Скачать презентацию Definition of CLIL CLIL stands for Content Скачать презентацию Definition of CLIL CLIL stands for Content

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Definition of CLIL Definition of CLIL

CLIL stands for Content and Language Integrated Learning. It refers to teaching subjects such CLIL stands for Content and Language Integrated Learning. It refers to teaching subjects such as science, history and geography to students through a foreign language. This can be by the English teacher using crosscurricular content or the subject teacher using English as the language of instruction. Both methods result in the simultaneous learning of content and English.

In CLIL classroom practice The TEACHER no longer the DONOR of knowledge, rather a In CLIL classroom practice The TEACHER no longer the DONOR of knowledge, rather a FACILITATOR STUDENTS are empowered. They are actively engaged. They use • PERCEPTION COMMUNICATION REASONING as individuals and as a group of peers

IN CLIL METHODOLOGY…. EVERYTHING IN CLIL METHODOLOGY…. EVERYTHING

What is Geography? What is Geography?

basically the… WHY of WHERE? basically the… WHY of WHERE?

Chapter 1: The World of Geography Owl. Teacher. com Chapter 1: The World of Geography Owl. Teacher. com

Chapter 1: What is Geography? *It is the study of our earth; our home. Chapter 1: What is Geography? *It is the study of our earth; our home. OR *Anything that can be mapped! Owl. Teacher. com

What is Geography? ge·og·ra·phy n. pl. ge·og·ra·phies 1. The study of the earth and What is Geography? ge·og·ra·phy n. pl. ge·og·ra·phies 1. The study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life and the effects of human activity. 2. The physical characteristics, especially the surface features, of an area. 3. A book on geography. 4. An ordered arrangement of constituent elements: charting a geography of the mind. Origin: Latin ge graphia, from Greek ge graphi : ge -, geo- (= earth) + -graphi , -graphy (=writing). ] (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language)

*Geography mixes up the physical and human aspects of our world into one field *Geography mixes up the physical and human aspects of our world into one field of study. *Geography shows the relationship between people and the environment. Owl. Teacher. com

What is a geographer? Someone who analyzes the Earth from many points of view. What is a geographer? Someone who analyzes the Earth from many points of view. Owl. Teacher. com

The Five Themes of Geography There are five ways to look at the earth The Five Themes of Geography There are five ways to look at the earth When geographers work, they are guided by two basic questions: 1) Where are things located? 2) Why are they there? To find these answers, geographers use five themes to organize information Owl. Teacher. com

Things that geographers study: oceans plant life landforms people how the Earth and its Things that geographers study: oceans plant life landforms people how the Earth and its people affect each other Owl. Teacher. com

THE FIVE THEMES: 1) LOCATION – Geographers begin to study a place by finding THE FIVE THEMES: 1) LOCATION – Geographers begin to study a place by finding where it is, or its location. 2) PLACE – Geographers study the physical and human features of a location. 3) HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION – Geographers study how people affect or shape physical characteristics of their natural surroundings and how does their surroundings (environment) affect them. 4) MOVEMENT – Helps explain how people, goods, and ideas get from one place to another. 5) REGIONS – Geographers compare the climate, land, population, or history of one place to another.

The five themes of geography: Location: absolute: latitude and longitude / a street address, The five themes of geography: Location: absolute: latitude and longitude / a street address, local location; relative location: from one place to another. Place (physical / human features) What is it like there? What kind of place it is? Human / Environment Interaction How do humans and the environment affect each other? (We depend on it, we modify it, we adapt to it) Movement (travel from place to place /exchange of good and ideas) Regions (united by similar physical conditions and cultural traits).

LOCATION Where are we? Absolute Location A latitude and longitude (global location) or a LOCATION Where are we? Absolute Location A latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location). Paris France is 48 o North Latitude and 2 o East Longitude. The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. Relative Location Described by landmarks, time, direction or distance. From one place to another. Go 1 mile west on main street and turn left for 1 block. You are Here

PLACE What is it like there, what kind of place is it? Human Physical PLACE What is it like there, what kind of place is it? Human Physical Characteristics What are the main languages, customs, and beliefs. How many people live, work, and visit a place. Landforms (mountains, rivers, etc. ), climate, vegitation, wildlife, soil, etc.

HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION How do humans and the environment affect each other? We depend on HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION How do humans and the environment affect each other? We depend on it. People depend on the Tennessee River for water and transportation. We modify it. People modify our environment by heating and cooling buildings for comfort. We adapt to it. We adapt to the environment by wearing clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and winter (coats), rain and shine.

MOVEMENT How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place? Human Movement Trucks, MOVEMENT How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place? Human Movement Trucks, Trains, Planes Information Movement Phones, computer (email), mail Idea Movement How do fads move from place to place? TV, Radio, Magazines

REGIONS How are Regions similar to and different from other places? Formal Regions defined REGIONS How are Regions similar to and different from other places? Formal Regions defined by governmental or administrative boundaries (States, Countries, Cities) Regions defined by similar characteristics (Corn Belt, Rocky Mountain region, Chinatown). Functional Regions defined by a function (newspaper service area, cell phone coverage area). Vernacular Regions (Not in your book) Regions defined by peoples perception (middle east, the south, etc. )

Remembering the 5 themes If you can’t remembering what they are just ask MR. Remembering the 5 themes If you can’t remembering what they are just ask MR. HELP!!! M – Movement R – Regions HE – Human Environment interaction L – Location P - Place

Guess the definitions Location Place Human environment/ interaction Movement Region Guess the definitions Location Place Human environment/ interaction Movement Region

Location There are two ways to think about location: 1. absolute location – describes Location There are two ways to think about location: 1. absolute location – describes the place’s exact position on the Earth. 2. relative location – explains where a place is by describing places near it. Owl. Teacher. com

Location There are two ways to think about location: 1. absolute location – _______________________ Location There are two ways to think about location: 1. absolute location – _______________________ _. 2. relative location – explains where a place is by describing places near it. Owl. Teacher. com

Place This includes a location’s physical and human features. To describe physical features, you Place This includes a location’s physical and human features. To describe physical features, you might say that the climate is hot or cold or that the land is hilly. To describe human features, you might discuss how many people live there, what types of work they do, or what they do for fun.

Human-Environment Interaction How do people adjust to and change their environment? How does the Human-Environment Interaction How do people adjust to and change their environment? How does the environment adjust to and change the people? Geographers also use interaction to study the consequences of people’s actions.

Human-Environment Interaction How do people adjust to and change their environment? How does the Human-Environment Interaction How do people adjust to and change their environment? How does the environment adjust to and change the people? ___________________________________________ _______. Owl. Teacher. com

Movement Explains how people, goods, and ideas move from one place to another. Helps Movement Explains how people, goods, and ideas move from one place to another. Helps geographers understand cultural changes. Owl. Teacher. com

Movement Explains how _____________________________. Helps geographers understand cultural changes. Owl. Teacher. com Movement Explains how _____________________________. Helps geographers understand cultural changes. Owl. Teacher. com

Regions A region has a unifying characteristic, like climate, land, population, or history. On Regions A region has a unifying characteristic, like climate, land, population, or history. On maps, geographers use color and shape or special symbols to show regions. Owl. Teacher. com

Regions A region has a unifying characteristic, like _________________. On maps, geographers use color Regions A region has a unifying characteristic, like _________________. On maps, geographers use color and shape or special symbols to show regions. Owl. Teacher. com

Your assignment Describe you and your family using the 5 Themes of Geography. Make Your assignment Describe you and your family using the 5 Themes of Geography. Make sure you use every theme. Type your biography

The Geographer’s Tools Globes and Maps: As people explored the Earth, they collected information The Geographer’s Tools Globes and Maps: As people explored the Earth, they collected information about it. Mapmakers wanted to present this information correctly. The best way was to put it on a globe, a round ball that represented the Earth. Owl. Teacher. com

The Geographer’s Tools Globes and Maps: As people explored the Earth, they collected information The Geographer’s Tools Globes and Maps: As people explored the Earth, they collected information about it. __________________. The best way was to put it on a globe, a round ball that represented the Earth. Owl. Teacher. com

Because globes are not practical or easy to use to carry, flat maps were Because globes are not practical or easy to use to carry, flat maps were invented. However, the earth is round a map is flat. Mapmakers had to find ways to make maps accurate. Owl. Teacher. com

Because globes are not practical or easy to use to carry, ________ were invented. Because globes are not practical or easy to use to carry, ________ were invented. However, the earth is round a map is flat. Mapmakers had to find ways to make maps _________. Owl. Teacher. com

How Latitude and Longitude Form the Global Grid Owl. Teacher. com How Latitude and Longitude Form the Global Grid Owl. Teacher. com

The Hemispheres Owl. Teacher. com The Hemispheres Owl. Teacher. com

Globes and Maps The most accurate way to present information on the islands, continents, Globes and Maps The most accurate way to present information on the islands, continents, and bodies of water of the world is to put it all on a globe, a round ball like the Earth itself. The only difference between a globe and the Earth itself is the scale, or size, represented on the globe. Owl. Teacher. com

Globes and Maps The most accurate way to present information on the islands, continents, Globes and Maps The most accurate way to present information on the islands, continents, and bodies of water of the world is to put it all on a ____, a round ball like the Earth itself. The only difference between a globe and the Earth itself is the _____, or size, represented on the globe. Owl. Teacher. com

Globes have a disadvantage: They cannot be complete enough to be useful and at Globes have a disadvantage: They cannot be complete enough to be useful and at the same time be small enough to be convenient. Therefore, people invented flat maps. Owl. Teacher. com

Globes have a disadvantage: They cannot be complete enough to be useful and at Globes have a disadvantage: They cannot be complete enough to be useful and at the same time be small enough to be convenient. Therefore, people invented ______. Owl. Teacher. com

Maps try to show the Earth, which is round, on a flat surface. This Maps try to show the Earth, which is round, on a flat surface. This causes distortion, or a change in accuracy of the shapes and distances of places. It is impossible to show the Earth on a flat surface without some distortion. Owl. Teacher. com

Maps try to show the Earth, which is round, on a flat surface. This Maps try to show the Earth, which is round, on a flat surface. This causes distortion, or a change in accuracy of the shapes and distances of places. _________________________. Owl. Teacher. com

Getting It All On the Map The World: Mercator Projection • In 1569, a Getting It All On the Map The World: Mercator Projection • In 1569, a geographer named Gerardus Mercator created a flat map to help sailors navigate long journeys across the globe. • The Mercator projection, or method of putting a map of the Earth onto a flat piece of paper, is used by nearly all deep-sea navigators. • The Mercator projection is a conformal map, meaning that it shows correct shapes, but not true distances or sizes. • There are many types of other projections of the globe. Owl. Teacher. com

The World: Three Projections Interrupted Projection There are many ways to show a globe The World: Three Projections Interrupted Projection There are many ways to show a globe on a flat map. The interrupted projection map, on the left, shows real sizes and shapes of continents. The equal area map , below left, shows size accurately. The Peters projection, below, shows land oceans areas and correct directions accurately Peters Projection Equal-Area Projection Owl. Teacher. com

The World: A Robinson Projection ARCTIC OCEAN Owl. Teacher. com The World: A Robinson Projection ARCTIC OCEAN Owl. Teacher. com

The Parts of a Map Compass Rose A compass rose is a model of The Parts of a Map Compass Rose A compass rose is a model of a compass. It tells the cardinal directions, which are north, south, east, and west. Scale The scale on a map tells you the relative distance on the map to the real world. For example, a map’s scale may tell you that one inch on the map equals one mile in the real world. Owl. Teacher. com

The Parts of a Map Compass Rose A compass rose is a ________. It The Parts of a Map Compass Rose A compass rose is a ________. It tells the cardinal directions, which are north, south, east, and west. Scale The scale on a map tells you the relative distance on the map to the real world. For example, a map’s scale may tell you that _______________________. Owl. Teacher. com

Key The key, or legend, on a map explains what the symbols on a Key The key, or legend, on a map explains what the symbols on a map represent, such as triangles representing trees. Grids Some maps use a grid of parallels and meridians. On a map of a small area, letters and numbers are often used to help you find your location. Owl. Teacher. com

Key The key, or legend, on a map explains what ____________________. Grids Some maps Key The key, or legend, on a map explains what ____________________. Grids Some maps use a grid of parallels and meridians. On a map of a small area, letters and numbers are often used to help you find your location. Owl. Teacher. com

Branches of Geography There are three main branches of geography: Human Geography Physical Geography Branches of Geography There are three main branches of geography: Human Geography Physical Geography Environmental Geography

Human Geography Human geography is concerned with the spatial aspects of human existence - Human Geography Human geography is concerned with the spatial aspects of human existence - how people and their activity are distributed in space, how they use and perceive space, and how they create and sustain the places that make up the earth's surface. Human geographers work in the fields of urban and regional planning, transportation, marketing, real estate, tourism, and international business.

Physical Geography Physical geographers study patterns of climates, land forms, vegetation, soils, and water. Physical Geography Physical geographers study patterns of climates, land forms, vegetation, soils, and water. They forecast the weather, manage land water resources, and analyze and plan forests, rangelands, and wetlands. Many human and physical geographers have skills in cartography and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

Environmental Geography Geographers also study the linkages between human activity and natural systems. Geographers Environmental Geography Geographers also study the linkages between human activity and natural systems. Geographers were, in fact, among the first scientists to sound the alarm that human-induced changes to the environment were beginning to threaten the balance of life itself. They are active in the study of global warming, desertification, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, groundwater pollution, and flooding.

All geographers study the linkages, or interdependency, between human activity and natural systems. All geographers study the linkages, or interdependency, between human activity and natural systems.

History of Geography Note the relationship between the rise/decline of empires and the rise/decline History of Geography Note the relationship between the rise/decline of empires and the rise/decline of geography. Empires “need” geography when their “world” has expanded, thus (così) more studies are devoted to it. Geographic inquiry!

Greek Geographic Thought 500 BCE to 500 CE Eratosthenes Credited with coining the term Greek Geographic Thought 500 BCE to 500 CE Eratosthenes Credited with coining the term “geography, ” which literally means “earth-writing. ” Remarkably accurate computation of the earth’s circumference (error of less than 2%!), which he based on the angle of the sun at the summer solstice and the distance between the two Egyptian cities of Alexandria and Syene.

Greek Geographic Thought 500 BCE to 500 CE Ptolemy Published Guide to Geography in Greek Geographic Thought 500 BCE to 500 CE Ptolemy Published Guide to Geography in the second century BCE, which included rough maps of the landmasses, as he understood them at the time, and a global grid system. Key word grid reference lines on map

The Chinese and Arab World 500 CE to 1500 CE Chinese: During Roman days, The Chinese and Arab World 500 CE to 1500 CE Chinese: During Roman days, Chinese geographers knew as much as Western geographers. The compass was invented in China in the 11 th century for navigation. Muslim: Arab geographers and librarians from about 700 -1400 CE translated the geographic works of the Greeks and Romans, which later helped to spurn European exploration during the Renaissance.

Western Europe 1500 CE to 1900 CE European global exploration --need for good navigation, Western Europe 1500 CE to 1900 CE European global exploration --need for good navigation, knowledge about the world Expanding empires of Spain, England, France, Netherlands, Germany imperialism: the extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economy and political life of other territories

Rise of Modern Geography 1700’s -- Immanuel Kant (philosopher), Carl Ritter, and Alexander von Rise of Modern Geography 1700’s -- Immanuel Kant (philosopher), Carl Ritter, and Alexander von Humboldt stressed (sottolineò) the interdependence of people, plants, and animals. 1800’s -- “environmental determinism” (Darwinian geography) where the environment determines how people live. 1900’s -- the “quantitative revolution” some of the techniques that epitomize the quantitative revolution include: [1] Descriptive statistics; Inferential statistics; Basic mathematical equations and models, such as gravity model of social physics, or the Coulomb equation; Stochastic models using concepts of probability, such as spatial diffusion processes; Deterministic models, e. g. Von Thünen's and Weber's location models.

The Five Themes of the Spatial Perspective Location Human-Environment Interaction Region Place Movement The Five Themes of the Spatial Perspective Location Human-Environment Interaction Region Place Movement

Location Where something is on the earth and the effects that position has on Location Where something is on the earth and the effects that position has on human life.

Location Absolute location (mathematical) Latitude & Longitude degrees, minutes, seconds Relative Location “place” in Location Absolute location (mathematical) Latitude & Longitude degrees, minutes, seconds Relative Location “place” in relation to surroundings Site versus situation Site- a place’s internal physical and cultural characteristics Situation- context

Location Location

Human-Environment Interaction How human activities affect their environment and how environmental changes impact human Human-Environment Interaction How human activities affect their environment and how environmental changes impact human life. Positive and negative effects of interaction

Region Spatial units that share some similar characteristics. Region Spatial units that share some similar characteristics.

Types of Regions Formal Region A type of region marked by a certain degree Types of Regions Formal Region A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogenous region. Examples: a country linked by government, a climate region, a religious region. Functional Region Defined by the places affected by the movement of some phenomenon from its source (node) to other places. Examples: airline routes, area affected by a disease. Perceptual Region A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity, e. g. in the US, “the South” and “ the Mid-Atlantic region”

Place Unique combination of physical and cultural attributes that give each location on the Place Unique combination of physical and cultural attributes that give each location on the earth its individual identity. Human components: Religion Language Politics Artwork Physical components Climate Terrain Natural resources

Movement Geographers analyze the movement occurring in space: Information People Goods Other phenomena Spatial Movement Geographers analyze the movement occurring in space: Information People Goods Other phenomena Spatial interaction- how places interact through movement

Friction of Distance Degree to which distance interferes with some interaction. Been reduced in Friction of Distance Degree to which distance interferes with some interaction. Been reduced in many aspects of life with improved transportation and communication technology. New phenomenon: Space-time compression Increasing sense of accessibility and connectivity that seems to be bringing humans in distant places closer together.

Managing change in the human environment Population Change How do populations change? Managing change in the human environment Population Change How do populations change?

Population Key Terms Birth rate – the number of births per 1000 people Death Population Key Terms Birth rate – the number of births per 1000 people Death rate – the number of deaths per 1000 people Fertility rate – the number of births to women aged 15 to 45 Infant mortality – the number of children who dies within the first year of life, per 1000 Life expectancy – the average a person can expect to live from birth Rate of natural increase – the difference between death and birth rate Migration – the movement of people from one place to another Population growth – an increase in an area as a result of death rate, birth rate and life expectancy Population change – change in a population measured in terms of birth rate, death rate and migration figures Dependent population – people who are too old or too young to look after themselves

What has happened to word population? World population has doubled between 1950 and 2000 What has happened to word population? World population has doubled between 1950 and 2000 Today and into the future more people are likely to be living in LEDCs than MEDCs World Population 1950 2. 5 billion 2000 6 billion 2050 (est. ) 9 billion MEDC 0. 8 billion 32% 1. 3 billion 20% 10% (est. ) LEDC 1. 7 billion 68% 4. 7 billion 80% 90% (est. ) A greater proportion of people are living in LEDCs which tend to be poorer and less developed countries

LEDC - Less Economically Developed Country MEDC - More Economically Developed Country LEDC - Less Economically Developed Country MEDC - More Economically Developed Country

What has happened to word population? What has happened to word population?

Physical and human factors of population change Physical factors Human factors Natural disasters - Physical and human factors of population change Physical factors Human factors Natural disasters - floods, earthquakes and storms Healthcare Disease - AIDS Development Religion/culture (may encourage family size) Education Physical and human factors can have different effects in LEDCs and MEDCs. Government Conflict Migration (usually from LEDC to MEDC)

What are the causes of population change? Stage 1 – high birth rate, high What are the causes of population change? Stage 1 – high birth rate, high death rate, low growth rate, stable population Stage 2 – high birth rate, death rate begins to fall, growth rate rises, population total rises Demographic Transition Model Stage 3 – Death rate continues to fall, birth rate begins to fall, growth rate begins to slow down, total population rises Stage 4 – Death rate stay rate falls, growth slows, t

Population structure Proportion of elderly people small The proportion of older people increasing Increasing Population structure Proportion of elderly people small The proportion of older people increasing Increasing number of middle aged people The elderly dependent population is increasing The number of young people under 15 is decreasing (young dependents) Proportion of young people under 15 is large (young dependents) Growth is static, typical of MEDC The total population will keep growing, typical of an LEDC

Managing change in the human environment Population Change What are the effects of population Managing change in the human environment Population Change What are the effects of population change?

LEDCs – What would happen if growth rates continue to be high? 1. Basic LEDCs – What would happen if growth rates continue to be high? 1. Basic necessities for life such as food and water will be in short supply 2. By 2025, 2 out of 3 people will have access to clean water 3. Increasing levels of malnutrition (Africa and Asia) 4. Cities in LEDCs will continue to grow rapidly with high levels of pollution, disease and poor sanitation 5. The quality of life may decrease with more dependent children and not enough work 6. Difficult to provide adequate health care and education

MEDCs – What would happen if growth rates continue to decline? 1. The proportion MEDCs – What would happen if growth rates continue to decline? 1. The proportion of dependent elderly people needing care will increase e. g. UK and Japan 2. The number and proportion of young people will decrease as in Italy 3. The working population will be a smaller proportion of a countries population 4. Service, such as healthcare and pensions will be difficult to provide for an elderly population 5. Housing, education and other needs will change 6. The quality of life for some may decrease, as in Russia

C ED M UK: Ageing Populations As people live longer the structure of a C ED M UK: Ageing Populations As people live longer the structure of a population changes. The UK is now experiencing a significant increase in the numbers of elderly people as a proportion of the population as whole. As birth rates fall and people have smaller families, the number of young dependants is falling and the number of elderly dependants is rising. In the near future this will mean that there are fewer people of working age to support the elderly population.

C ED L Kenya: Disease (Aids) Total Population: 31 million Growth rate: 1% Fertility C ED L Kenya: Disease (Aids) Total Population: 31 million Growth rate: 1% Fertility rate: 3. 3 per woman Death rate: 15 per 100 Infant mortality: 62 per 100 births Life expectancy: 47 years Many of these figures are estimates because of the death rate from AIDS can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates. • The AIDS pandemic is costing the Kenyan government more than £ 1. 8 million a days in medical care, lost labour force and funeral expenses. • Government figures show that up to 25% of Kenyans are HIV positive, but only 2% can afford the correct medicines.

Managing change in the human environment Population Change How can population change be managed? Managing change in the human environment Population Change How can population change be managed?

Why do we need to manage population change? Countries with too many people for Why do we need to manage population change? Countries with too many people for their resources and a poor quality of life may want to reduce the birth rate Countries were few children are being born may not have enough people in the future to look after an ageing population Non Government Organisations (NGOs) Migration to find work, natural hazards or war can affect population and create refugees and asylum seekers NGOs such as population concern and UNICEF work to support people in improving the quality of their lives e. g. contraception or aid. This does have an effect of the number of children that are born.

How can some of the causes of population change be managed? LEDCs Birth Control How can some of the causes of population change be managed? LEDCs Birth Control - countries can actively encourage people to have less children and use contraception. China has enforced a one-child policy onto its population, but it may be possible to change the social environment as in Kerala, leading to people wanting fewer children. Education - educating women can contribute to a reduction in the birth rate (e. g. Kerala) Healthcare - improved healthcare may help very poor people to see that they do not have to have six children to ensure that three will live long enough to help them in their work and look after them in their old age. (e. g. Bangladesh) Employment - many people choose to Agricultural reform - changes in farming have fewer children if they have work, such as using appropriate technology may money and their standard of living rises. improve yields and lessen stress on the land.

How can some of the causes of population change be managed? MEDCs Standard of How can some of the causes of population change be managed? MEDCs Standard of living - if this falls in an MEDC and people become poorer, they may choose not to have children. If people think life will get better, they may have more children. Choice - some people just do not want children. The average family size is shrinking and in the UK is now 1. 7 children per family, down from 2. 4 in the mid 1990 s. Governments may encourage their populations to have more children.

D LE C The effect of Government Policies: China The Chinese government was concerned D LE C The effect of Government Policies: China The Chinese government was concerned that if population continue to grow at the same rate in China there will be famine and starvation. 1. In 1979 the Chinese government enforced a ‘one child policy’ 2. Each family could have only one child 3. The policy was enforced and the current population of 1300 million is set to fall in 2020 Most families want a male heir, and some girl babies are abandoned and brought up in orphanages. One child policy There are now more men than women in China, 116 men to 100 females (2001 census)

D LE C The effect of Government Policies: India (Kerala) Kerala India Population: 1100 D LE C The effect of Government Policies: India (Kerala) Kerala India Population: 1100 million UK Life expectancy (women) 75 61 80 India may become the most populated country in 2020, however the growth rate if falling. Infant mortality (per 1000) 14 70 6 Female literacy 85% The greatest fall in fertility is in the southern state of Kerala. Average number of children per family Children per family: 3. 2 1. 8 57% 99% 3. 2 1. 7 1. In Kerala women have always been valued and educated (85% of women in Kerala are literate, 57% is the average in India). 2. Healthcare is good and infant mortality has dropped to 14 per 1000 (70 per 1000 in Indian on average) 3. Work is available and the social environment has changed 4. Families choose not to have to many children, so the average is 1. 8

Population GCSE Population GCSE

Definitions you need to know BIRTH RATE DEATH RATE INFANT MORTALITY NATURAL INCREASE / Definitions you need to know BIRTH RATE DEATH RATE INFANT MORTALITY NATURAL INCREASE / DECREASE CARRYING CAPACITY OPTIMUM POPULATION OVERPOPULATION MIGRATION EMIGRATION IMMIGRANTS LIFE EXPECTANCY

Demographic Transition Model Demographic Transition Model

External links http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=LFgb 1 Bd. PBZo ch 4 news on External links http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=LFgb 1 Bd. PBZo ch 4 news on pop growth http: //www. worldometers. info/ stats clocks and counters

What does this number represent? 6, 830, 586, 985 What does this number represent? 6, 830, 586, 985

Population Dynamics 1. 1 How and why is population changing in different parts of Population Dynamics 1. 1 How and why is population changing in different parts of the world? a) The world’s population was increasing exponentially, but future growth rates are uncertain Read through the article. What issues does it raise? Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing?

Population Dynamics Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? Learning Objectives: • To Population Dynamics Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? Learning Objectives: • To describe how the world’s population has grown in the past. • To explain how populations change. • To suggest reasons for the changes in the world’s population

Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? Describe how the world’s population has Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? Describe how the world’s population has changed since 1800

Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? How the world’s population has changed Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? How the world’s population has changed since 1800. • Since 1800 the world’s population has grown. • It took 118 years for the population to double from 1 to 2 billion. • From the 1950 s there has been a population explosion. • The time it has taken the population to grow by 1 billion has shortened to 12 years between 1987 and 1999. • The population is still growing but not at such as a fast rate.

Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? How does the population change? Natural Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? How does the population change? Natural Increase = Birth Rate – Death Rate (+/- Migration)

Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? Key Terms: Birth rate – the Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? Key Terms: Birth rate – the number of live deaths per 1000 people per year Death rate – the number of deaths per 1000 people per year Natural Increase – the difference between the birth rate and death rate Migration – the process of people changing their place of residence, either within or between countries.

Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? What factors have caused rapid population Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? What factors have caused rapid population growth? • The development of modern medicines. • The introduction of vaccination and immunisation programmes. • Better healthcare – more doctors, nurses and hospitals. • More hygienic housing. • Cleaner drinking water and better sewage disposal. • Better diet.

Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? World Population Growth, Actual and Projected, Lesson 1: How is the world’s population changing? World Population Growth, Actual and Projected, 1950 -2050 Why are people not sure about how the population may grow in the future?

Why are people not sure about how the population may grow in the future? Why are people not sure about how the population may grow in the future?

Population Dynamics 1. 1 How and why is population changing in different parts of Population Dynamics 1. 1 How and why is population changing in different parts of the world? a) The world’s population was increasing exponentially, but future growth rates are uncertain What does it tell us about the world’s population? Watch the following clip Lesson 2: Is population change the same in different parts of the world?

Population Dynamics Lesson 2: Is population change the same in different places? Learning Objectives: Population Dynamics Lesson 2: Is population change the same in different places? Learning Objectives: • To explain why it is hard to predict how the world’s population will grow in the future. • To describe patterns of population growth in different parts of the world. • To explain why the population in different parts of the world is growing at different rates.

Lesson 2: Is population change the same in different places? Calculate the natural increase Lesson 2: Is population change the same in different places? Calculate the natural increase of each country. What is the formula? Natural Increase = Birth Rate – Death Rate

Lesson 2: Is population change the same in different places? GDP (per capita) US$ Lesson 2: Is population change the same in different places? GDP (per capita) US$ 100, 000 Natural Increase and GDP (per capita) 10, 000 100 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Natural Increase 25 30 35 40

Lesson 2: Is population change the same in different places? What were the differences Lesson 2: Is population change the same in different places? What were the differences between the different countries? High Income countries have low population growth, population balance or even population decline. Low and middle income countries have higher levels of population increase. Population change is related to a countries development

Population change. What does this map tell us? Population change. What does this map tell us?

Population Dynamics 1. 1 How and why is population changing in different parts of Population Dynamics 1. 1 How and why is population changing in different parts of the world? a) The world’s population was increasing exponentially, but future growth rates are uncertain What were the differences between the different countries? High Income countries have low population growth, population balance or even population decline. Low and middle income countries have higher levels of population increase. Population change is related to a countries development Lesson 3: How does development affect population?

Population Dynamics Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Learning Objectives: • To describe Population Dynamics Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Learning Objectives: • To describe how birth rate, death rate and total population change as a country develops • To explain why these changes take place • To describe and explain the stages of the Demographic Transition Model

Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Demographic Transition Model (DTM) This model shows Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Demographic Transition Model (DTM) This model shows how population changes as countries become more developed. The world’s countries are at different stages of this model.

Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Mix and match exercise What you need Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Mix and match exercise What you need to be able to do: • Describe the birth rate, death rate and total population at each stage of the model. • Explain the factors that affect the BR and DR at each stage. Use the task sheet to help you with this exercise

Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Birth Rate and Death rate is high Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Birth Rate and Death rate is high and fluctuating The population has periods of increase and decrease Reasons for high birth rate: Little or no birth control High infant mortality Children seen as an asset and status symbol Reasons for high death rate: High infant mortality High incidence of disease Poor nutrition and famine Poor housing and hygiene Little or no healthcare

Lesson 3: How does development affect population? High Birth Rate Rapidly falling Death Rate Lesson 3: How does development affect population? High Birth Rate Rapidly falling Death Rate Rapid population rise Reasons for rapid fall in death rate: Lower infant mortality Improved healthcare and hygiene Better nutrition Safer water and better waste disposal

Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Falling death rate Falling birth rate Population Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Falling death rate Falling birth rate Population growth slows Reasons for rapid falling birth rates: Widespread birth control Preference for smaller families Expense of bringing up children Low infant mortality rates

Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Birth rate and Death rate are low Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Birth rate and Death rate are low and Fluctuating The population has periods of increase and decrease Reasons for rapid falling birth rates: Effective birth control Working women having children later

Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Death rate rises slightly above birth rate Lesson 3: How does development affect population? Death rate rises slightly above birth rate Natural decrease Population decline Reasons: Life expectancy is high Less people in the reproductive age range (15 -50)

Lesson 3: How does development affect population? What are the problems with using this Lesson 3: How does development affect population? What are the problems with using this model? Learning Objectives: • To describe how birth rate, death rate and total population change as a country develops • To explain why these changes take place • To describe and explain the stages of the Demographic Transition Model

Population Dynamics Population Dynamics

what do we need to know? What has happened to global population – historically, what do we need to know? What has happened to global population – historically, currently and future trends? Socio-cultural and economic factors affecting birth and death rates. Factors driving changes in fertility and mortality rates. How and why population change varies? Issues relating to youthful and ageing populations. Why some countries wish to control their population? The impact and effectiveness of policies to control population. What policies exist to manage migration? Why countries adopt different migration policies? Tensions that arise as a result of inward migration.

learning objectives To know what has happened to global population over the last millennium. learning objectives To know what has happened to global population over the last millennium. To know how population increases. To be able to explain what exponential growth is.

What has happened to the global population? http: //math. berkeley. edu/~galen/popclk. html The population What has happened to the global population? http: //math. berkeley. edu/~galen/popclk. html The population is constantly increasing. How much do you think it will have increased by at the end of the lesson? http: //www. bbc. co. uk/learningzone/clips/is-the-worldspopulation-spiralling-out-of-control/531. html

Total World Population Estimate What makes the population grow? When is the rate of Total World Population Estimate What makes the population grow? When is the rate of growth the quickest? What do you think exponential growth means? Year When did population growth start to increase rapidly? Why might this of happened?

exponential growth Has been occurring – it is the amount of time taken for exponential growth Has been occurring – it is the amount of time taken for the population to double. For example in 1804 it had taken 300 years to double from ½ billion to 1 billion. In 1999 the double time had fallen to 39 years from 3 billion to 6 billion.

The world population is growing at an alarming rate – in 2008 at least The world population is growing at an alarming rate – in 2008 at least another 65 million people were added to the global total. What do you think is going to happen in the future? What problems do you think we are going to cause? Since 2000 the rate of growth has began to slow down, but the population will reach 9 – 10 billion before it starts to decline, that is 33% more people in the World than today. • http: //math. berkeley. edu/~galen/popclk. html

How and why is population changing? mr. marsh How and why is population changing? mr. marsh

Learning Objectives To understand that population can change due to two distinct factors. To Learning Objectives To understand that population can change due to two distinct factors. To be able to match up key terms and definitions for the unit. To suggest reasons why a countries population might change rapidly.

Births Immigrants Population GAIN + + Natural Change Migration Change Total Population - - Births Immigrants Population GAIN + + Natural Change Migration Change Total Population - - Population LOSS Deaths Emigrants

task On the worksheet, you have to match up the key terms with the task On the worksheet, you have to match up the key terms with the correct definitions. Do this in pencil first so that you can correct them if you don’t quite get them all right.

Why does population increase? Mainly due to a decline in death rates and infant Why does population increase? Mainly due to a decline in death rates and infant mortality rates but why? Cleaner drinking water and better sewage disposal. Better healthcare – more doctors, nurses and hospitals. Immigration Development of modern medicines. Pro-natalist policy – EG – Singapore/Estonia Why does population increase? More hygienic housing Better diets – promoting healthy eating ‘ 5 a day’ Introduction of vaccination and immunisation programmes.

Why does population decrease? Spread of diseases and not having medical facilities or cures Why does population decrease? Spread of diseases and not having medical facilities or cures such as HIV/AIDS Anti-natalist policy such as China – ‘One Child policy’ War/conflict – men away from home – not many babies being born – lives also lost in action. Why does population decrease? Emigration Death rate is higher than the birth rate Natural disasters such as famine, drought, flooding, tsunamis etc. Food shortages

types of migration Voluntary – immigration and emigration because people/families wish to move. Involuntary/forced types of migration Voluntary – immigration and emigration because people/families wish to move. Involuntary/forced – refugees – a person who is residing outside the country of their birth due to fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion or political opinion.

homework: your task How might the infant mortality rate differ between developing and developed homework: your task How might the infant mortality rate differ between developing and developed countries and why is the case?