- Количество слайдов: 90
December 7, 1941: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Schofield Barracks and Hickham Air Field, Hawaii
The attack on Hawaii brought the United States into the war.
December 7, 1941 Dec. 8, 1941 U. S. declares war on Japan; Dec. 11, 1941: Germany & Italy declare war on U. S.
Political master-mind: Hideki Tojo Tactical master-mind: Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto Japanese “Peace Mission” to Washington while Yamamoto’s fleet sail for attack on Hawaii (Nov. 1941)
Attack on Hawaii: Sunday, December 7, 1941 8: 00 a. m. — 9: 30 a. m. Japanese: 181 airplanes from 6 aircraft carriers U. S. losses: 21 ships sunk or badly damaged (8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 destroyers); 188 Aircraft destroyed & 159 damaged; 2, 403 killed (1, 177 on U. S. S. Arizona); 1, 178 wounded.
Attack on Hawaii: Japanese losses: 64 killed, 29 aircraft destroyed; 74 aircraft damaged Admiral Husband E. Kimmel blamed for devastating losses Army Lieutenant General Walter C. Short shared the blame
Attack on Hawaii: The “miracle” of Pearl Harbor: The U. S. Pacific Aircraft Carrier Fleet, under Rear Admiral William F. Halsey, was at sea on routine maneuvers
Japan wanted control of Southeast Asia and China. Eastern Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
December 7 -10, 1941: attacks against Hawaii, Wake Island, The Philippines, Malaya/Singapore, and Indonesia.
Japan’s goal: to stop European and American colonial expansion in the Pacific U. S. —Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam, and the Philippines Great Britain: Burma, India, Malaya France: Indochina (Vietnam) The Netherlands: East Indies
Singapore, Dec. 1941 Feb. 1942—the British forgot the lessons of history. Japanese did the unexpected: attacked through the jungle. “Greatest military disaster in British history. ”
5 million Americans volunteer for military service. 10 million drafted. General Marshall asked for a Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) to perform non-combat military duties After great debate in Congress, WAAC approved; Oveta Culp Hobby first director
December 22, 1941: Roosevelt & Churchill’s Washington Conference. Top priority: defeat of Germany Hold in Pacific Accept only unconditional surrender
The Philippines 100, 000 Filipinos; 31, 000 Americans Commander: Gen Douglas Mac. Arthur Excellent battle plans based on withdrawing and fighting a delaying Action until relief convoy from the U. S. arrived. Force was well-trained.
The Philippines Did not follow the battle plans. Tried to defeat the Japanese at the water’s edge. Japanese successful—huge U. S. losses in people and materiel. Relief convoy never sent; Roosevelt orders Mac. Arthur to Australia
The Philippines April 1942—Bataan falls— 40, 000 American POW
The Philippines Bataan Death March 10, 000 began 3, 000 died from heat, exhaustion, disease, beatings, beheadings, bayonetings, being buried alive Japanese BUSHIDO
Allied build-up in the Pacific — 1942 -43 U. S. Commander of Pacific naval forces: Admiral Chester A. Nimitz.
U. S. Army commander: General Mac. Arthur British commanders: Lord Mountbatten and General Slim
Allied Strategy British: Malaya/Burma/ India Admiral Nimitz: island hopping; Navy and Marines Gen. Mac. Arthur: New Guinea/Philippines
Early 1942, Army Air Corps General Jimmy Doolittle and a force of B-25 bombers, takes off of the U. S. S. Hornet and bombs Tokyo. Little damage to Japan but a great morale boost to American people.
Turning Point in the Pacific War Battle of Midway (following Battle of the Coral Sea), May 1942. Early May: Battle of Coral Sea U. S. intercepted Japanese fleet bound for invasion of Australia First naval battle where opposing fleets never saw each other—planes vs. ships.
Turning Point in the Pacific War Battle of Midway, May 1942. U. S. Rear Admiral Raymond Spruance defeats Yamamoto Four Japanese and one U. S. aircraft carriers sunk.
Island Hopping Guadalcanal—Aug 1942 February 1943
Solomon Islands and Gilbert Islands: November 1943
Battle of Tarawa Gilbert Islands Tarawa an atoll made of coral. Flat—no vegetation. 38 islands, circled by a coral reef with a lagoon in the middle. Most of the battle fought on the main island of Betio. 4, 836 Japanese, well-dug-in.
Battle of Tarawa Not enough Amphtracs—used Higgins Boats. Charts— 102 years old. Did not listen to native intelligence. Synchronization problems: Naval gunfire too early. Naval air too late & on station only 8 minutes, not 30 as planned. Land-based aircraft did not show.
Battle of Tarawa Marines sitting ducks. Japanese artillery at 3, 000 yards. Heavy machineguns at 2, 000 yds. Higgins boats stuck on reef at 800 yards. Marines had to wade, under heavy Japanese fire, 700 -800 yards. Battle raged 5 days. Marines win but with many casualties. Only 17 Japanese survive.
February 1944: Battles of Kwajalein and Eniwetok in the Marshall Islands
The Marianas Islands: Battle of Saipan: June 1944; Battle of Guam: July 1944
September-October 1944 Battles of Leyte, Leyte Gulf and Peleliu
At Leyte Gulf, the Japanese attempt a New tactic: kamikaze (“Divine Wind”) 424 kamikaze suicide missions; 16 U. S. ships sunk; 80 damaged Battle of Leyte Gulf a disaster for Japan; lost 4 battleships, 4 carriers, 13 cruisers, 400 planes
January 1945: Battle of Luzon—Mac. Arthur returns to main island of the Philippines February 1945: the miracle of Los Banos— a perfect U. S. operation
February 19 -March 17, 1945: The Battle of Iwo Jima 6, 000 Marines Killed; 20, 700 Japanese entrenched; most killed
April 1 -June 21, 1945 The Battle of Okinawa U. S. 20, 000 casualties; 7, 600 killed; Japanese: 110, 000 killed Allied planners predict 1 million allied casualties if Allies invade the Japanese home islands.
April 12, 1945, President Roosevelt dies of a massive stroke in Warm Springs, GA Vice President Harry S. Truman of Missouri sworn in as the nation’s 33 d president Informed of a new weapon being developed
In Los Alamos, New Mexico scientists under Dr. Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie Groves worked on the Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb First test blast on July 16, 1945 to give Truman a bargaining chip over Stalin at the forthcoming Potsdam Conference.
July 1945, Truman, Stalin, and Churchill (later Clement Attlee) meet at Potsdam, near Berlin, Germany Truman informs other Big 3 members about bomb and they design postwar Germany
After Okinawa, Truman is convinced he must use the atomic bomb against Japan. Some scientists wanted to stage a demonstration for Japanese. But only 2 bombs available at the time. Truman was convinced, after several meetings, that using the bomb in a surprise strike against a Japanese city would save the most lives—American and Japanese
August 6, 1945: B-29 The Enola Gay, piloted by Paul W. Tibbets, drops a single atomic bomb, named “Little Boy, ” on Hiroshima, Japan
The city is destroyed; about 70, 000 people are killed.
August 9, 1945, a B-29 named Bock’s Car drops an atomic bomb named “Fat Man” that destroys the city of Nagasaki
Emperor Hirohito orders his government to ask for terms of surrender. 10 August 1945: Japanese ask for terms of peace. Allies demand unconditional surrender.
2 September, 1945: Japanese surrender on deck of the battleship U. S. S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
SS. St. Louis Affair U. S. refused to allow Jewish passengers to immigrate to U. S. Had not used up the number of visas permitted by law
U. S. Economy in World War II GNP soared from $91 billion in 1939 to $166 billion in 1945 Personal incomes grew by as much as 100% or more
The West in World War II West: launching point for most of the naval war against Japan Ship and aircraft manufacturing in California Los Angeles became a major industrial center
The Second Great Migration Brought many more African. Americans to northern cities than First Great Migration Bettered economic conditions; but created urban tensions Military: Blacks limited to menial assignments; segregated units
The Tuskegee Airmen
Korematsu v. United States (1944) Relocation of Japanese-Americans constitutionally permissible
December 7, 1941 Dec. 8, 1941 U. S. declares war on Japan; Dec. 11, 1941: Germany & Italy declare war on U. S.
Hitler orders submarine raids off U. S. Atlantic coast. Under Admiral Karl Doenitz U-boats sink 87 U. S. ships off the East Coast in first 4 months of the war. By July 1942—wolfpacks had destroyed 681 allied ships.
Allies use convoys, sonar, and radar-equipped aircraft to finally defeat u-boat threat to Allied shipping
Turning Point: Stalingrad (Aug. 23, 1942 -Feb. 2, 1943) Brutal fighting Gen. Paulus Hitler: “Fight to last man. ” Brutal city fighting. Germans: 90, 000 of 330, 000 survive Only 5, 000 survived POW. Soviet casualties: 1, 250, 000 Stalin: “Hold At all costs. ” Marshall Zhukov
The War in North Africa German Afrika Korps commander: Field Marshall Erwin Rommel Replaces Italians after they suffer tremendous defeats against the British The Desert Fox
British Eighth Army commander: General Bernard Montgomery British Eighth Army defeats Rommel in Egypt, Fall 1942, at El Alamein November 1942: Operation Torch General Dwight Eisenhower First fight French
The War in North Africa U. S. first fights Germans in Tunisia at Kasserine Pass. U. S. II Corps badly beaten.
The War in North Africa General George Patton put in command afterward. Whips II Corps into shape. British and U. S. defeat Germans in North Africa in late spring 1943. What next?
Where would you attack next? Greece? Sicily? Italy? Southern France? Western France? Northern France?
Casablanca Conference Over Gen. Marshall’s objections, decided to invade Sicily next
Churchill—“Attack the soft underbelly of Europe” (Italy) Operation Husky: the invasion of Sicily, July 1943. Eisenhower overall commander U. S. 7 th Army (Patton) and British 8 th Army (Montgomery)
Operation Husky Messina Palermo Patton unhappy with plan. Monty Patton takes Patton Palermo then beats Monty to Messina, but most Germans escape.
Operation Husky At first, Patton is a big hero. Then the press reports a story that Patton slapped 2 soldiers. Eisenhower relieves Patton and nearly sends him back to the U. S. in disgrace. The Germans refuse to believe the story.
45 19 ay M June 1944 January 1944 Anzio Po River me Apennine Ro Mountains Rapido River les ap N Sept. 1943
Italians surrender when Allies invade at Salerno— Mussolini deposed. Germans move in, take over fight under Field Marshall Kesselring Key Battles: Anzio & Monte Casino Allies aided by 50, 000 Italian partisans including former Al Capone lieutenant, Lucky Lucciano April 28, 1945: Mussolini captured by Italian partisans, shot, & hung by heels in a Milan square.
British and U. S. bombers destroyed industrial facilities, demoralized the population and cleared the way for invasion of France
The Allies including the U. S. 8 th Air Force, bomb German cities of Leipzig, Dresden and Berlin Dresden: ¾ of city destroyed; 135, 000 killed
Germans expect Allied attack at the Pas de Calais. Shortest distance between Britain & France. Patton set up as a diversion. Allies use diversion to plan attack in Normandy
5 June 1944: Airborne Assault Pathfinders 3 Airborne divisions British 6 th Airborne Division U. S. 82 nd Airborne Division U. S. 101 st Airborne Division
Omaha Beach—U. S. VII Corps 1 st Infantry Div; 29 th Infantry Div. Utah Beach—U. S. V Corps 4 th Infantry Div. Gold Beach—British XXX Corps Juno Beach--Canadian Sword Beach— Ponte du Hoc Brit. I Corps
Operation Overlord 6 June 1944 Major obstacle For allies: Rhine River British 21 st Group US 1 st Army US 3 d Army US 7 th Army Compared to WW I—new warfare: mobile and fast: airplanes, tanks
Key Leaders Germans: Erwin Rommel Supreme Allied Commander: Dwight D. Eisenhower U. S. Ground Commander: Omar Bradley British: Bernard Montgomery
Battle of the Bulge—Dec. 1944 Jan. 1945 The Germans launch a last ditch offensive in the dead of winter. Their goal is to cut the allies in half, then try to make peace.
Battle of the Bulge—Dec. 1944 Jan. 1945 Dec. 1944—Germans being squeezed by Soviets in east & allies in west. Hitler’s last grand plan: a. Mass forces, attack to take Antwerp. b. Cut Allies in half. c. Massive offensive in blizzard-like conditions through Ardennes Forrest.
Battle of the Bulge Germans over-run U. S. 106 th Division Germans massacre many POW from 106 th Division at Malmedy, Belgium U. S. forces hold key towns of St. Vith and Bastogne 101 st Airborne Div. holds Bastogne Bad weather hampers allies BG Mc. Auliffe of 101 st Abn. says “Nuts!” to surrender demand.
Patton’s Third Army pulls out of a winter offensive, turns left and moves 100 miles in 3 days to relieve Bastogne.
The War in Europe Wraps Up The Battle of the Bulge is the peak of the war. The Rhine River only remains as a major obstacle. 3 rd Army crosses on pontoon bridges. British plan major crossing—but slow. 1 st Army (9 th Armored Div. ) captures bridge intact at Remagen.
The War in Europe Wraps Up April 1945: Germany close to final defeat but many units are still fighting hard. The Soviets are on the outskirts of Berlin May 7, 1945: Hitler and his wife, Eva Braun, commit suicide. May 8: Admiral Doenitz surrenders.
In Germany, Nazi leaders are tried in the city of Nuremberg for crimes against humanity. 22 tried; 13 sentenced to hang. Herman Goering commits suicide; 12 were hanged.
U. S. troops occupy Japan; Mac. Arthur was named military governor. 1, 100 people, from Tojo to guards, tried. Tojo and General Yamashita were hanged. Mac. Arthur installs U. S. type constitution. Allows emperor to remain