/eo/dist 3. html 23 November 2005 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning