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Deep Brain Stimulation By Lisa Rosenberg Deep Brain Stimulation By Lisa Rosenberg

What is Deep Brain Stimulation? • Electrical probe implanted in brain • Approved by What is Deep Brain Stimulation? • Electrical probe implanted in brain • Approved by FDA in mid 1990’s • Hidden under skin • Does not damage healthy tissue • Improves motor function • For individuals who do not respond to medication

How it Works • Implanted in specific areas of brain • Differs depending upon How it Works • Implanted in specific areas of brain • Differs depending upon disorder being treated • Relieves Symptoms • • Parkinson’s Essential Tremors Dystonia OCD

Illnesses Treated Parkinson’s Disease • Globus Pallidus • Subthalamic Nucleus • Thalamus • Dystonia Illnesses Treated Parkinson’s Disease • Globus Pallidus • Subthalamic Nucleus • Thalamus • Dystonia • • • Globus Pallidus Essential Tremors Thalamus Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Ventral Capsule

Implantation of Device • Probe is smaller than a millimeter • Four metal pads Implantation of Device • Probe is smaller than a millimeter • Four metal pads on probe • Takes several hours • Several scans done to map placement • Patient is awake for surgery • Hole drilled in skull • Probe kept in place with cap

Implantation of Device Wire planted under skin Pulse generator planted under collarbone High Frequency Implantation of Device Wire planted under skin Pulse generator planted under collarbone High Frequency • 100 times per second • Implanted in both sides of the brain • Programmed by wand held in front of generator • • •

Risks • • • Risks associated with surgery Intracranial Bleeds (12%) Seizures (3%) Headaches Risks • • • Risks associated with surgery Intracranial Bleeds (12%) Seizures (3%) Headaches (25%) Infection (6%) Device complications Probe replacement (9%) Wire replacement (6%) Repositioning of the probe (8%) Replacement of pulse generator (17%) Risk of Death < 1%

Benefits • • • Keeps brain tissue in tact • No lesions • No Benefits • • • Keeps brain tissue in tact • No lesions • No destruction of the tissue Beneficial long term Costs covered by Insurance company • Around $70, 000 if no insurance Battery lasts a long time • Replaced every 3 to 7 years with a simple surgery Provides individuals with a manageable lifestyle

Future • • • Asleep DBS Done in a MRI machine Possibility to treat Future • • • Asleep DBS Done in a MRI machine Possibility to treat many functional disorders Alzheimer’s Disease Depression Developing technology

References • Encyclopedia of Surgery <www. surgeryencyclopedia. com/Ce-Fi/Deep. Brain-Stimulation. html>. • University of Pittsburgh References • Encyclopedia of Surgery . • University of Pittsburgh • Web. MD • CBS News • UCSF • WPI • How Stuff Works