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Design and Evaluation of Power Management Support for UPn. P Devices Jakob Klamra and Design and Evaluation of Power Management Support for UPn. P Devices Jakob Klamra and Martin Olsson Department of Communication Systems Lund Institute of Technology Lund, SWEDEN Masters Defense – June 7, 2005 (Tampa, Florida)

Acknowledgments v Thanks to: § Dr. Christensen, USF § Dr. Nyberg, LTH § Dr. Acknowledgments v Thanks to: § Dr. Christensen, USF § Dr. Nyberg, LTH § Dr. Labrador and Dr. Rundus, USF § Bruce Nordman, LBNL § Chamara Gunaratne, USF 2

Topics v Introduction v Analysis v Design v Implementation v Validation v Energy Savings Topics v Introduction v Analysis v Design v Implementation v Validation v Energy Savings Estimate v Conclusions and Future Work 3

Introduction v Problem: increased energy use by IT equipment § More devices in US Introduction v Problem: increased energy use by IT equipment § More devices in US households § IT equipment use 280 k. Wh/year per US household • Adds up to $ 2240 million v Problem: IT equipment always on, even when idle § Required by some protocols § Universal Plug and Play (UPn. P) has this problem v Our work solves the problem for UPn. P § Investigate the use of a power management proxy 4

Introduction continued v UPn. P is for automatic device configuration § Network analogy of Introduction continued v UPn. P is for automatic device configuration § Network analogy of Microsoft plug-and-play § Control points and services § Discovery, eventing and control v Standardized by UPn. P Forum § More than 700 vendors, Microsoft, Intel, Nokia v UPn. P uses Simple Service Discovery Protocol § SSDP is the key issue 5

Introduction continued v SSDP – message exchange § Discovery SSDP: discover • Answered by Introduction continued v SSDP – message exchange § Discovery SSDP: discover • Answered by HTTP OK r ove isc d DP: P OK SS HTT Control Point Service SSDP: discover HTTP OK Service SSDP: disco ver HTTP OK Service 6

Introduction continued v SSDP – message exchange (continued) § Notification SSDP: alive • Sent Introduction continued v SSDP – message exchange (continued) § Notification SSDP: alive • Sent out periodically e v ali : P SSDP: alive Control Point Service SSDP: a live Service 7

Introduction continued v UPn. P foundation, the stack Eventing and control use TCP UPn. Introduction continued v UPn. P foundation, the stack Eventing and control use TCP UPn. P Vendor Specific SSDP use UDP UPn. P Forum Specific Our work is done here UPn. P Device Architecture HTTP-MU HTTP-U HTTP SOAP SSDP GENA TCP UDP IP 8

Analysis v Requirements for power management solutions: § R 1 – Enable UPn. P Analysis v Requirements for power management solutions: § R 1 – Enable UPn. P devices to enter power sleep § R 2 - Not interfere with existing UPn. P functionality § R 3 - Be robust § R 4 - Work for wired and wireless § R 5 - Handle many devices § R 6 - Be possible for us to implement 9

Analysis continued w Ne v Low power proxy § Acts (answers and speaks) for Analysis continued w Ne v Low power proxy § Acts (answers and speaks) for sleeping devices § Wakes up sleeping devices when they are needed 4. Service powered up SLEEP 1. Service in power sleep 2. Request for service Control Point 10 ke a W 3. Proxy up Service

Analysis continued v Possible solutions to UPn. P power management v Three categories: § Analysis continued v Possible solutions to UPn. P power management v Three categories: § Centralized proxy, no change to devices • Invisible proxy § Centralized proxy, minor change to devices • Cooperating proxy § No proxy, major change to devices • Proxying NICs 11

Design v Selection of the solutions § All requirements must be fulfilled § Desirable Design v Selection of the solutions § All requirements must be fulfilled § Desirable properties • • As much power sleep as possible As little configuration as possible As little changes to UPn. P protocol as possible … v Our design decision § Invisible proxy § Cooperating proxy 12

Design continued v Design of invisible proxy Timeout start proxy SSDP: discover ST = Design continued v Design of invisible proxy Timeout start proxy SSDP: discover ST = Printer TCP SYN (Spoofed) HTTP OK ST=Printer SYN Control point TCP Proxy F On TC orw P ar La SY d n N ACK Wa ke SLEEP Service 13

Design continued v Invisible proxy FSM LISTENING P 12 Timeout PROXY DEVICE P 2 Design continued v Invisible proxy FSM LISTENING P 12 Timeout PROXY DEVICE P 2 CHECK PROXY CACHE DISCOVERY P 3 P 23 SSDP: discover P 32 b S in proxy cache Discovery answer CHECK PROXY CACHE TCP P 4 P 24 TCP from CP WAIT FOR ALIVE P 5 P 45 S in proxy cache WOL to S P 51 a SSDP: alive from S P 55 Timeout Forward packet from CP 14 CP = Control point, S = Service, WOL = Wake On Lan

Design continued v Design of cooperating proxy Proxy Fo rw ar OK n = Design continued v Design of cooperating proxy Proxy Fo rw ar OK n = La t TP n gm HT O rm ke we Wa Po NA R GE WE GE SSDP: discover ST = Printer HTTP OK (Spoofed) ST=Printer TCP SYN PO = d NA SL P EE ow P e TC P rm gm SY N CP T t 15 SLEEP Service YN S Control point CK A

Design continued v Cooperating proxy FSM LISTENING P 12 GENA, Power mgmt=SLEEP HTTP OK Design continued v Cooperating proxy FSM LISTENING P 12 GENA, Power mgmt=SLEEP HTTP OK P 51 a GENA, Power mgmt=POWER HTTP OK Forward packet from CP PROXY DEVICE P 23 SSDP: discover P 32 a S in proxy cache Discovery answer CHECK PROXY CACHE TCP P 4 P 24 TCP from CP FORWARD PACKET P 51 a GENA Power mgmt=POWER HTTP OK, Forward packet from CP 16 CHECK PROXY CACHE DISCOVERY P 3 P 45 S in proxy cache WOL to S CP = Control point, S = Service, WOL = Wake On Lan

Implementation v Development Tools § Programming environment • Dev-C++ § Packet handling routines • Implementation v Development Tools § Programming environment • Dev-C++ § Packet handling routines • NETWIB libraries § Packet capture and decoding • Ethereal § UPn. P device toolkit • Intel software for UPn. P technologies 17

Implementation continued v Data structure for proxies Device Cache All devices on the network Implementation continued v Data structure for proxies Device Cache All devices on the network UPn. P Device Proxy Cache UPn. P Device All devices proxy is answering for UPn. P Device 18

Implementation continued UPn. P Device Name Description ip IP address eth Ethernet address service Implementation continued UPn. P Device Name Description ip IP address eth Ethernet address service All services of the device server Server name location Location last_activity 19 Service Time for last activity from the device Service

Implementation continued v Implementation of invisible proxy Main thread Discover devices and build cache Implementation continued v Implementation of invisible proxy Main thread Discover devices and build cache Notification Start threads Main loop Sniff packets Proxy cache update Check devices in Device Cache Process packets Update Proxy Cache Send answer and update caches 20 Check Proxy Cache If needed send SSDP: alive

Implementation continued v Implementation of cooperating proxy Main Thread Read event socket Discover power Implementation continued v Implementation of cooperating proxy Main Thread Read event socket Discover power management services and build cache Start threads Main loop Sniff packets Process packets Answer and update caches 21 Cache update Check Device cache Update Device cache Notification Check Proxy cache Send SSDP: alive Read and parse incoming events Update Proxy cache

Validation v Validation – design and implementation must meet requirements v Known shortcomings § Validation v Validation – design and implementation must meet requirements v Known shortcomings § TCP forwarding not implemented § Cannot detect crashed devices v Test cases § 7 tests for each solution § 3 tests not executed because lack of equipment 22

Validation continued v Validation of invisible proxy § 1 test passed § 3 partially Validation continued v Validation of invisible proxy § 1 test passed § 3 partially failed • No unexpected behavior v Validation of cooperating proxy § 2 tests passed § 2 partially failed • No unexpected behavior 23

Energy saving estimation v Estimates made for US residential IT equipment v Estimates made Energy saving estimation v Estimates made for US residential IT equipment v Estimates made for: § Stock, power consumption, usage patterns v Calculations made for: § Total energy and economic savings in 2008 v Estimates from work by Energy Analysis Program at Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory § Bruce Nordman 24

Energy saving estimation continued v Background, stocks Devices 2001 Devices 2008 Network Connected devices Energy saving estimation continued v Background, stocks Devices 2001 Devices 2008 Network Connected devices 2008 Notebooks 17. 3 44. 7 42. 4 Desktops 67. 9 89. 3 82. 8 Inkjets 54. 9 Laser printers (all figures are in million) 25 6. 3 107 11. 9 102 11. 3

Energy saving estimation continued v Results Savings in GWh/year Savings in million dollars per Energy saving estimation continued v Results Savings in GWh/year Savings in million dollars per year Low estimation 5% 890 71 20% 3560 285 High estimation (8 cents/k. Wh) 26

Conclusions and future work v Conclusions § Power management in UPn. P achieved • Conclusions and future work v Conclusions § Power management in UPn. P achieved • Proved by implementation and validation § $71 - $285 million saved in American households using UPn. P by 2008 v Contributions § First to design and implement power management proxy for UPn. P § Energy savings estimate motivates our work § Member and contributors to UPn. P Forum 27 UPn. P power management problem solved

Conclusions and future work continued v Shortcomings of the design § Long response time Conclusions and future work continued v Shortcomings of the design § Long response time • TCP connection between service and control point not established § Proxy can crash • Lost information about sleeping devices § Proxy not discoverable § Need to support several medium • UPn. P is media independent 28

Conclusion and future work continued v Future work § UPn. P power management standard Conclusion and future work continued v Future work § UPn. P power management standard § Smart NIC • NIC with proxy capability • Distributed solution § Extended proxy functionality • Automatic configuration of power management • Routing of services 29

References v In order of importance: [20] M. Jeronimo and J. Weast, UPn. P References v In order of importance: [20] M. Jeronimo and J. Weast, UPn. P Design by Example, Volume 1, April 2003 [26] B. Nordman and A. Meier, Energy Consumption of Home Information Technology, July 2004 [2] Y. Y. Goland, T. Cai, P. Leach and Y. Gu, Simple Service Discovery Protocol/1. 0 Operating without an Arbiter, draft-cai-ssdp-v 1 -03. txt, IETF draft, October 1999 [5] UPn. P Forum, http: //www. upnp. org/, May 2005 [27] K. Christensen, B. Nordman and A. George, The Next Frontier for Communications Networks: Power Management, Computer Communications, Volume 27, Number 18, pages 1758 -1770, December 2004 [3] D. Box, G. Kakivaya, A. Layman, S. Thatte and D. Winer, SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol, draft-box-http-soap-01. txt, IETF draft, November 1999 [4] J. Cohen, S. Aggarwal and Y. Y. Goland, General Event Notification Architecture Base: Client to Arbiter, draft-cohen-gena-p-base-01. txt, IETF draft, September 2000 30

Jakob Klamra d 00 jk@efd. lth. se Thank you Martin Olsson d 00 mol@efd. Jakob Klamra d 00 [email protected] lth. se Thank you Martin Olsson d 00 [email protected] lth. se Project homepage: www. csee. usf. edu/~jklamra/upnp